雅思13阅读 Test 4 Reading 3 试题讲解
27、定位词：the reviewer's attitude,advocates of positive psychology
分析:本题考查评论者对积极心理学倡导者的态度,原文第一段首先引出积极心理学及其主要观点,第二段开头开始进行评论性质的描述:an astonishingly crude and simple-minded way of thinking,之后进行了进一步解释:oblivious to the vast philosophical literature in which the meaning and value of happiness have been explored and questioned, and write as if nothing of any importance had been thought on the subject until it came to their attention,可以看出评论者对积极心理学的倡导者们忽略之前人们的讨论和研究的做法是不满意的,而在后文中也能找到类似的表述:without knowing anything much of him or the school of moral theory he established,D选项的含义与之一致,因此本题答案为D。
分析:文中第二段提到Bentham的观点:For Bentham it was obvious that the human good consists of pleasure and the absence of pain,之后提到亚里士多德:may have identified happiness with self-realisation in the4th century BC,并指出这一时代的思想家们似乎在努力处理好对幸福的追求与其他人类价值之间的关系,而这些对Bentham而言只是形而上的或虚构的东西,可见亚里士多德对幸福的定义和思考与Bentham不同,选项中A的表达与此一致,因此本题答案为A。
29、定位：linking the price of goods to happiness
分析:文章第四段中提到了将商品价格与幸福进行联系的观点:money could be used as the standard for quantification,之后Davies对Bentham 这一主张的评价是:set the stage for the entangling of psychological research and capitalism that would shape the business practices of the twentieth century,而B选项it established a connection between work and psychology与这一观点一致,因此本题答案为B。
稳重对应点在第三段第五句:In the 1790s, he wrote to the Home Office suggesting that the departments of government be linked together through a set of 'conversation tubes',and to the Bank of England with a design for a printing device that could produce unforgeable banknotes.
解析：题目中首句说到Bentham在哲学之外的领域也非常活跃,这一表达在原文中第三段出现,并具体讨论了Bentham提出的建议。题目问到在1790s,为不同政府部门建议的type of technology对应本段第五句,这里提到的a set of 'conversation tubes'是为了促进不同部门间的交流,本题答案为F。
文中对应点在第三段第五句:In the 1790s, he wrote to the Home Office suggesting that the departments of government be linked together through a set of 'conversation tubes',and to the Bank of England with a design for a printing device that could produce unforgeable banknotes.
解析：题目中说到 He developed a new way of printing banknotes,这一表达同样出现在第三段第五句,原文中说到adesign for a printing devices that could produce unforgeable banknotes,可见这一做法的目的是为了让纸币无法被伪造,从而提高其安全性,选项中security与原文含义一致,本题答案为B。
文中对应点在第三段第六句:He drew up plans for a 'frigidarium'to keep provisions such as meat,fish, fruit and vegetables fresh.
解析：本题问到关于food方面的做法,原文中第三段第六句中提到了provisions such as meat, fish, fruit and vegetables,这部分与food 含义一致,而Bentham希望让它们keep fresh,选项中的preservation与原文含义一致,本题答案为G。
文中对应点在第三段第七句:His celebrated design for a prison to be known as a Panopticon', in which prisoners would be kept in solitary confinement while being visible at all times to the guards, was very nearly adopted.
解析：本题问到与prison有关的内容,原文中第三段第七句说到prisoners would be kept in solitary confinement while being visible at all times to the guards,也就是说守卫可以随时看到犯人的情况,因此这与对犯人的observation有关,本题答案为E。
34、定位词：researching happiness，suggested some methods
文中对应点在第四段第一、二句:Bentham was also a pioneer of the 'science of happiness'. If happiness is to be regarded as a science, it has to be measured, and Bentham suggested two ways in which this might be done.
35、One strength of The happiness Industry is its discussion of the relationship between psychology and economics.
定位词：The happiness industry
解题关键点：discussion of the relationship between psychology and economics
文中对应点在第五段第一、二句:The Happiness Industry describes how the project of a science of happiness has become integral to capitalism. We learn much that is interesting about how economic problems are being redefined and treated as psychological maladies.
解析：第五段首句出现了《幸福产业》这本书,并说明本书写到了how the project of a science of happiness has become integral to capitalism,并在第二句说明用心理学的方式定义和解决经济学问题是本书的特点,题目表述与原文一致,因此本题答案为YES。
36、It is more difficult to measure some emotions than others.
定位词：to measure some emotions than others
文中对应点在第五段第三、四、五句:In addition,Davies shows how the belief that inner states of pleasure and displeasure can be objectively measured has informed management studies and advertising. The tendency of thinkers...was that human beings could be shaped, or manipulated, by policymakers and managers. Watson had no factual basis for his view of human action.
解析：本题的表达中含有比较关系,因此需要在文中对应位置判断是否将some emotions和others进行了对比。37题考查华生的行为主义,并且有定位词1915,结合上一题的位置,可以判断本题位于第五段第三至五句,在这一部分表述中,并没有提到一些情绪比另一些情绪更难测量,因此本题答案为NOT GIVEN。
37、Watson's Ideas on behaviourism were supported by research on humans he carried out before 1915.
定位词：Watson's ideas on behaviourism, 1915
解题关键点：supported by research on humans
文中对应点在第五段第六句:When he became president of the American Psychological Association in1915, he 'had never even studied a single human being': his research had been confined to experiments on white rats.
解析：定位词1915出现在第五段第六句,关于华生,句中说到had never even studied a single human being,并且 his research had been confined to experiments on while rats,说明华生的研究并不是针对人类的,而题目中supported by research on humans的表述与之相反,因此本题答案为NO。
38、Watson's ideas have been most influential on governments outside America.
解题关键点：most influential on governments outside America
文中对应点在第五段第七句:Yet Watson's reductive model is now widely applied, with 'behaviour change' becoming the goal of governments: in Britain, a "Behaviour Insights Team' has been established by the government to study how people can be encouraged, at minimum cost to the public purse, to live in what are considered to be socially desirable ways.
解析：关于华生研究的影响力,文中第五段第七句中说到now widely applied,并且行为改变也成了goal of governments,之后举了英国的例子,说明华生的理论是如何应用的,但是并没有描述题目中所说的most influential,英国的例子也无法完全代表题目中的governments outside America,因此本题答案为NOT GIVEN。
39、The need for happiness is linked to industrialisation.
定位词：The need for happiness
解题关键点：linked to industrialisation
文中对应点在第六段第一句:Modern industrial societies appear to need the possibility of ever-increasing happiness to motivate them in their labours.
解析：本句提到的modern industrial societies 和need the possibility of ever-increasing happiness与题目中的industrialisation和the need for happiness对应,题目表述与原文一致,因此本题答案为YES。
40. A main aim of government should be to increase the happiness of the population.
定位词：a main aim of government
解题关键点：to increase the happiness of the population
文中对应点在第六段第二句:But whatever its intellectual pedigree, the idea that governments should be responsible for promoting happiness is always a threat to human freedom.