Part Ⅲ Reading Comprehension (45 minutes, 25 points)
Directions:In this section, there are four passages followed by questions or unfinished state-ments, each with four suggested answers A, B, C and, D. Choose the best answer and mark your answer on the Answer Sheet.
Ten years ago, when environmental lawyer Kassie Siegel went in search of an animal to save the world, the polar bear wasn't at all an obvious choice. Siegel and Brendan Cummings of the Center for Biological Diversity in Joshua Tree, Calif., were looking for a species whose habitat was disappearing due to climate change, which could serve as a symbol of the dangers of global warming. Her first candidate met the scientific criteria-it lived in ice caves in Alaska's Glacier Bay, which were melting away-but unfortunately it was a spider. You can't sell a lot of T-shirts with pictures of an animal most people would happily step on.
Next, Siegel turned to the Kittlitz's murrelet, a small Arctic seabird whose nesting sites in glaciers were disappearing. In 2001, she petitioned the Department of the Interior to add it to the Endangered Species list, but Interior Secretary Gale Norton turned her down. Elkhorn and staghorn coral, which are threatened by rising water temperatures in the Caribbean, did make it onto the list, but as iconic species they fell short insofar as many people don't realize they're alive in the first place. The polar bear, by contrast, is vehemently alive and comes the undeniable charisma of a top predator. And its dependence on ice was intuitively obvious; it lives on it most of the year. But it took until 2004 for researchers to demonstrate that shrinking sea ice was a serious threat to the bears'population. On Feb. 16, 2005-the day the Kyoto Protocol to curb greenhouse gas emissions took effect, without the participation of the United States-Siegel petitioned to list polar bears as endangered. Three years later her efforts met with equivocal(不明确的)success,as Interior Sec-retary Dirk Kempthome designated the bears as "threatened" (not endangered), a significant con-cession from an administration that has stood almost alone in the world in its reluctance to acknowl-edge the dangers of climate change. The Endangered Species Act (ESA), whose odd lists of snails and bladderworts sometimes seemed stuck in the age of Darwin, had been thrust into the main-stream of 21 st-century environmental politics. Break out the T-shirts!
21. Siegel and Cummings hoped to choose an animal to .
A. call on people to take actions against global warming
B. make people aware of the danger of environmental damage
C. introduce to people a new concept of environmental protection
D. remind people of the importance of protecting endangered species
22. The problem with elkhorn and staghorn corals lies in that .
A. they were not much-liked by many people
B. they were not well-known enough to be an icon
C. they were not considered animals by many people
D. they were not added to the list of Endangered Species
23. It can be learnt that the polar bear .
A. was first considered by Siegel to be the iconic animal in 1998
B. was first proposed by Siegel to be the endangered species in 2004
C. was not qualified scientifically as the endangered species until 2005
D. was not officially under the government protection until 2008
24. Which of the following is chosen by Siegel as the symbolic animal?
B. The polar bear in the North Pole.
A. The murrelet nesting in glaciers.
D. Staghorn corals in the Caribbean.
C. The spider in Alaska's Glacier Bay.
25. The passage is focused on .
A. how the scientists tried to protect endangered species
B. how the symbolic endangered species has been chosen
C. the relation between global warming and endangered species
D. the problems in and the future of endangered species protection
21.A。细节题。第一段第二句说“Siegel and Brendan Cummings of the Center for Biological Di-versity in Joshua Tree, Calif., were looking for a species whose habitat was disappearing due to climate change, which could serve as a symbol of the dangers of global warming."即Siegel正在寻找一个由于气候变化而逐渐消失的物种,希望用它作为警示全球变暖
22、C。细节题。第二段第三句说“Elkhorn and staghorn coral,which are threatened by rising wa-ter temperatures in the Caribbean, did make it onto the list, but as iconic species they fell short in so far as many people don't realize they're alive in the first place,“小鹿角珈珊和廉角珊瑚成功地被列入了滴危物种名单,但作为标志性物种还有欠缺,因为很多人并没
1. Siegel and Brendan Cummings of the Center for Biological Diversity in Joshua Tree, Ca-lif., were looking for a species whose habitat was disappearing due to climate change, which could serve as a symbol of the dangers of global warming.
这是一个复合句,其中Siegel and Brendan Cummings of the Center for Biological Diversity in Joshua Tree, Calif., were looking for a species 是主句,后跟由 whose 和 which 引导的两个定语从句。due to 是“因为,由于”的意思,serve as 是“担任………,充当……”的意思。句意为:西格尔和加州约苏亚树生物多样性中心的布伦丹·卡明斯当时正在寻找一种由于气候变化使其栖息地逐渐消失的物种,这种物种能作为全球变暖危害的象征物。
2. Three years later her efforts met with equivocal success, as Interior Secretary Dirk Kempthorne designated the bears as "threatened"(not endangered), a significant concession from an administration that has stood almost alone in the world in its reluctance to acknowledge the dangers of climate change.
More American mothers than ever are working, and more workers are mothers. Yet their march into the world of paid work continues to cause suspicion. One recent survey found that 48percent of Americans believe that preschoolers suffer if their mothers work, while another found that 42 percent of employed parents think that working mothers care more about succeeding at work than meeting their children's needs.
The kids are all right. Studies conducted by the University of Michigan have consistently demonstrated that a child's social or academic competence does not depend on whether a mother is employed. In my research four out of five children told me that having a working mother was their preferred arrangement. My study found that children with working mothers are no more likely to drop out, take drugs, break the law, or experiment with sex prematurely than children with non-employed mothers. Children have taken their mothers'example to heart. Ninety percent of the young women I interviewed said they hoped to combine work with motherhood, while two-thirds of the men said they wanted to share parenting and work.
Sadly, children support working mothers more than we do as a society. Parental leave and child-care benefits in the United States remain inadequate, particularly when compared to what's offered in other countries. Children thrive when their mothers have satisfying, well-paid jobs when they can count on other caretakers to share the load. The challenge facing us is thus not whether good workers can also be good mothers, but whether we can create the conditions that enable working mothers and fathers to be good parents.
26. From the first paragraph, we can see that .
A. now more American mothers are working than any time in American history and anywhere else in the world
B. more than half Americans think that before going to school, children need their mothers' whole-hearted care
C. a majority of Americans believe that once working outside home mothers think of their own work more than their children
D. more American mothers work than ever before, but this problem of working mothers has not been solved satisfactorily
27. From the passage, we can not find the proof of the fact that .
A. mothers do their household work today just as well as they did before
B. with their mothers working, children are better off
C. lack of mothers' care, children like to go astray
D. in single-parent families, most children like their mothers to go out working
28. In the last paragraph, "Parental leave and child-care benefits in the United States remain inadequate" actually refers to .
A. parents should not leave and pay more care to their children
B. parental leave and child care is contradicted
C. children have inadequate care from their parents
D. in the United States, parents enjoy inadequate child-care leave and allowance
29. What do the Americans need in solving the problem of working mothers?
A. They need the support of males.
B. They need the understanding of other members of their families.
C. They need young people to be well-prepared to work both in and outside their homes.
D. They need especially the powerful support, of the society for working mothers.
30. What is the main idea of the passage?
A. We should let mothers work without worries.
B. It is better for mothers to stay at home.
C. We should work hard, especially mothers.
D. Like mothers, like children.
27.C。细节题。第二段说“My study found that children with working mothers are no more likely to drop out, take drugs, break the law, or experiment with sex prematurely than children with non-employed mothers.”根据他自己的研究,青少年转学、吸毒以及违反法律等情况的发生率,在母亲外出工作的家庭中与母亲不外出工作的家庭中相同。故选C。
28.D。推断题。parental leave 指的是育婴假,child-care benefits 则指的是育儿津贴,原文中这句的意思是说美国的父母们享受的育婴假和津贴都比其他国家少。故选D。
30.A。主旨大意题。文章最后一段提到美国社会对工作的母亲支持不够的问题。最后一句说"The challenge facing us is thus not whether good workers can also be good mothers,but whether we can create the conditions that enable working mothers and fathers to be good parents.”意为,我们现在面临的挑战不是好的工作人员能否成为好母亲的问题,而是我们能否创造条件使工作的父母成为好父母的问题。故选A。
1. Studies conducted by the University of Michigan have consistently demonstrated that a child's social or academic competence does not depend on whether a mother is employed.
这个句子结构是:主语后跟过去分词短语作定语(conducted by the University of Michigan),demonstrated后跟that引导的宾语从句,depend on后跟whether引导的宾语从句。con-duct的意思是“实施,做”,academic competence的意思是“学术能力”。句意为:密歌根大学研究证明一个孩子的社会或学术能力不取决于孩子母亲是否工作。
2. The challenge facing us is thus not whether good workers can also be good mothers, but whether we can create the conditions that enable working mothers and fathers to be good parents.
这是一个复合句,句架是:The challenge facing us is...not whether...but whether...。句中whether 引导的是表语从句,that 引导的是定语从句,现在分词 facing us 跟在主语 The challenge后作定语。not...but...的意思是“不是……而是……”。句意为:我们面对的挑战不是好员工是否也能成为好母亲,而是我们是否能创造条件使工作中的父母成为好的父母。
Job sharing refers to the situation in which two people divide the responsibility of one full-time job. The two people willingly act as part-time workers, enough hours between them to fulfill the duties of a full-time worker. If they each work half the job, for example, they each receive 50 per-cent of the job's wages, its holidays and its other benefits. Of course, some job sharers take a smaller or larger share of the responsibilities of the position, receiving a less or greater share of the benefits.
Job sharing differs from conventional part-time work in that it occurs mainly in the more highly skilled and professional areas, which requires higher levels of responsibility and employee commitment.Job sharing should not be confused with the term work sharing, which refers to increasing the number of jobs by reducing the number of hours of each existing job, thus offering more positions to the growing number of unemployed people. Job sharing, by contrast, is not designed to address unemployment problems; its focus, rather, is to provide well-paid work for skilled workers and professionals who want more free time for other activities.
As would be expected, women constitute the bulk of job sharers. A survey carded out in 1988by Britain's Equal Opportunities Commission revealed that 78 percent of sharers were female, the majority of whom were between 20 and 40 years of age. Subsequent studies have come up with similar results. Many of these women were re-entering the job market after having had children,but they chose not to seek part-time work because it would have meant lower status.
Job sharing also offered an acceptable shift back into full-time work after a long absence.
The necessity of close co-operations when sharing a job with another person makes the actual work quite different from conventional one-position jobs. However, to ensure a greater chance that the partnership will succeed, each person needs to know the strengths, weaknesses and preferences of his or her partner before applying for a position. Moreover, there must be a fair division of both routine tasks and interesting ones. In sum, for a position to be job-shared well, the two individuals must be well matched and must treat each other as equals.
31."Employee commitment"in Paragraph 2 refers to the employee's .
32. Work sharing is different from job sharing in that .
A. it requires more working hours
B. it depends on the employer's decision
C. it provides more work positions
D. it offers a more satisfactory salary
33. Job sharing is popular with young mothers mainly because .
A. they can take care of both work and family
B. they are over ideal working ages
C. they seek equal opportunities with men
D. they have difficulty finding full-time jobs
34. According to the survey, the sharers women consist of .
35. The main purpose of the passage is to .
A. recommend job sharing to women
B. describe job sharing in general
C. criticize job sharing as inefficient
D. discuss a way to tackle unemployment
32.C。推断题。job sharing 意为“轮岗制,轮班制”。轮岗制是两个人轮流做一份通常由一人做的工作。work sharing 意为“分推式工作”。由于失业率增加,为保证每个人都有工作而引进工作分推制这个想法。答案在第三段第一句“Job sharing should not be confused with the term work sharing,which refers to increasing the number of jobs by reducing the number of hours of each existing job, thus offering more positions to the growing number of unemployed people.”说工作分推可以创造更多的工作机会。故选C。
33.A。细节题。第四段最后一句“Many of these women were re-entering the job market after having had children,but they chose not to seek part-time work because it would have meant lower status.”,说很多重新回到就业市场的女性都有了孩子。故选A。
34.D。细节题。在第四段第二句“A survey carded out in 1988 by Britain's Equal Opportunities Commission revealed that 78 percent of sharers were female, the majority of whom were be-tween 20 and 40 years of age.”文中说78%的轮岗制工作者是女性。故选D。
status n. 地位;状态;情形;重要身份
1. Job sharing should not be confused with the term work sharing, which refers to increasing the number of jobs by reducing the number of hours of each existing job, thus offering more posi-tions to the growing number of unemployed people.
这是一个复合句,句架是:Job sharing should not be confused with the term work sharing...
which 引导的是定语从句。be confused with的意思是“与……混清”。句意为:轮岗制不能和分摊式工作相混淆,分摊式工作指的是通过减少现存工作的劳动时间来增加工作量,这样就为不断增长的失业人群提供更多的职位。
2. As would be expected, women constitute the bulk of job sharers.
在这一句中,As指代“women constitute the bulk of job sharers"。As would be expected 可以理解为“正如预料的那样”,constitute的意思是“组成,构成”。句意为:正如预料的那样,妇女占据轮岗制的大多数。
There are over 6,000 different computer and online games in the world now. A segment of them are considered to be both educational and harmlessly entertaining. One such game teaches ge-ography, and another trains pilots. Others train the player in logical thinking and problem solving.
Some games may also help young people to become more computer literature, which is more im-portant in this technology-driven era.
But the dark side of the computer games has become more and more obvious."A segment of games features anti-social themes of violence, sex and crude language", says David Walsh, President of the National Institute on Media and Family. "Unfortunately, it's a segment that seems particularly popular with kids aged eight to fifteen."
One study showed that almost 80 percent of the computer and online games young people preferred contained violence. The investigators said "These are not just games anymore. These are learning machines. We're teaching kids in the most incredible manner what it's like to pull the trigger. What they are not learning are the real-life consequences."
They also said "The new and more sophisticated games are even worse, because they have better graphics and allow the player to participate in even more realistic violent acts."In the game Carmageddon, for example, the player will have driven over and killed up to 33,000 people by the time all levels are completed. A description of the outcome of the game says:"Your victims not only squish under your tires and splatter blood on the windshield, they also get on their knees and beg for mercy, or commit suicide. If you like, you can also dismember(肢解)them.”Is all this simulated violence harmful? Approximately 3,000 different studies have been conducted on this subject. Many have suggested that there is a connection between violence in games and increased aggressiveness in the players.
Some specialists downplay the influence of the games, saying that other factors must be taken into consideration, such as the possibility that kids who already have violent tendencies are choosing such games. But could it be that violent games still play a contributing role? It seems unrealistic to insist that people are not influenced by what they see. If that were true, why would the commercial world spend billions of dollars annually for television advertising?
36. Which of the following computer games is NOT mentioned as educational and harmlessly entertaining?
A. Those that help people learn more about computers.
B. Those that teach the features of the earth.
C. Those that provide special training for writers online.
D. Those that provide special training for pilots.
37. According to one study, most computer and online games .
A. allow the players to take part in killing acts
B. teach the players to be antisocial
C. make the players forget the real life results
D. that young people like contain violence
38. Many studies have suggested that .
A. more and more young people enjoy cruel computer games
B. violence in computer games makes their players more aggressive
C. there are now far more incidents of violence due to computer games
D. simulated violence in computer games is different from real violence
39. The author uses "television advertising" as an example to show that
A. other factors must be considered as possible causes of violence in real life
B. computer and online games are not the only cause of increased violence in real life
C. the commercial world is contributing to the increased violence in real life
D. there is a close link between computer games and increased violence in real life
40. The best title for the passage could be .
A. The Dark Side of Computer Games
B. Computer Games-Advantages and Disadvantages
C. The Development of Violent Computer Games
D. A Study on the Influence of Computer Games
36.C。细节题。根据第一段可知,人们认为有一些电脑游戏既有教育意义又有一定的娱乐作用。有的电脑游戏教人们学地理,有的可以训练飞行员,有的可以训练人们的逻辑思维能力和解决问题的能力,有些游戏还可以帮助人们了解更多的计算机语言,这在我们这个技术驱动的时代是更加重要的。这里没有提到训练网上写作(special training for writers online)。故选C。
37.D。细节题。第三段第一句“One study showed that almost 80 percent of the computer and on-line games young people preferred contained violence.”可知,一项研究表明青年人喜欢的电脑游戏和网上游戏中80%含有暴力的内容。故选D。
38.B。推断题。第五段最后一句“Many have suggested that there is a connection between violence in games and increased aggressiveness in the players.”可知,许多研究表明游戏中的暴力与玩游戏的人的暴力倾向增强是有关系的。故选B。
39.D。推断题。最后一段最后两句“It seems unrealistic to insist that people are not influenced by what they see. If that were true, why would the commercial world spend billions of dollars annually for television advertising?”可知,看来认为人们不受他们所看到的东西影响是不现实的。如果不受影响的话,为什么商家每年要花数十亿美元做电视广告呢?故选D。
40.A。主旨题。全文主要介绍了电脑游戏的负面影响。根据第二段第一句“But the dark side of the computer games has become more and more obvious.”可知,电脑游戏的负面影响越来越明显了。该句为全文的主题句。故选A。
1. A segment of them are considered to be both educational and harmlessly entertaining.
这是一个简单句,sb./sth.be considered to be的句型意思是“某事或某人被认为……”。
2. Many have suggested that there is a connection between violence in games and increased aggressiveness in the players.
Directions:In this section, you are required to read one quoted blog and the comments on it. The blog and comments are followed by questions or unfinished statements, each with four suggested answers A、B、C and D. Choose the best answer and mark your answer on the Answer Sheet.
In 2011, green homes made up roughly 17 percent of the market and is expected to reach two out of five homes by 2016, according to the report.
The biggest attribute to a green home is energy efficiency, of course. Ninety percent of home-owners surveyed said energy efficiency is important because of personal values, and because of lower energy bills. Other eco-friendly factors include indoor air quality, material durability, use of post-consumer materials and sustainability-focused waste management practices.
Another big incentive for consumers is the fact that mortgage lenders and regional programs offer discount interest rates for green homes.
Regardless of the incentive, consumers should also inquire about the materials that they will be using to build their home, especially the foundation. A home built with concrete blocks, for exam-ple, does not suffer from the same number of insect infestations as wood construction homes.Don't just call an exterminator. Call an expert-866-953-0103. $50 off Orkin? Pest Con-trol. Schedule Your Free Estimate Today!
Great ideas, many people are working now to make the world more green.
The demands for green homes and the market of 17 percent must be increased and there must be insects and infections cured for wooden constructions.
The concept is nice but I think, technology has changed a lot in today's modern world but some of the techniques of construction will remain same as it was in 1800s. More ideas should be introduced in construction to offer environment friendly homes.
The idea of investing a house that makes you save money is not bad. It's a long-time investment and I've been thinking for a while to make some changes. Could you for instance tell me how low the energy bills get? 20% or 50% ? The thing with concrete blocks is that during summertime it gets really hot and there's no air. I would go anytime for wood instead of concrete. And the bugs problem, well you solve it once and you solve it for good! As far as I can see, the green homes trend is expanding quickly! I have started to get sick of all the skyscrapers!
All homeowners can be proud that wood is a renewable and green product.
41. What is the theme of the blog quoted?
A. How to choose material for green homes.
B. The demand for green homes is on the rise.
C. Green homes and personal values.
D. Long term development starts from housing.
42. The personal values (Para. 2) may refer to .
A. the pursuit of wealth
B. the idea of trying new
C. rejection to the modern technology
D. the consciousness of continual development
43. When people choose green homes, which of the following doesn't belong to his or her first consideration?
B. Bill paid for energy consumption.
A. Energy saving.
C. The lowered interest rates offered.
D. The material usability.
44. From comment 2 to comment 4, we learn people show concerns over .
A. the techniques of renewing waste
B. the choice of different construction materials
C. the energy bills
D. the popularity of green homes
45. All of the commentators 'attitude towards green homes can be summarized as being .
42.D。推断题。根据personal values所在的句子可知,作者认为由于个人价值观的原因大家认为节能是很重要的,所以个人价值观就有可能包含“可持续发展”的意思。其他3个选项都与energy efficiency没有逻辑上的因果关系。故选D。
roughly adv. 粗精地;概略地
The biggest attribute to a green home is energy efficiency, of course.