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考研英语长难句学习5-湛江雅托英语培训中心

2020-03-31

连接手段(The Connective)

 

连接手段是硬士研究生人学考试的重要内容之一,在完形填空试题中经常测试考生正确运用连接手段的能力,连接手段一般包括连接词、连接代词、连接副词、关系代词和关系副词,延切的股开登法

 

1 Other models exist that are hybrids of these three, such as delayed open-access,where journals allow only subscribers to read a paper for the first six months, before making it freely available to everyone who wishes to see it.

 

[注释]that是关系代词引导定语从句,修饰先行词models,where是关系副词引导非限制性定语从句,修饰先行词 delayed open-access

[译文]还有其他的模式,它们是这三种模式的结合,例如延期的散开登录,其中利物在最初的6个月内只允许一女者阅读论文,过后才让每个希望看到此文的人自由查阅。

 

2 Humans are often thought to be insensitive smellers compared with animals, but this is largely because, unlike animals, we stand upright.

 

[注释]but此处作连词用,表示语气“转折”。

 

[译文]与动物相比,人类常常被认为是嗅觉不灵敏的,那主要是由于人是直立的。

 

3 He explores such problems consciously, articulately, and frankly, first by asking factual questions, then by asking moral questions, finally by suggesting action which see appropriate in the light of the factual and moral information which he has obtained.

 

[注释]by+动名词短语”表示行为手段。第一个which引导的定语从句修饰名词action;第二个which引导的定语从句修饰名词informationin the light of(=in view of)依据……看;从……观点来看,鉴于。

 

[译文]他有意识地、清楚地、坦诚地探索这样一些问题,首先提一些事实性问题,然后提一些道德问题,最后根据他已获得的事实性和道德性信息提出看似合理的行动建议。

 

4 As can be seen from the comparison of these figures, the principle involves the active participation of the patient in the modification of his condition.

 

[注释]as是关系代词,引导非限制性定语从句,在从句中做主语,代表后面整个主句的意思。如用It,则后面的逗号应改为that;that引导主语从句。又如:As is generally accepted,economic growth is determined by the smooth development of production.(普遍认为,经济增长取决于生产的迅速发展)

 

[译文]从这些数字的比较中可以看出,这条原则涉及到在改善病人的病情中病人必须积极参与。

5 On a rainy day I was driving no hrough Vermont when I noticed a young man holding up a sign reading "Boston".

 

[注释]本题测试下列句型:主语十谓语(过去进行时或过去完成时)+其它成分+when+主语+谓语(一般过去时)+其他成分。该句型中when引导的分句表示分句行为发生的突然性,when常译为“就在这时”。例如:1)I had nearly arrived at the town when he suddenly asked me:"Do you speak English ? " 2 ) We were heartedly arguing about the financial matter , when the telephone rang unexpectedly.(我们正在热烈争论这个金融问题,就在这时电话铃出乎意料地响了。)

 

[译文]在一个下雨天,我正驾车通过Vermont,就在这时我突然注意到一个年轻人举着一块牌子,上面写着“波士顿”。

 

6 The senior librarian at the circulation desk promised to get the book for me if only she could remember who last borrowed it.

 

[注释]if onlyonly if不同。if only引导的从句中谓语要用虚拟语气,而only if只是if的强调形式。

 

[译文]借阅处的年长的图书馆员答应帮我弄到这本书,只要她记得谁最后一次借这本书。

 

7 We are taught that a business letter should be written in a formal style rather than a personal one.

 

[注释]rather than意为“而不是”。other than:1)(=except)除了(表示所说的不包括在内):He never spearends other there than to for something.(他除了向我要素西,从不from;not)不同于;而不:I have never known him behave other than selfishly.(我只知道他一向自私自利。 She seldom, appears other than happy.(她很少有不高兴的。)style此处以为“文体”。

 

8 Finally,because the ultimate stakeholders are patients,the health research community should actively recruit to its cause not only well-known personalities such as Stephen Cooper, who has made courageous statements about the value of animal research,but all who receive medical treatment.

 

[注释]recruit sb.to sth.把某人招募到某处。本句中recruit的直接宾语是well-known personalities...all who receive medical treatment;这两个宾语由并列连词 not only,...bu连接。

 

[译文]最后,最终承担风险的人是患者,所以健康研究团体应积极招聘不仅像 Stephen Cooper 那样的知名人士(他已经发表了有关动物研究价值的大胆言论),而且应招聘所有接受医疗的人来从事其事业。

 

9 You can arrive in Beijing earlier for the meeting provided you don't mind taking th night train.

 

[注释]provided(假如)作连词,表示规定条件,从句中的谓语动词只能用陈述语气。

[译文]假如你不在意乘夜班火车,你可以早一点到达北京开会。

 

10 Unless the nature of aging process is better understood, the possibility of discovering a medicine that can block the fundamental process of aging seems very remote .

 

[注释]unless如是……不……;除非。

 

[译文]如果没有更好地了解衰老过程的本质,那么发明一种药来阻止衰老的基本过程的可能性做乎是十分渺茫的。,

 

11 Hydrogen is the fundamental element of the universe in that it provides the building blocks from which the other elements are produced.

 

[注释]in that(=because)因为。

 

[译文]氢是宇宙中的基本元素,因为它提供了生成其它元素的构成成分。

 

12 In debating, one must correct the opponent's facts, deny the relevance of his proof, or deny that what he presents as proof, though relevant, is sufficient.

 

[注释]though引导省略的让步状语从句。

 

[译文]在辩论过程中,一方必须纠正对方的论据,否定其证据的针对性,或认为对方作为证据提出来的理由是不充分的,尽管这种理由有针对性

 

13 It is perhaps not an exaggeration to say that we shall soon be trusting our health,wealth and happiness to elements with whose very names the general public are unfamiliar.

 

[注释]whose的先行词是elementsthe public做主语,谓语可以用第三人称单数或复数。

 

[译文]我们很快将把我们的健康、财富和幸福托付给一般人都不知其名的几种元素,这种说法也许不算夸张

 

14 The speaker claimed that no other modern nation devotes so small a portion of its wealth to public assistance and health as the United States does.

 

[注释]as引导比较状语从句,例如:I have never seen so much rain as fell that February.(我从未见过像那个二月下的那么多雨。)本句属“...not so+形容词原级+as...”句型,只是题中否定转到了名词上,例如:No book is so interesting as this one.

 

[译文]那位演讲者声称,没有哪个现代化国家像美国那样在公共事业资助和保健方面投入其财富的比列如此之小。

 

15 If humanity has made some headway in realizing that the ultimate value of every institution is its distinctively human effect we may well believe this lesson has been earned largely through dealings with the young. [2009年试题)

 

[注释]If引导条件从句。第1that引导宾语从句,作动名词realizing的宾语,we may...一到完是主句,其中that引导宾语从句。此外,make headway in意为“在……方面取得进步”,may well意为“很可能”。learn a lesson意为“学到教训,取得经验”。

 

[译文]每一种体制的最终价值在于其独特的人类影响,如果人类对此有了进一步的认识,我们很可能会相信这一经验的学得主要来自我们与年轻人的交往。

 

16 Much as he likes her,he does get irritated with her sometimes.

 

[注释]much as(=though)是复合连词,意为“虽然”,如把much视为副词作状语,修饰likes,则构成“副词或表语形容词+though(as)+主语+谓语”的句型,例如:Small though(or as)the molecule is,the atom is much smaller than it.(尽管分子小,原子比它还要小得多。

 

[译文]虽然他很喜欢她,但他确实有时也对她发火。

17 Talk to anyone in the drug industry, and you'll soon discover that the science of genetics is the biggest thing to hit drug research since penicillin was discovered.

 

[注释]and可以用来连接两个分句,前一个分句用第二人称命令式,后而一个分句表示结果,这种句常详为:“只要......,就会......)例如:Go straight on,and you'll see a post office.(只要一直住前走,你就会看到一个邮局)

 

[译文]只要你和医药工业中的任何人谈一谈,你就马上会发现,遗传科学是自青霉素发现以来促进药物研究的最大事件。

 

18 Mercury's velocity is so much greater than the Earth's that it completes more than four revolutions around the Sun in the time (that) it takes the Earth to complete one.

 

[注释]本句中(that)是关系副词,作度量状语,引导定语从句,that可以省略,it是形式主语,实际主语是to complete one.

 

[译文]水星的运行速度比地球的运行速度快得多,因此水星绕太阳转4圆多所花的时间是地球绕太阳转一圈的时间。

 

19 Large numbers of physicians seem unconcerned with the pain their patients are needlessly and predictably suffering, to the extent that it constitutes "systematic patient abuse " .

 

[注释] seem unconcerned with 似乎不关心。their patients are needlessly and predictably suffering是定语从句、修饰名词pain,意为“他们的病人不必受的并且早就料到的痛苦”,to the extent that...在……程度上。to the extent that...that引导的是同位语从句,修饰名词extent

 

[译文]许多医生对他们的病人不必受的并且早就料到的痛苦似乎漠不关心,甚至达到“蓄意虑待病人”的程度。

 

20 Doing your homework is a sure way to improve your test scores, and this is specially true when it comes to classroom tests.

 

[注释]when it comes to sth.是固定句型,意为“当谈到……时”。例如:All those left undone may sound great in theory, but even the truest believer has great difficulty when it comes to specifics.(所有那些还没有完成的事在理论上听起来很棒,但是甚至最忠实的信仰者在谈到具体问题时也面露难色。)When it comes to the slowing economy,Ellen Spero isn't biting her nails.(当谈到经济发展减慢时,Ellen Spero还没有到绝望的程度。)注意这个句型常考。

 

[译文]做家庭作业是提高考试成绩的可靠方法,并且当谈到课堂测验时这尤为正确。

 

21 Yet it is hard to imagine that the merger of a few oil firms today could re-create the same threats to competition that were feared nearly a century ago in the U.S., when the Standard Oil trust was broken up.

 

[注释]第一个that引导主语从句,因为it是形式主语。第二个that引导定语从句,修饰先行词threatswhen引导的时间从句,进一步说明前面的状语 nearly a century ago

 

[译文]然而,令人难以想象的是,今天几家石油公司的合并可能会重现将近一百年前标准石油信托公司解体时美国所担心的对竞争的同样威胁

 

22 California has more light than it knows what to do with but everything else is expensive.

 

[注释] do with 多和 what 连用,意为“(怎样)处理,安排,办”,常有较灵活的译法。例如;I forget what I did with his letter.(我忘了我是怎么处理他的信的。)

 

[译文]加利福尼亚的阳光多得它不知怎么处理,但其他东西却很贵。

 

23 Even if automakers modify commercially produced cars to run on alternative fuels,the cars won't catch on in a big way unless drivers can fill them up at the gas station.

 

[注释]run on靠……开动。catch on意为“流行起来”

 

 

[译文]即使汽车制造商改进为商业销售而生产的汽车,以便靠代用燃料运行,但是如果司机不能再加油站加到这种燃料,那么这种汽车是无法大批销售的。

 

24 We must keep in touch. Please give me your telephone number in case I need your help.

 

[注释]in case作连词,意为“以防,万一”,例如:1)Take warm clothes in case the weather is cold. 2) In case I forget, please remind me about it.

 

[译文]我们必须保持联系,请您给我你的电话号码万一我需要你的帮助。

 

25 "In short",a leader of the new school contends,"the scientific revolution,as we call it , was largely the improvement and invention and use of a series of instruments that expanded the reach of science in innumerable directions."

 

[注释]as引导特殊类型的状语从句。这种从句在翻译时作定语从句处理。

 

[译文]新学派的一位领袖人物坚持说:而而言之,我们所称之为的科学革命,主要是指一看另基其即改进、发明和使用,这些改进、发明和使用使科学发展的范围无所不及。

 

26 Seeing that they will not come to join us in the work we have to change our plan to adapt ourselves to the new situation.

 

[注释] seeing that 作连词,意为既纸,专选到二,如:Seeing that he refused to help us,there's no reason that we should now help him. For引导的分句不能重于第一分句之前,面应重于之后,表示附加说明的原因

 

[译文]既然他们不愿意参加我们的工作,我们必须改变对道取适应新的情况。

 

27 According to the weather report, it will be cold this evening. Make sure that you light the heater in the cottage .

 

[注释]make sure(一定要,弄确实,打听清楚),后接宾语从句,从句中的谓语用一般现在时代替般将来时,如:Make sure you get there on time.(你一定要准时到达那里。)注意make sure后不能接whetherif引导的从句。

 

[译文]根据天气预报,今晚很冷。你一定要点上屋子里的加热器。

 

28 Granted that he is not brilliant, John is at least competent and hard-working.

 

[注释]granted(that)意为尽管,即使,引导让步状语或让步状语从句,如:1)Granted(Granting)your promises,your conclusion is still false.(引导让步状语)2)Granted that he not brilliant, he is at least competent and hard-working.(引导让步状语从句)

 

[译文]尽管约翰并不辉煌,但他至少是能干勤奋的。

 

29 As the Internet becomes more and more commercialized, it is in the interest of business to universalize access-after all, the more people online, the more potential torr rs there are.

 

[注释]as引导时间从句,意为随着in the interest(s)of为了……的缘故。it是形式主语,实际主语是不定式 to universalize accessafter all是成语,意为毕竟。后面是带比较从句的复合句,在逻辑上表示原因

 

[译文]随着互联网日趋商业化,普及上网对商业经营十分有利——毕竟,上网人数越多,潜在的客户也越多

 

30 As unselfishness is the real test of strong affection, so unselfishness ought to be the real test of the very highest kind of art.

 

[注释](just)as...,so...(就像......,也.......),此句表示类比,as引导对对比状语从句,so引导主句

 

[译文]正如无私是珍爱的真正考验,所以无私也是最高艺术的真正考验。

 

32 See to it that you include in the examination paper whatever questions they didn't know the answer to last time.

 

[注释]whatever引导宾语从句,whatever在从句中作定语修饰questions,whatever=the...whichSee to it that...是惯用句型,意为要注意使……,务必使……:保证使

 

[译文]你务必把他们在上次考试中不知道答案的那些考题放到这张试卷中去。

 

33 The problem is that, whereas children who are given cow's milk from birth benefit greatly from it, those who have never drunk it by a certain age are not able to tolerate it.

 

[注释]whereas而(表示对照关系),例如:1)Some praise him,whereas others condemn him.2)Whereas we want a flat,they would rather live in a house,由上述例句可以看出,whereas的位置既可在第一分句前,也可在第二分句前。

 

[译文]问题是生下来就喝牛奶的孩子因此受益睡浅,而到一定年龄没有喝过牛奶的孩子受不了牛奶的味

 

34 The average adult in our city consumes a lot of sugar a day, more than six times as m ch the body needs .

 

[注释]as much=so,或用作名词,意为exactly the same,exactly that,例如:1)I thought as much.(当时我就是这样想的。)2)I found him rather careless and said as much to him.(我发现他有些粗枝大叶,并直率地向他讲了。)3)Give me as much again.(再给我那么多吧。)本题中the body needs是定语从句修饰 as much。附带提一下,as many意思是同样量,与可数名词相关,如:1)He made five mistakes in as many lines.(他在5行里,出了5个错误。)2)I waited for ten minutes.They seemed as many hours.(我等了10分钟,就好像等了10个小时似的。)这是语法测的重点

 

[译文]我们城里一般成年人每天摄入大量糖,超过人体所需的6

 

35 There are also people who object to fiction stories on the grounds that they are not objectively true.

 

[注释]on the grounds that因为;in spite of the fact that 尽管;with the result that 因此,结果是;providing that只要,假如。

 

[译文]也有人反对科学幻想故事,因为这些故事客观上是不真实的

 

36 This is the best book I have ever read on the subject, for all that there may be mistakes occasionally.

 

[注释]for all that是复合连词,意为尽管,多用于口语,例如:I am sure he did it for all that he says he didn't do it.(尽管他说,他没有做,但我相信他确实是做了。)

 

[译文]这是就这个主题我所读过的最好的书,尽管偶尔可能有点错。

 

37 It was so inconceivable that he should have stolen the money that the suggestion.

 

[注释]it是形式主语,that he should have stolen the money是主语从句;so...that suggestion was made...that引导的是结果状语从句;that he might have been threatenedsuggestion的同位语从句,说明其含义。

 

[译文]难以想象的是,他居然会偷钱,因此有人提出,他可能是在威胁下干的。

 

38 You seem to take a keener interest in the subject than has ever been shown before.

 

[注释]形容词比较级keener要求后接than引导的比较状语从句。从句中省略the interest that

 

[译文]你似乎比以前任何时候对这个课题更感兴趣。

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