The chances are that you made up your mind about smoking a long time ago-and decided it's not for you. The chances are equally good that you know a lot of smokers - there are , after all about 60 million of them , work with them , and get along with them very well . And finally it's a pretty safe bet that you're open-minded and interested in all the various issues about smokers and nonsmokers - or you wouldn't be reading this.
And those three things make you incredibly important today, because they mean that yours is the voice - not the smoker's and not the anti-smoker's - that will determine how much of society's efforts should go into building walls that separate us and how much into the search for solutions that bring us together .
One tragic result of the emphasis on building walls is the diversion of millions of dollars from scientific research on the causes and cures of diseases which, when all is said and done, still strike the nonsmoker as well as the smoker. One prominent health organization, to cite but a single instance, now spends 28 cents of every publicly contributed dollar on "education"(much of it in anti-smoking propaganda) and only 2 cents on research.
There will always be some who want to build walls, who want to separate people from people, and up to a point, even these may serve society. The anti-smoking wall-builders have, to give them their due, helped to make us all more keenly aware of choice.
But our guess , and certainly our hope , is that you are among the far greatest number who know that walls are only temporary at best, and that over the long run,we can serve society's interest better by working together in mutual accommodation.Whatever virtue walls may have, they can never move our society toward fundamental solutions. People who work together on common problems, common solutions, can.
57. According to the author, who has the final say in what the society should do to deal with smoking?
A) The non smokers.
D) The smokers who have quitted smoking.
58. What does the word "walls"(Line 4, Para. 2) refer to in this passage?
A) Practical walls that keep smokers far away from nonsmokers.
C) Diseases that strike smokers as well as nonsmokers.
D) Some invisible things that separate smokers from nonsmokers
59. In the author's mind, those anti-smoking wall-builders
A ) make the problem of smoking more intricately .
B) believe that nonsmokers should not keep a close relationship with smokers
C) devote too much money to doing research on how to keep people away from smoking
D) don't realize the importance of research on the causes and cures of diseases
60. According to the author, the best solution to solve the problem of smoking is
A) prohibiting smoking in most public places
B) smokers and nonsmokers working together in mutual accommodation
C) emphasizing the importance of scientific research
D)separating smokers from nonsmokers
61. From the passage we can know that the author's opinion on the anti-smoking wall-builders' actions is kind of
A) optimism B) pessimism C) disapproval D) difference
When some nineteenth century New Yorkers said "Harlem", they meant almost all of Manhattan above Eighty-Sixth Street. Toward the end of the century, however,a group of citizens in upper Manhattan wanting, perhaps, to shape a closer and more precise sense of community designated a section that they wished to have known as Harlem. The chosen area was the Harlem to which Blacks were moving in the first decade of the new century as they left their old settlements on the middle and lower blocks of the West side.
As the community became predominantly Black, the very word"Harlem"seemed to lose its old meaning. At times, it was easy to forget that"Harlem"was originally the Dutch name "Harlem"; that the community it described had been founded by people from Holland; and that for most its three centuries -it was first settled in the sixteen hundreds-it had been occupied by White New Yorkers."Harlem" became synonymous with Black life and Black style in Manhattan. Blacks living there used the word as though they had coined it themselves not only to designate their area of residence but to express their sense of the various qualities of its life and atmosphere. As the years passed, "Harlem" assumed an even larger meaning.In words of Adam Clayton Powell,sir,the pastor(牧师）of the Abyssinian Baptist Church, Harlem "became the symbol of liberty and the Promised Land to Negroes everywhere".
By 1919 Harlem's population had grown by several thousands. It had received its share of wartime migration from the South, the Caribbean, and parts of colonial Africa. Some of the new arrivals merely lived in Harlem: It was New York they had come to, looking for jobs and for all the other legendary opportunities of life in the city. To others who migrated to Harlem, New York was merely the city in which they found themselves: Harlem was exactly where they wished to be.
62. The community that the word "Harlem" describes
A) covers almost all of Manhattan above Eighty-Sixth Street
B) has many people who move in and out
C) has an increasing population
(D) is a famous Black-inhabited area
63. The author says " as though they had coined it themselves " ( Lines 7 , Para . 2 ) to mean that Harlem Blacks .
A) had invested much money in the area
B) had learned some Dutch terms from the earliest immigrants
C) intended to establish more local financial institutions
D)felt completely at home there
64. Black migration to Harlem
A) increased rapidly in the first two decades of the 20th century
B) lived originally in the middle and lower blocks of the West Manhattan
C) lived originally in the South, Caribbean, and parts of colonial Africa
D)wanted to find chances to make great fortune
65.Which can be concluded from the passage?
A) Blacks had a strong sense of pride in Harlem.63
B) The Dutch had no influence on Harlem's history.
C) Harlem was the first black settlement in Manhattan.
D) Harlem did not become a part of New York until the twentieth century.
66.The paragraph following the passage most probably discuss
A) Harlem in more recent years
B) the Dutch influence on lower Manhattan
C) the architectural styles of Manhattan
D) job opportunities in New York today
My house was built in 1955, before firewalls were required in garages. My buyers have asked that I upgrade the garage to comply with current fire safety requirements. I've cooperated with their request by patching several holes in the firewall. But now, they insist that I replace the door between the garage and the kitchen. This door is hollow core, but it has been covered with sheet metal for increased fire resistance. Isn't this safe enough? With the questions, I consulted an expert. The following is his answer and hopefully can help those people who are with the same problem with me.
"Before answering your questions,I must clarify one essential point:Homes built in 1955 do not predate the fire-separation requirement for garages. Firewalls between homes and garages have been specified in the Uniform Building Code since the first code book was published in 1927. Modifications to the code have been enacted(制定）since that time,but the basic firewall requirement still applies to 40-year-old homes.
The purpose of this code is to delay the spread of fire from a garage to a dwelling. In order to comply, wood-framed walls and ceilings between garages and dwellings must be finished with plaster or 5/8 inch drywall, and all doors must be solid core or labeled as fire-rated by the manufacturer.
When your home was built, these codes were not universally enforced, especially in rural areas. So many hollow core doors were improperly installed in attached garages. In those years, a common upgrade for such doors was the application of sheet metal. Although this modification does not comply with current fire standards,most building departments regard these doors as "legal nonconforming", which means that replacement is generally not mandated(要求）.
Another related upgrade is the requirement that fire doors be self-closing. The addition of a self-closing device would be an advisable upgrade to your garage door,but it is not a legal requirement for homes built in the 1950s.
As to the disagreement between you and your buyer, my advice would be to upgrade the garage door to current safety standards. It is not your obligation to make these improvements on the buyers' behalf, but they could certainly upgrade the quality of the fire door after closing escrow(附带条款的契约）.”
57. What's the main problem that the author wants to solve?
A) If he needs to replace the fire door before selling his house.
B) If the fire door complies with current fire safety requirements.
C) If he should sell his house to the demanding buyer.
D) If the fire door between the garage and the kitchen is needed.
58. The author has an improper point of view about the fire code that
A) hollow core doors are safe enough
B) the questions involving firewalls should be solved by the law
C) house trade doesn't involve the part between the home and the garage
D) firewalls were not required when his house was built
59. Generally speaking, which kind of hollow core doors needn't be replaced?
A) Those manufactured after 1955.
B) Those labeled with fire rates by manufacturers.
C) Those with adequate weight.
D) Those made of plaster.
60. What do people usually do to upgrade the installed hollow core doors?
A) Stuff the doors with metal.
B) Cover the doors with sheet metal.
C ) Stuff the doors with plaster
D) Cover the doors with sheet plaster.
61. What does the author probably do after consulting the expert?
A) He may buy a new door at once.
B) He may delay selling his house.
C) He may persuade his buyer to upgrade the door.
D ) He may sue the buyer for his illegitimate requirement .
Children are losing the ability to play properly because they are being given too many toys and games , according to a new research . The studies show that children -especially those under five - are often overwhelmed and actually play less than those with fewer toys. It may even harm their development.
Some of the work was done by Claire Lerner, a childhood development researcher with zero to three, which is funded by the U. S. Government to run pre school educational programs across America. "Our studies show that giving children too many toys or toys of the wrong type can actually be doing them harm. They ge overwhelmed and cannot concentrate on any one thing long enough to learn from it."said Lerner. Her conclusions have been backed up by British researchers looking at children with relatively few toys, whose parents spend more time reading, singing or playing with them. It showed such children surpass youngsters from more affluent backgrounds-even those who had access to computers.
Kathy Sylva, professor of educational psychology at Oxford University, reached her conclusions from a study of 3,000 children from the ages of three to five. She said: "There is a complex relationship between children's progress, the type of toys they are given and the time parents spend on them. When they have a large number of toys there seems to be a distraction element, and when children are distracted they do not learn or play well."
Some parents notice the impact early. Orhan Ismail, a researcher from Colchester,Essex, saw a change for the worse in Cameron, his 10-month-old son, after he was given a "deluge(洪水）" of toys last Christmas. Ismail said:"If there are too many toys in front of him he will just keep flitting around them and then end up going off and finding something like a slipper to play with. Now we just get out one or two toys and hide the rest in a box."
Experts hesitate to put a figure on the number of toys children should have, but many believe two-dozen is enough for children of pre-school age.
62. What effect do too many toys have on some children?
A) They can learn from toys.
B) They are outraged by the toys.
C) They have more time to be with parents.
D) They have a sense of being overwhelmed.
63. According to the second paragraph, British research implies that
A) children should spend more time reading and singing
B) children benefit much from toys
C) parents should carefully manage children's access to computer
D) parents should buy computer for their children
64. What did Orhan Ismail do after he saw a change for the worse in his son?
A) He threw toys of the wrong type.
B) He gave his son other things such as slipper.
C) He limited the toys his son played with.
D) He hid all the toys in a box .
65. The word "flitting"(Line 5, Para 4) most probably means
A) flinging away
B ) moving quickly
66. The author's intention in writing this article is to argue that
A) children are losing the ability to play properly
B) children play less as they get more toys
C) parents should spend more time with their children
D)many toys restrict children's imagination