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同等学力申硕英语阅读教材一(在职硕士)

2022-06-09

Part Ⅲ Reading Comprehension (45 minutes, 25 points)

 

Section A

 

Directions:In this section, there are four passages followed by questions or unfinished state-ments, each with four suggested answers A, B, C and, D. Choose the best answer and mark your answer on the Answer Sheet.

 

Passage One

 

Ten years ago, when environmental lawyer Kassie Siegel went in search of an animal to save the world, the polar bear wasn't at all an obvious choice. Siegel and Brendan Cummings of the Center for Biological Diversity in Joshua Tree, Calif., were looking for a species whose habitat was disappearing due to climate change, which could serve as a symbol of the dangers of global warming. Her first candidate met the scientific criteria-it lived in ice caves in Alaska's Glacier Bay, which were melting away-but unfortunately it was a spider. You can't sell a lot of T-shirts with pictures of an animal most people would happily step on.

 

Next, Siegel turned to the Kittlitz's murrelet, a small Arctic seabird whose nesting sites in glaciers were disappearing. In 2001, she petitioned the Department of the Interior to add it to the Endangered Species list, but Interior Secretary Gale Norton turned her down. Elkhorn and staghorn coral, which are threatened by rising water temperatures in the Caribbean, did make it onto the list, but as iconic species they fell short insofar as many people don't realize they're alive in the first place. The polar bear, by contrast, is vehemently alive and comes the undeniable charisma of a top predator. And its dependence on ice was intuitively obvious; it lives on it most of the year. But it took until 2004 for researchers to demonstrate that shrinking sea ice was a serious threat to the bears'population. On Feb. 16, 2005-the day the Kyoto Protocol to curb greenhouse gas emissions took effect, without the participation of the United States-Siegel petitioned to list polar bears as endangered. Three years later her efforts met with equivocal(不明确的)success,as Interior Sec-retary Dirk Kempthome designated the bears as "threatened" (not endangered), a significant con-cession from an administration that has stood almost alone in the world in its reluctance to acknowl-edge the dangers of climate change. The Endangered Species Act (ESA), whose odd lists of snails and bladderworts sometimes seemed stuck in the age of Darwin, had been thrust into the main-stream of 21 st-century environmental politics. Break out the T-shirts!

 

21. Siegel and Cummings hoped to choose an animal to     .

A. call on people to take actions against global warming

B. make people aware of the danger of environmental damage

C. introduce to people a new concept of environmental protection

D. remind people of the importance of protecting endangered species

 

22. The problem with elkhorn and staghorn corals lies in that      .

A. they were not much-liked by many people

B. they were not well-known enough to be an icon

C. they were not considered animals by many people

D. they were not added to the list of Endangered Species

 

23. It can be learnt that the polar bear     .

A. was first considered by Siegel to be the iconic animal in 1998

B. was first proposed by Siegel to be the endangered species in 2004

C. was not qualified scientifically as the endangered species until 2005

D. was not officially under the government protection until 2008

 

24. Which of the following is chosen by Siegel as the symbolic animal?

B. The polar bear in the North Pole.

A. The murrelet nesting in glaciers.

D. Staghorn corals in the Caribbean.

C. The spider in Alaska's Glacier Bay.

 

25. The passage is focused on     .

A. how the scientists tried to protect endangered species

B. how the symbolic endangered species has been chosen

C. the relation between global warming and endangered species

D. the problems in and the future of endangered species protection

 

详解:

 

Passage One

【内容概要】

本文讲述了Siegel希望选择一个标志性物种以唤醒人们对全球变暖这一问题的关注,后面具体介绍了选择这一物种的经过。

 

【参考译文】

 

十年前,环境法学家凯西·西格尔试图寻找一种能拆救世界的动物,当时北极熊并不是一个一下能想到的选择。西格尔和加州约苏亚树生物多样性中心的布伦丹·卡明斯,当时正在寻找一种由于气候变化使其栖息地逐渐消失的物种,这种物种能作为全球变暖危害的象征物。她的第一个入选对象是符合科学标准的,它居住在阿拉斯加冰川湾的冰洞里,这些冰洞正在融化,但不幸的是,这种动物是如妹。如果T恤衫上印着大部分人都喜欢踩踏的蜘蛛,这种T恤衫是不会畅销的。

 

接下来,西格尔把目光转向小嘴班海雀,一种北极小海鸭,它们正在冰川的巢穴渐渐消失。2001,她请求内政部把这种海鸟加入炭危物种名单,但是内政部部长盖尔·诺顿拒绝了她。小鹿角现珊和牘角珊珊在加勒比海被不断升高的水温所威胁,这的确让它上了名单,但它们作为标志性物种是不合格的,因为很多人首先认为它们不是活着的动物。然而,精力旺盛的北极熊具有顶级食肉动物不可否认的魅力。并且它对冰川的依靠是非常明显的;它一年中大部分时间住在冰面上。但是直到2004年研究者才证明了不断缩小的海上浮冰是对北极熊数量的严重威胁。2005216日阻止温室气体排放的京都议定书生效,但美国并没有参与。西格尔中请把北极熊列入名单。三年后她的努力取得了非完全意义上的成功,因为内政部部长德克·肯普索恩把北极熊划定为“受成胁物种”而不是“瀬危物种”,这已经是一个显著的让步,因为美国当局是世界上唯一一个不愿承认气候变化的危险的当為。美国濒危物种法似手作留在达东文时代,列举了如蜗牛和狸藻类植物这样的物种,因此应把它投入到主流的坏境政治学当中。打破那些陈腐的东西吧!

 

【精解精析】

 

21.A。细节题。第一段第二句说“Siegel and Brendan Cummings of the Center for Biological Di-versity in Joshua Tree, Calif., were looking for a species whose habitat was disappearing due to climate change, which could serve as a symbol of the dangers of global warming."Siegel正在寻找一个由于气候变化而逐渐消失的物种,希望用它作为警示全球变暖

危害的象征物。这样做的目的是号召人们与全球变暖作斗争。故选A

 

22C。细节题。第二段第三句说“Elkhorn and staghorn coral,which are threatened by rising wa-ter temperatures in the Caribbean, did make it onto the list, but as iconic species they fell short in so far as many people don't realize they're alive in the first place,“小鹿角珈珊和廉角珊瑚成功地被列入了滴危物种名单,但作为标志性物种还有欠缺,因为很多人并没

有意识到理珊是活的动物。故选C

 

23.D。推断题。第二段第七、八句说2005Siegel申请将北极熊列为炭危物种名单,三年后美国内政部长宣布北极熊为“受威胁物种”。这算得上一个成功,但还不是完全意义上的成功,因为炭危物种比“受威胁物种”的等级更高。故选D

 

24.B。判断题。第二段第二句说Siegel申请将Kittlitz's murrelet列入炭危物种名单,但却遭到美国内政部长的拒绝。所以A不对。第一段最后两句说蜘蛛满足科学的瀬危标准,但是如果T恤衫上印着大部分人都喜欢踩踏的螓蛛,估计这种T恤也不会热卖,起不到宜传的作用、所以C不对。根据第二段第三句所说,可知D也不对。故选B

 

25.B。主旨大意题。本文介绍了Siegel选择警示全球变暖危害的象征动物的过程。故选B

 

【高频词汇】

 

candidate n.候选人,候补者;应试者

habitat n.[生态]栖息地,产地

species n.[生物]物种;种类

contrast n.对比;差别;对照物

demonstrate v.证明;展示;论证

concession n.让步;特许();承认;退位

 

【难句解析】

1. Siegel and Brendan Cummings of the Center for Biological Diversity in Joshua Tree, Ca-lif., were looking for a species whose habitat was disappearing due to climate change, which could serve as a symbol of the dangers of global warming.

 

这是一个复合句,其中Siegel and Brendan Cummings of the Center for Biological Diversity in Joshua Tree, Calif., were looking for a species 是主句,后跟由 whose which 引导的两个定语从句。due to 是“因为,由于”的意思,serve as 是“担任………,充当……”的意思。句意为:西格尔和加州约苏亚树生物多样性中心的布伦丹·卡明斯当时正在寻找一种由于气候变化使其栖息地逐渐消失的物种,这种物种能作为全球变暖危害的象征物。

 

2. Three years later her efforts met with equivocal success, as Interior Secretary Dirk Kempthorne designated the bears as "threatened"(not endangered), a significant concession from an administration that has stood almost alone in the world in its reluctance to acknowledge the dangers of climate change.

 

这是一个复合句,其中有as引导的原因状语从句和that引导的定语从句。designate as的意思是“把……称为”。reluctance的意思是“不情愿”。这个句子句意为:三年后她的努力有了还非完全意义上的成功,因为内政部部长德克·肯普索恩把北极熊定义为“受威胁物种”而不是“瀬危物种”,这已经是一个显著的让步,因为美国当局是世界上唯一一个不愿承认气候变化危险的当局。

 

Passage Two

 

More American mothers than ever are working, and more workers are mothers. Yet their march into the world of paid work continues to cause suspicion. One recent survey found that 48percent of Americans believe that preschoolers suffer if their mothers work, while another found that 42 percent of employed parents think that working mothers care more about succeeding at work than meeting their children's needs.

 

The kids are all right. Studies conducted by the University of Michigan have consistently demonstrated that a child's social or academic competence does not depend on whether a mother is employed. In my research four out of five children told me that having a working mother was their preferred arrangement. My study found that children with working mothers are no more likely to drop out, take drugs, break the law, or experiment with sex prematurely than children with non-employed mothers. Children have taken their mothers'example to heart. Ninety percent of the young women I interviewed said they hoped to combine work with motherhood, while two-thirds of the men said they wanted to share parenting and work.

 

Sadly, children support working mothers more than we do as a society. Parental leave and child-care benefits in the United States remain inadequate, particularly when compared to what's offered in other countries. Children thrive when their mothers have satisfying, well-paid jobs when they can count on other caretakers to share the load. The challenge facing us is thus not whether good workers can also be good mothers, but whether we can create the conditions that enable working mothers and fathers to be good parents.

 

26. From the first paragraph, we can see that    .

A. now more American mothers are working than any time in American history and anywhere else in the world

B. more than half Americans think that before going to school, children need their mothers' whole-hearted care

C. a majority of Americans believe that once working outside home mothers think of their own work more than their children

D. more American mothers work than ever before, but this problem of working mothers has not been solved satisfactorily

 

27. From the passage, we can not find the proof of the fact that     .

A. mothers do their household work today just as well as they did before

B. with their mothers working, children are better off

C. lack of mothers' care, children like to go astray

D. in single-parent families, most children like their mothers to go out working

 

28. In the last paragraph, "Parental leave and child-care benefits in the United States remain inadequate" actually refers to     .

A. parents should not leave and pay more care to their children

B. parental leave and child care is contradicted

C. children have inadequate care from their parents

D. in the United States, parents enjoy inadequate child-care leave and allowance

 

29. What do the Americans need in solving the problem of working mothers?

A. They need the support of males.

B. They need the understanding of other members of their families.

C. They need young people to be well-prepared to work both in and outside their homes.

D. They need especially the powerful support, of the society for working mothers.

 

30. What is the main idea of the passage?

A. We should let mothers work without worries.

B. It is better for mothers to stay at home.

C. We should work hard, especially mothers.

D. Like mothers, like children.

 

详解:

 

【内容概要】

本文谈到现在在美国,母亲参加工作的情况比以往任何时候都多,社会各方对此反应都不错。但最大的问题是,社会作为一个整体却没有尽到责任,它没有为工作中的母亲们创造更好的条件。

 

【参考译文】

 

更多的母亲参加了工作,工作中母亲数量也增多了。然而她们迈进有偿劳动的世界仍在引起怀疑。一份近期的调查发现,48%的美国人认为学龄前儿童会受苦,如果她们母亲工作的话。而42%的受雇佣的父母认为,工作中的母亲比起满足孩子们的需求而言,她们更关心工作中的成功。

 

孩子是没有问题的。由密歌根大学做的研究证明,一个孩子的社会或学术能力不取决于孩子母亲是否工作。在我的研究当中,五分之四的孩子们告诉我,拥有一个工作的母亲是他们喜爱的。我的研究发现,母亲工作的孩子和母亲不工作的孩子相比,转学、吸毒、违法和过早性行为的可能性相同。孩子们会以他们的母亲为榜样。我采访的90%的年轻女性们说她们希望把工作和照顾孩子结合起来,而三分之二的男士说他们想分担照顾孩子和工作。

 

令人难过的是,孩子们比社会更支持母亲工作。育婴假和育儿津贴在美国是不足的,尤其在与其他国家相比较时。当孩子们的母亲有令人满意和较好收入的工作,并且有其他监护人分担育儿负担的时候,孩子们会健康成长。我们面对的挑战不是好员工是否也能成为好母亲,而是我们是否能创造条件使工作中的父母成为好父母。

 

【精解精析】

 

26.D。归纳题。文章第一段说,现在美国有更多的母亲在工作,但是对于她们参加工作的问题各方说法仍然不一。故选D

 

27.C。细节题。第二段说“My study found that children with working mothers are no more likely to drop out, take drugs, break the law, or experiment with sex prematurely than children with non-employed mothers.”根据他自己的研究,青少年转学、吸毒以及违反法律等情况的发生率,在母亲外出工作的家庭中与母亲不外出工作的家庭中相同。故选C

 

28.D。推断题。parental leave 指的是育婴假,child-care benefits 则指的是育儿津贴,原文中这句的意思是说美国的父母们享受的育婴假和津贴都比其他国家少。故选D

 

29.D。推断题。文章表明,儿童、父亲以及将来要为人父母的青年男女都支持母亲出去工作,将来他们自己也应准备这样做,唯一缺少的就是社会的支持。故选D

 

30.A。主旨大意题。文章最后一段提到美国社会对工作的母亲支持不够的问题。最后一句说"The challenge facing us is thus not whether good workers can also be good mothers,but whether we can create the conditions that enable working mothers and fathers to be good parents.”意为,我们现在面临的挑战不是好的工作人员能否成为好母亲的问题,而是我们能否创造条件使工作的父母成为好父母的问题。故选A

 

【高频词汇】

 

suspicion n.怀疑;嫌疑;疑心

conduct v.管理;引导;表现

consistently adv.一贯地;一致地;坚实地

demonstrate v.证明;展示;论证

thrive v.繁荣,兴旺;苗壮成长

inadequate adj.不充分的,不适当的

 

【难句解析】

1. Studies conducted by the University of Michigan have consistently demonstrated that a child's social or academic competence does not depend on whether a mother is employed.

 

这个句子结构是:主语后跟过去分词短语作定语(conducted by the University of Michigan),demonstrated后跟that引导的宾语从句,depend on后跟whether引导的宾语从句。con-duct的意思是实施,”,academic competence的意思是学术能力。句意为:密歌根大学研究证明一个孩子的社会或学术能力不取决于孩子母亲是否工作。

 

2. The challenge facing us is thus not whether good workers can also be good mothers, but whether we can create the conditions that enable working mothers and fathers to be good parents.

 

这是一个复合句,句架是:The challenge facing us is...not whether...but whether...。句中whether 引导的是表语从句,that 引导的是定语从句,现在分词 facing us 跟在主语 The challenge后作定语。not...but...的意思是不是……而是……”。句意为:我们面对的挑战不是好员工是否也能成为好母亲,而是我们是否能创造条件使工作中的父母成为好的父母。

 

Passage Three

 

Job sharing refers to the situation in which two people divide the responsibility of one full-time job. The two people willingly act as part-time workers, enough hours between them to fulfill the duties of a full-time worker. If they each work half the job, for example, they each receive 50 per-cent of the job's wages, its holidays and its other benefits. Of course, some job sharers take a smaller or larger share of the responsibilities of the position, receiving a less or greater share of the benefits.

 

Job sharing differs from conventional part-time work in that it occurs mainly in the more highly skilled and professional areas, which requires higher levels of responsibility and employee commitment.Job sharing should not be confused with the term work sharing, which refers to increasing the number of jobs by reducing the number of hours of each existing job, thus offering more positions to the growing number of unemployed people. Job sharing, by contrast, is not designed to address unemployment problems; its focus, rather, is to provide well-paid work for skilled workers and professionals who want more free time for other activities.

 

As would be expected, women constitute the bulk of job sharers. A survey carded out in 1988by Britain's Equal Opportunities Commission revealed that 78 percent of sharers were female, the majority of whom were between 20 and 40 years of age. Subsequent studies have come up with similar results. Many of these women were re-entering the job market after having had children,but they chose not to seek part-time work because it would have meant lower status.

Job sharing also offered an acceptable shift back into full-time work after a long absence.

 

The necessity of close co-operations when sharing a job with another person makes the actual work quite different from conventional one-position jobs. However, to ensure a greater chance that the partnership will succeed, each person needs to know the strengths, weaknesses and preferences of his or her partner before applying for a position. Moreover, there must be a fair division of both routine tasks and interesting ones. In sum, for a position to be job-shared well, the two individuals must be well matched and must treat each other as equals.

 

31."Employee commitment"in Paragraph 2 refers to the employee's    .

C. experience

B. qualification

D. achievement

A. loyalty

 

32. Work sharing is different from job sharing in that    .

A. it requires more working hours

B. it depends on the employer's decision

C. it provides more work positions

D. it offers a more satisfactory salary

 

33. Job sharing is popular with young mothers mainly because     .

A. they can take care of both work and family

B. they are over ideal working ages

C. they seek equal opportunities with men

D. they have difficulty finding full-time jobs

 

34. According to the survey, the sharers women consist of     .

A.20%

B.40%

C.50%

D.78%

 

35. The main purpose of the passage is to     .

A. recommend job sharing to women

B. describe job sharing in general

C. criticize job sharing as inefficient

D. discuss a way to tackle unemployment

 

详解:

 

【内容概要】

 

一个职位两个人做,本文介绍了这种轮岗制工作。

 

【参考译文】

 

轮岗制指的是两人分担一个全职工作的情形。两人自愿充当兼职员工,有足够的时间去完成全职员工的责任。如果他们把工作对半分,他们每人能收到50%的薪水,假期和其他福利。当然有些工作承担者承担那个职位较少的或较多的责任,那么他收到的报酬要较少或较多些。轮岗制不同于传统的兼职工作因为它主要发生在更高技能和更专业化的领域,这要求高度的责任和个人忠诚度。

 

轮岗制不能和分推式工作相混消,分推式工作指的是通过减少现存工作的劳动时间来增加工作量,这样就为不断增长的失业人群提供更多的职位。然而轮岗制目的并不是解决失业问题,而是为想要更多自由时间和其他活动的高技能工作者和专业人士提供高薪工作。

 

正如预料的那样,妇女占据轮岗制的大多数。英国机会平等委员会的调查揭示78%的轮岗制工作者是女性,她们中大部分人年龄在2040岁之间。接下来的研究有相似的结果。很多这样的女性在生完孩子后再次工作,她们没有选择寻找兼职工作因为那意味着较低的地位。轮岗制也让那些长时间不工作的人们重新回到全职工作。

 

轮岗制需要与他人紧密配合,这点和传统的单人工作是不一样的。为了尽量确保合作成功,每个人在申请一个职位之前需要知道他同伴的长处、短处和喜好。并且,一定要在有趣工作和机械工作之间有一个公平的分配。总之,轮岗制工作需要两人很好的配合和公平的对待。

 

【精解精析】

 

31.A。推断题。由第二段上下文语意可知,轮岗制工作要求员工有高度责任感和个人忠诚度。loyalty意为忠诚”;qualification意为资格;条件”;experience意为经验”;achievement意为成就。故选A

 

32.C。推断题。job sharing 意为轮岗制,轮班制。轮岗制是两个人轮流做一份通常由一人做的工作。work sharing 意为分推式工作。由于失业率增加,为保证每个人都有工作而引进工作分推制这个想法。答案在第三段第一句“Job sharing should not be confused with the term work sharing,which refers to increasing the number of jobs by reducing the number of hours of each existing job, thus offering more positions to the growing number of unemployed people.”说工作分推可以创造更多的工作机会。故选C

 

33.A。细节题。第四段最后一句“Many of these women were re-entering the job market after having had children,but they chose not to seek part-time work because it would have meant lower status.”,说很多重新回到就业市场的女性都有了孩子。故选A

 

34.D。细节题。在第四段第二句“A survey carded out in 1988 by Britain's Equal Opportunities Commission revealed that 78 percent of sharers were female, the majority of whom were be-tween 20 and 40 years of age.”文中说78%的轮岗制工作者是女性。故选D

 

35.B。主旨大意题。本文的主要目的是描述轮岗制工作,故选B

 

【高频词汇】

 

responsibility n.责任,职责;义务

conventional adj.符合习俗的,传统的;常见的;惯例的

reveal v.显示;透露;揭露;泄露

constitute v.组成,构成;建立;任命

status n. 地位;状态;情形;重要身份

individual n.个人,个体

 

【难句解析】

 

1. Job sharing should not be confused with the term work sharing, which refers to increasing the number of jobs by reducing the number of hours of each existing job, thus offering more posi-tions to the growing number of unemployed people.

 

这是一个复合句,句架是:Job sharing should not be confused with the term work sharing...

which 引导的是定语从句。be confused with的意思是……混清。句意为:轮岗制不能和分摊式工作相混淆,分摊式工作指的是通过减少现存工作的劳动时间来增加工作量,这样就为不断增长的失业人群提供更多的职位。

2. As would be expected, women constitute the bulk of job sharers.

 

在这一句中,As指代“women constitute the bulk of job sharers"As would be expected 可以理解为正如预料的那样”,constitute的意思是组成,构成。句意为:正如预料的那样,妇女占据轮岗制的大多数。

 

Passage Four

 

There are over 6,000 different computer and online games in the world now. A segment of them are considered to be both educational and harmlessly entertaining. One such game teaches ge-ography, and another trains pilots. Others train the player in logical thinking and problem solving.

 

Some games may also help young people to become more computer literature, which is more im-portant in this technology-driven era.

 

But the dark side of the computer games has become more and more obvious."A segment of games features anti-social themes of violence, sex and crude language", says David Walsh, President of the National Institute on Media and Family. "Unfortunately, it's a segment that seems particularly popular with kids aged eight to fifteen."

 

One study showed that almost 80 percent of the computer and online games young people preferred contained violence. The investigators said "These are not just games anymore. These are learning machines. We're teaching kids in the most incredible manner what it's like to pull the trigger. What they are not learning are the real-life consequences."

 

They also said "The new and more sophisticated games are even worse, because they have better graphics and allow the player to participate in even more realistic violent acts."In the game Carmageddon, for example, the player will have driven over and killed up to 33,000 people by the time all levels are completed. A description of the outcome of the game says:"Your victims not only squish under your tires and splatter blood on the windshield, they also get on their knees and beg for mercy, or commit suicide. If you like, you can also dismember(肢解)them.”Is all this simulated violence harmful? Approximately 3,000 different studies have been conducted on this subject. Many have suggested that there is a connection between violence in games and increased aggressiveness in the players.

 

Some specialists downplay the influence of the games, saying that other factors must be taken into consideration, such as the possibility that kids who already have violent tendencies are choosing such games. But could it be that violent games still play a contributing role? It seems unrealistic to insist that people are not influenced by what they see. If that were true, why would the commercial world spend billions of dollars annually for television advertising?

 

36. Which of the following computer games is NOT mentioned as educational and harmlessly entertaining?

A. Those that help people learn more about computers.

B. Those that teach the features of the earth.

C. Those that provide special training for writers online.

D. Those that provide special training for pilots.

 

37. According to one study, most computer and online games     .

A. allow the players to take part in killing acts

B. teach the players to be antisocial

C. make the players forget the real life results

D. that young people like contain violence

 

38. Many studies have suggested that     .

A. more and more young people enjoy cruel computer games

B. violence in computer games makes their players more aggressive

C. there are now far more incidents of violence due to computer games

D. simulated violence in computer games is different from real violence

 

39. The author uses "television advertising" as an example to show that    

A. other factors must be considered as possible causes of violence in real life

B. computer and online games are not the only cause of increased violence in real life

C. the commercial world is contributing to the increased violence in real life

D. there is a close link between computer games and increased violence in real life

 

40. The best title for the passage could be    .

A. The Dark Side of Computer Games

B. Computer Games-Advantages and Disadvantages

C. The Development of Violent Computer Games

D. A Study on the Influence of Computer Games

 

详解:

 

【内容概要】

 

本文介绍了电脑游戏对青少年的负面影响。

 

【参考译文】

 

目前世界上有趣过6000种不同的电脑和网络游戏。人们认为它们中一部分既兼顾教育念义又具有一定的些乐功能。比如有的游戏可以教地理,有的游戏可以训练飞行员。还有的训练玩家的进辑思维能力和解决问题的能力。有些游戏也可以帮助年轻人了解电脑知识,这在技术版动的时代是非常重要的。

 

但是电脑游戏有害的一面也变得越来越明显。一位国家传媒和家庭研究所的校长大卫·沃尔什说:“一部分游戏有反社会主题的特色,如基力、色情和粗俗的语言。不车的是,这部分游戏在815岁的孩子们中非常的流行。

 

一项研究表明年轻人喜爱的电脑和网络游戏中80%包含暴力。调查者说:“它们不再是游戏了,而是学习机器。我们用难以置信的方式教孩子们如扣机这样的事。但孩子们却不知道这对现实生活会产生什么样的后果。

 

他们还说:“那些新颗而复杂的游戏更精租,因为它们有更好的图像,允许玩家参与更真实的暴力行动。例如,在游戏疫狂赛车手,玩家到打完所有级别时要限压和杀掉多达33000人。游戏的终极描述这样说:“受害者不仅在你的轮胎下被映压,在你的挡风玻璃上減上鲜血,还下骏求情或自杀。如果你喜欢,你还可以肢解他们。

 

所有这些模拟暴力的游戏是有害的吗?大约有3000个关于这个主题的不同的研究。很多都表明玩家的攻击性和游戏中的暴力是有联系的。

 

一些专家对游戏的影响轻描淡写,说其他因素要考虑进来,如有这个可能,就是一些孩子已经有暴力倾向才选择了这样的游戏。但暴力游戏不仍然起着推动作用吗?坚持认为人们不受他们所看到的影响是不现实的。如果不受影响的话,为什么商家每年花数十亿美元做电视广告呢?

 

【精解精析】

 

36.C。细节题。根据第一段可知,人们认为有一些电脑游戏既有教育意义又有一定的娱乐作用。有的电脑游戏教人们学地理,有的可以训练飞行员,有的可以训练人们的逻辑思维能力和解决问题的能力,有些游戏还可以帮助人们了解更多的计算机语言,这在我们这个技术驱动的时代是更加重要的。这里没有提到训练网上写作(special training for writers online)。故选C

 

37.D。细节题。第三段第一句“One study showed that almost 80 percent of the computer and on-line games young people preferred contained violence.”可知,一项研究表明青年人喜欢的电脑游戏和网上游戏中80%含有暴力的内容。故选D

 

38.B。推断题。第五段最后一句“Many have suggested that there is a connection between violence in games and increased aggressiveness in the players.”可知,许多研究表明游戏中的暴力与玩游戏的人的暴力倾向增强是有关系的。故选B

 

39.D。推断题。最后一段最后两句“It seems unrealistic to insist that people are not influenced by what they see. If that were true, why would the commercial world spend billions of dollars annually for television advertising?”可知,看来认为人们不受他们所看到的东西影响是不现实的。如果不受影响的话,为什么商家每年要花数十亿美元做电视广告呢?故选D

 

40.A。主旨题。全文主要介绍了电脑游戏的负面影响。根据第二段第一句“But the dark side of the computer games has become more and more obvious.”可知,电脑游戏的负面影响越来越明显了。该句为全文的主题句。故选A

 

【高频词汇】

 

segment n.;部分

feature v.特写;······为特色

theme n.主题;主旋律;题目

consequence n.结果;重要性;推论

sophisticated adj.复杂的;富有经验的

squish v.压扁;………挤扁

annually adv.每年;一年一次

 

【难句解析】

 

1. A segment of them are considered to be both educational and harmlessly entertaining.

 

这是一个简单句,sb./sth.be considered to be的句型意思是某事或某人被认为……”

entertaining 意为娱乐的。句意为:它们中一部分被认为是兼顾教育意义和一定的娱乐作用。

 

2. Many have suggested that there is a connection between violence in games and increased aggressiveness in the players.

 

这是一个复合句,suggested后跟了一个宾语从句。suggest在这里意思是表明”,aggressiveness 指的是攻击性。句意为:很多研究都表明玩家的攻击性和游戏中的暴力是有联系的。

 

Section B

 

Directions:In this section, you are required to read one quoted blog and the comments on it. The blog and comments are followed by questions or unfinished statements, each with four suggested answers ABC and D. Choose the best answer and mark your answer on the Answer Sheet.

 

In 2011, green homes made up roughly 17 percent of the market and is expected to reach two out of five homes by 2016, according to the report.

 

The biggest attribute to a green home is energy efficiency, of course. Ninety percent of home-owners surveyed said energy efficiency is important because of personal values, and because of lower energy bills. Other eco-friendly factors include indoor air quality, material durability, use of post-consumer materials and sustainability-focused waste management practices.

 

Another big incentive for consumers is the fact that mortgage lenders and regional programs offer discount interest rates for green homes.

 

Regardless of the incentive, consumers should also inquire about the materials that they will be using to build their home, especially the foundation. A home built with concrete blocks, for exam-ple, does not suffer from the same number of insect infestations as wood construction homes.Don't just call an exterminator. Call an expert-866-953-0103. $50 off Orkin? Pest Con-trol. Schedule Your Free Estimate Today!

 

Comment 1:

Great ideas, many people are working now to make the world more green.

 

Comment 2:

The demands for green homes and the market of 17 percent must be increased and there must be insects and infections cured for wooden constructions.

 

Comment 3:

The concept is nice but I think, technology has changed a lot in today's modern world but some of the techniques of construction will remain same as it was in 1800s. More ideas should be introduced in construction to offer environment friendly homes.

 

Comment 4:

The idea of investing a house that makes you save money is not bad. It's a long-time investment and I've been thinking for a while to make some changes. Could you for instance tell me how low the energy bills get? 20% or 50% ? The thing with concrete blocks is that during summertime it gets really hot and there's no air. I would go anytime for wood instead of concrete. And the bugs problem, well you solve it once and you solve it for good! As far as I can see, the green homes trend is expanding quickly! I have started to get sick of all the skyscrapers!

 

Comment 5:

All homeowners can be proud that wood is a renewable and green product.

 

41. What is the theme of the blog quoted?

A. How to choose material for green homes.

B. The demand for green homes is on the rise.

C. Green homes and personal values.

D. Long term development starts from housing.

 

42. The personal values (Para. 2) may refer to     .

A. the pursuit of wealth

B. the idea of trying new

C. rejection to the modern technology

D. the consciousness of continual development

 

43. When people choose green homes, which of the following doesn't belong to his or her first consideration?

B. Bill paid for energy consumption.

A. Energy saving.

C. The lowered interest rates offered.

D. The material usability.

 

44. From comment 2 to comment 4, we learn people show concerns over    .

A. the techniques of renewing waste

B. the choice of different construction materials

C. the energy bills

D. the popularity of green homes

 

45. All of the commentators 'attitude towards green homes can be summarized as being     .

A. supportive

B. negative

C. objective

D. doubtful

 

详解:

 

【内容概要】

 

这篇博客介绍了消费者青睡环保房屋的原因。首先是节能,其次是在政策扶持下,提供抵押贷款的机构会为环保房屋购买者提供低息贷款。最后作者提醒置业者要注意房屋材料的选购。评论博客的网友们阐述了各自对环保房屋的态度并提供了一些挑选建材方面的建议。

 

【参考译文】

 

据报道:2011,环保房占据了大约17%的市场份额,并且预计到2016年能达到40%

 

当然,环保房的最大特点是节能。90%的被调查的房主说节能是重要的,因为个人价值观和更低的能源支出。其他的环保因素包括室内空气质量、材料耐用性、用过的材料的使用和可持续废料管理的应用。

 

消费者的另外一个动机是房贷借款人和地区项目给环保房提供利率优惠。

 

除了这个动机,消费者还应该问明他们应该建造房屋的材料,尤其是地基。例如,使用混凝土不会像木结构的那样遭受虫害。

 

不用打电话给专业消灭害虫者。拨打866-953-0103,联系专家吧。你还需要优惠了50美金的Orkin来做害虫防治吗?现在安排好你省下的预算吧。

 

评论1:

好主意,许多人正努力让世界变得更环保。

 

评论2:

环保房的需求和17%的市场占有率一定会被提高。一定会有木结构房屋虫害的防治方法。

 

评论3:

这个概念是好的,然而我认为当今的世界技术改变了太多,但是一些建筑技术应该保持和19世纪一样。更多在建筑方面的想法应该被引进去提供更环保的房子。

 

评论4:

投资房子的想法让你省钱这不坏。这是一个长期的投资,并且我正想做些改变。你能告诉我能源账单能省多少吗?20%还是50%?混凝土材料夏天热而且还不通风。无论什么时候我还是喜欢木材料而不是混凝土。虫子问题你想解决它还是可以解决的!就我看到的而言,环保房趋势正在飞速发展!我已经开始厌倦摩天大楼了!

 

评论5:

所有房主都会为木结构可更新和环保产品而感到骄傲的。

 

【精解精析】

 

41.B。推断题。博文第一段讲的就是环保房屋的销售呈上升趋势。据报道,2011年环保房屋市场占有率为17%而预计到2016年会更多。在第二段作者分析了这一现象背后的两大原因。尽管文章提到了建筑材料的使用,但那仅是提醒消费者水泥地基更牢固,所以A不能选。原文没有提到人们的购买动机,故不能选C。也没有论述开发绿色房屋的长远意义,所以选项D也要排除。故选B

 

42.D。推断题。根据personal values所在的句子可知,作者认为由于个人价值观的原因大家认为节能是很重要的,所以个人价值观就有可能包含可持续发展的意思。其他3个选项都与energy efficiency没有逻辑上的因果关系。故选D

 

43.D。细节题。根据第二、三段的内容,可知选项A“节能、选项B“能源消耗账单和选项C“低息贷款都是人们在选购环保房屋时要优先考虑的,故选D

 

44.B。推断题。根据评论2和评论4,可知他们讨论的都是建筑材料耐用性的问题。评论2提醒大家木结构房屋的害虫防治。评论4说网友还是坚持木质地基而不是混凝土。故选B

 

45.A。观点概括题。从五条评论看,网友们都对环保房屋表示支持。唯一有争议的是地基的选材,是选择木质还是混凝土的地基,但也够不上质疑,只是个人选择不同而已。所以排除选项D。故选A

 

【高频词汇】

 

roughly adv. 粗精地;概略地

incentive n.动机;刺激

discount n.折扣;贴现率

inquire v.询问;查究;问明

infestation n.感染;侵扰

 

【难句解析】

 

The biggest attribute to a green home is energy efficiency, of course.

 

这个句子是简单句,句子主干是主++表结构。attribute的意思是属性,特质”,efficiency的意思是效率,效能。句意为:当然,环保房的最大特点是节能。

 

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