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托福写作Unit7讲解【Integrated Writing Tsak】

2020-06-22

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Note-Makingreading

 

The problem

 

--continual stresspopulation growth and uncontrolled coastal developmentnot good for oceans and ecosystem

 

Global Strategies

 

--environmental awarenessgovernmentsindividualsmunicipalities and industries

--reuse of materialssecondary materialsless polluting materials

 

Current Solutions

 

--scrap plastic resin into plastic lumber for marine construction

--restrict and replace toxic substances eg.PCBs

 

Advantages of Oceans

 

--rejuvenatediluteneutralize and dispose of waste

--more environmentally sound than land disposalreferenceaffecting ground water and soil

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Note-makinglistening

 

Causes

 

Explanation and Experiment

--with sea sponges

--red algae

--shark skin

--corals

 

Sources of Pollution

 

--increase population and expansion of industries

--wet land drained

--sewage plants and industrial facilities

--land reclamation

--degrade estuaries and coastal waters

 

Effects

 

Medical Discoveries and Development

--anti-leukemia drugs

--diagnostic chemicals

--anti-infection compounds

--bone graft materials

 

Effects on Oceans

--destroy species of marine life and their habitats

--Land reclamation replaces ecosystem and habitat

--release waste into coastal watersdestroys kelp forestreplace with toxic sludge

--introduction of alien species and disappearance of species for commercial fishing

--block sunlight with toxinssuffocate fishand destroy habitat

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Writing Task Plan

 

Background Information

 

--expectations of oceansfoodmedicine and diluteneutralize and dispose of waste

--continual stress and polluting damage to ecosystem and marine habitat

--some efforts already happening with recyclingusing less polluting productsetc.

 

Thesis Statement

 

--In order for the ocean to continue to fulfill its various functionsthe many problems with pollution should be solved by international community.

 

Problems

 

--increase in population and expansion of industries

--wet land drained

--sewage plants and industrial facilities

--land reclamation

--degrade estuaries and coastal waters

 

Effects

 

--destroy species of marine life and their habitats

--Land reclamation replaces ecosystem and habitat

--release waste into coastal watersdestroys kelp forestreplace with toxic sludge

--introduction of alien species and disappearance of species for commercial fishing

--block sunlight with toxinssuffocate fishand destroy habitat

 

Solution

 

--reuse materials and objects

--recycle materials for new use

--use less polluting materials and equipment

--restrict and ban toxic materials

--promote environmental awareness

 

Effects

 

--less materials for disposal

--eg. Craps metal and plastic lumber

--eg. Low emission vehicles

--eg. PCBs

--governmentsindustries etc. Make more environmentally sound decisions

 

Conclusion

 

--It is possible to manage ocean pollution but the efforts needed must be applied by individualsgovernments and industriesand acceptable to the international community.

 

参考范文

 

People take the oceans for granted. Yet the oceans provide food in the form of fish, seafood and seaweed, as well as medicine for leukemia, and other conditions. However, the oceans are also widely used for waste disposal.Although the ocean can disperse, neutralize and dispose of waste effectively, it has a limited capacity for dealing with pollution and has begun to reach that point in many coastal areas. In order for the ocean to continue to fulfill its various functions, the many problems with pollution should be solved by the international community.

 

Most of the ocean pollution is caused by the increase in population and the expansion of industries which have created an increase in sewage and industrial waste effluent that is dumped into the ocean off the coast of most countries. This toxic material has added sludge to large areas, blocking sunlight from developing plants, destroying kelp forests and the habitat of marine animals and fish. The natural filtering systems in estuaries and wetlands have been drained and developed for land reclamation. These alterations to the relationship between land and ocean life destroy habitats and fish stocks. Each of these damaging effects interferes with the ocean's natural ability to deal with the disposal of toxic and non-toxic materials.

 

The solutions to these problems have to do with how everyone, from individuals to governments of countries and international organizations, applies their awareness of pollution problems. Individuals and the companies they work for can make good environmental decisions by routinely recycling materials, find new uses for products and choose to use less polluting materials. Governments at both the municipal and the federal level need to restrict or ban toxic substances like the PCBs which are currently outlawed. What is most important is the education of the public and administrators in particular.People in a position to make decisions should know about the consequences of such activities as releasing untreated effluent into coastal waters or allowing ships to clean out their tanks in a harbor. By limiting the use and disposal of polluting materials, governments and industries can halt if not repair the damage to marine ecosystems.

 

It is possible to manage ocean pollution but the efforts needed must be applied by individuals, governments and industries,and acceptable to the international community.

 

人类认为海洋的恩惠是理所当然的。海洋不仅给人类提供值类、海鲜,海藻等食物,还提供治疗白血病的药物等,但海洋山常被当成垃圾处理场。海洋可以有效地分解,中和,处理垃圾,但其处理污染的能力还是有限的,很多沿海地区已经快到其能力极限了。为了让海洋继续发挥它的多样性功能,许多污染问题仍需要国际社会来解决。

 

大部分海洋污染起因于人口增加及产业扩张,这导致许多沿海国家排放到海里的污水及工业废水越来越多。有毒物质扩大了淤泥区域,挡住了有助于植物生长的太阳光线,破坏了藻丛及海洋动物和鱼类的栖息地。自然过滤系统被排空的港湾和湿地,用做了土地开发。陆地和海洋生活之间的关系变化破坏了栖息地和鱼群的生存环境,影响了海洋清除毒性及非毒性物质的天然功能。

 

这些问题的解决方案跟所有人,从个人、国家政府到国际组织,怎样看待污染问题有关。个人和个人所在的公司可以通过回收原材料,为产品找到新用途,选用污染小的材料等来作出对环境有益的明智决定。无论是地方政府还是联邦政府都有必要控制或禁止使用目前已宣布为非法的PCB等有毒物质。更重要的是对公众的教育,特别是对管理者。这些决策者应了解像未经处理的废水排放到海里或在港口冲洗油箱这类行为所导致的后果。政府部门和各个行业虽不能修复海洋生态系统所受到的破坏,但通过限制污染物质的使用并加以处理,是能够做到停止破坏的。

 

海洋污染治理是可行的,但需要个人、政府、各行各业共同参与,其策略需要得到国际社会的认可。

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