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新概念英语第四册Lesson13课文、翻译、解释及语法

2020-10-15

新概念英语第四册Lesson13讲解

 

The search for oil 探寻石油

 

The deepest holes of all are made for oil , and they go down to as much as 25 , 000 feet . But we do not need to send men down to get the oil out , as we must with other mineral deposits . The holes are only borings , less than a foot in diameter. My particular experience is largely in oil, and the search for oil has done more to improve deep drilling than any other mining activity. When it has been decided where we are going to drill, we put up at the surface an oil derrick . It has to be tall because it is like a giant block and tackle , and we have to lower into the ground and haul out of the ground great lengths of drill pipe which are rotated by an engine at the top and are fitted with a cutting bit at the bottom.

 

The geologist needs to know what rocks the drill has reached, so every so often a sample is obtained with a coring bit . It cuts a clean cylinder of rock , from which can be seen the strata the drill has been cutting to through . Once we get down to the oil , it usually flows to the surface because great pressure , either from gas or water , is pushing it . This pressure must be under control , and we control it by means of the mud which we circulate down the drill pipe . We endeavour to avoid the old , romantic idea of a gusher , which wastes oil and gas . We want it to stay down the hole until we can lead it off in a controlled manner .

 

参考译文

 

在所有洞穴中,为寻找石油所钻的洞是最深的,这些洞可深达25,000英尺。但是,我们不必像开采其他矿藏那样,把人送到地下去把石油取出。这些洞只不过是一些钻孔,直径不到1英尺。我是专门搞石油的,寻找石油比其他任何采矿业对改进深孔钻探作的贡献都要大。当确定钻孔地点后,我们就在那里竖起一个井架。井架必须很高,因为它像一个巨型滑轮组。我们必须把很长的钻杆一节节地钻入地下,然后再从地下拉出来。钻杆顶部安装的发动机带动钻杆旋转,它的底部装有钻头。

 

地质学家需要知道钻头已经到达什么样的岩层,因此时常要用取芯钻头取样。这种钻头能切割一段光滑的圆柱形岩石,从中能看出钻头所钻透的地层。一旦到达油层,石油就会由于地下巨大的压力流到地面上来,这种巨大的压力来自地下天然气或水。这种压力必须加以控制,我们让泥浆顺着钻杆向下循环,用这种方法来控制压力。我们尽量避免使用陈旧天真的喷井方法,那样会浪费石油和天然气。我们要让石油留在井下,直到我们能用一种有控制的方法把它引上来为止。

 

课文详注 Further notes on the text

 

1. The deepest holes of all are made for oil, and they go down to as much as 25,000 feet.

The deepest holes of all中,代词all指代all holes。在they go down to as much as ...中,代词 they 指代前面所述 the deepest holes。短语as much as在这里表示多达达到之意,就语义而言much相当于deep,即表达出as deep as之意。

 

2....as we must with other mineral deposits.

这里的连词as引导出一方式状语从句,表示……那样

由于上下文语义明确和为了使文章简练,在must后省略了send men down。介词with在这里表示对于之意。整个从句表达出就像开采其他矿藏一样,必须派人下去

 

3....and the search for oil has done more to improve deep drilling than any other mining activity.

名词性短语the search for oil在句中作主语。这里has done more than...表示……做得更多之意,而动词不定式to improve deep drilling在这里作状语,修饰has done,意即在改进深井钻探方面。由于语义明确,这里在any other mining activity之后省略了has done

 

4. When it has been decided where we are going to drill, we put up at the surface an oil derrick

在本句When引导的时间状语从句中,代词it起到形式主语的作用,而名词性从句where...drill为逻辑主语。短语动词put up在这里表示竖起之意,表示与短语动词 set up 相同的语义。在表达上述意义时,这两个短语动词可以通用,而put up set up 更常见些。但不能用 put up 表示建立/成立(某一机构或团体),如:

They are determined to set up a complete modern industrial system.

他们决心建立一个完整的现代化工业体系。(不用put up)

The factory set up a night school last year.

这家工厂去年成立了一所夜校。(不用putup)

an oil derrickput up的宾语,而介词短语 at the surface(在地面上)为地点状语。这里将地点状语提前,起到对该地点状语强调的作用。

 

5. It has to be tall..., and we have to lower into the ground and haul out of the ground great lengths of drill pipe which are rotated by an engine at the top and are fitted with a cutting bit at the bottom.

这里的代词It指代an oil derrickgreat lengths of drill pipe在这里作动词lowerhaul的宾语。就正常的结构安排而言,其表达形式应为...we have to lower great lengths of drill pipe into the ground and haul them out of the ground,这里将其置于两个状语短语into the groundout of the ground之后,主要起到使句子结构更为紧凑简练和更利于同其后由which引导的定语从句进行连接的作用。介词短语at the topat the bottom at the top at the bottom of the drill pipe。在并列连词andare fitted with之间省略了关系代词which。这里be fitted with表示装配着之意。

 

6. The geologist needs..., so every so often a sample...

The geologist中的定冠词the在这里并非用来特指某一位geologist,而是用来泛指geologist这一类人。短语every so often作频率状语,表示时常之意,类似的频率状语还有:every now and againevery now and thenevery once in a whilenow and again等,如:

Every so often they go to the countryside.

他们常常下乡。

John comes to visit us every now and then

约翰时常来看望我们。

 

7...., from which can be seen the strata the drill has been cutting through.

本句为非限定性定语从句。本从句中使用了倒装语序结构,按正常语序为:from which the strata the drill has been cutting through can be seen。其中 the drill has been cutting through为定语从句,其前省略了关系代词that(which)。可以看出,这里由the strata和定语从句the drill has been cutting through构成的主语太长,使句子显得头重脚轻。为了避免这种情况,这里使用了倒装语序。

 

8. Once we get down to the oil, it usually flows to the surface because great pressure, either from gas or water, is pushing it Once一旦。连接词,引导一时间状语从句。get down to 达到。此为一个及物动词词组,to为介词,除表示本课课文中的意思外,更常用来表达认真对待致力于等含义,后接工作、任务、学习等名词或动名词,如:

Now let's get down to business.

现在让我们言归正传。

It's no good shirking the job; it will have to be got down推卸这份工作是没有用的,你得认真去干。

either from gas or water 作非限定性定语,置后修饰 pressure

 

9. This pressure must be under control, and we control it by means of the mud which we circulate down the drill pipe.

under control含被动意义,表示被控制住之意,作表语,通常与动词bebringkeep等词连用,如:

Keep your temper under control

忍住性子,别发火。

My son is no longer under my control.

我的儿子已不再服我的管教了。

本句中的it指代pressureBy means of……方式,靠……手段。which为关系代词,后置修饰mud,这里用来引导一个定语从句,在从句中起宾语作用。

 

10. We endeavour to avoid the old, romantic idea of a gusher,which wastes oil and gas.

endeavour to do sth.设法/尽力去做某事。正式用法,在动词endeavour后使用作宾语的动词不定式。本句中的介词of表示关于之意。这里的关系代词which用来引导一非限定性定语从句,后置修饰 the old,romantic idea

 

11. We want it to stay down the hole until we can lead it off in a controlled manner .

本句中所用的两个it均指oil。动词不定式to stay down the hole用作宾语补足语,其中down为介词。这里使用的lead...off表示……流出之意。

 

语法Grammar in use

 

情态助动词musthave to(have got to)need的用法就所表达的意义而言,musthave tohave got to3种形式一般可以互换使用。但在用于第1人称且指外在权力时,多使用have to have got to

 

如:

We have to /'ve got to send these VAT forms back before the end of the month.

在月底之前我们必须把增值税表送回。(即:法律要求我们这样做)

 

然而,当说话人认为自己有权做某事时,多使用must,如:I/We really must do something about the weeds in this garden.

/我们确实必须除去花园里的杂草了。(即:假如我/我们不去做,也不必对任何人说明原因)

 

用于其他人称时,must在表示不可推卸的责任方面,其迫切性和语气均比haveto要强

 

如:

You must phone home at once. It's urgent.

你必须立即给家里打电话。事情很紧急。

 

指单一动作时,have tohave got to可以互换使用

如:

I have to/have got to check the oil level in the car.

我必须检查汽车中的油量。

 

然而,指习惯性动作时,have tohave got to不一定都可以互换:可互换的情况

如:

I have to/have got to leave home every morning at 6.

我每天早上6点钟就得离开家。

 

可是,在同某些表示经常性的副词,如 alwayssometimes等连用时,have to have got to使用更多

如:

I often have to get up at 5. Do you ever have to get up at 5?

我经常得5点钟起床。你在5点钟起过床吗?

 

在表示难道你不能不做……吗?的意思时,一般要使用must you..?而不用do you have to...?have you got to...?形式

如:Must you always interrupt me when I'm speaking?

你难道总是非要打断我说的话才行吗?

 

也可以用must表示恳切的邀请

You really must come and see us sometime.

你什么时候务必来看看我们呀。

 

还可以将must用于表示强调劝告

You really must have a holiday this year.

你今年一定得休假。

 

然而,need只具有情态助动词的部分特征,一般仅在某些疑问句和否定句中使用。用于一般疑问句时,问者往往希望得到否定的答复

如:

Need you leave so soon?

你有必要这么早走吗?(=当然不必/希望不必)

 

need...?构成的一般疑问句,在其肯定回答中通常使用must,而在其否定回答中通常使用needn't,如:

(Need I type this letter again?这封信需要我再打一遍吗?

Yes,you must.是的,你必须再打一遍。

No,you needn't.不,你不必了。

 

对于由need+have+过去分词...?构成的表示有必要做(曾做过的)……吗?意义的一般疑问句,肯定回答中通常使用had to,而否定回答中通常使用needn't have

 

如:

Need you have told him about my plans?你有必要把我的计划告诉给他吗?

Yes, I had to是的,我必须这样做。(无可选择)

No,I needn't have.不,我不必这样做。(有可选择)

 

作为情态助动词的need还可以和否定副词(如hardly,never,seldom,rarely,scarcely等)连用,表示实际否定含义.

如;You need never know what he has just told me.你根本不必知道他刚才告诉我的话。

 

I need hardly tell you how badly I feel about her departure我不必对你说我对她的离去有多么难过。

 

此外,need还可用于否定主句后的从句中.

如:

I don't think you need leave yet.我认为你还不必走。

 

总之,作为情态助动词使用的need多用于否定结构,表示没有必要.

如:

I needn't go.我不必去。

 

除此之外,need to一般只作完全动词使用.

如:

I need to go to the dentist this morning.今天上午我需要去看牙。

She doesn't need to go to the dentist她不必去看牙。

Why did you need to go to the dentist ?你为什么要去看牙?

 

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