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考研英语长难句语法分析【2】-湛江雅托英语培训中心

2020-03-11

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四、形容说和副词(The Adjective and The Adverb)

形容词和翻词是英语语法的重要组成部分,考生在那容词和副词方面遇到的同题主要涉及下列内容;题:5)由形容词或副词与其他词所组成的固定结构

 

1 Bat his primary task is not to think about the moral code which governs his activity, any more than a businessman is expected to dedicate his energies to an exploration of rules of conduct in business.

 

【注】本题的难点是对下述句型的理解和翻译:not...,any more than...(=no more...than...)……一样都不……;不……,如同不……一样。注意这个句型常考。请看例2及注释

 

[译文]但是他的首要任务并不是考虑支配自己行动的道德规范,就如同不能指望商人专注于探索行业规范一样。

 

2 Mr. McWhorter's academic specialty is language history and change, and he sees the gradual disappearance of "whom", for example, to be natural and no more regrettable than the loss of the case-endings of Old English.

 

[注释]no more...than……一样都不……no more...than=not any more...thannot...any more than,例如:1)The progress he has made results hardly any more from his fancy than from the outside aid.(他所取得的进步几乎既不来自于他的幻想,也不来自于外界的援助。)本句中否定意义由hardly表示。2)There is no reason they should limit how much vitamin you take, any more than they can limit how much water you drink.(他们没有理由要限制你摄入维生素的量,同样他们也不能限制你的喝水量。)[1993年试题]3)The heart is no more intelligent than the stomach, for they are both controlled by the brain.(心脏和胃一样都没有智力,因为它们都是由大脑控制的。)

 

[译文]McWhorter先生的学术专业是语言历史和变迁;他认为,诸如“whom”一词的逐渐消失是自然的,与古英语格结尾的消失一样并没有什么可遗憾的。

 

3 He knows little of mathematics,and still less of chemistry.

 

[注释] still less意为更谈不上更谈不上……”常用的表达方式如下:much less,let alone,not to speak of , to say nothing of , not to mention .

 

[译文]他几乎不懂数学,更不用说化学了。

 

4 They may teach very well, and more than earn their salaries, but most of them make little or no independent reflections on human problems which involves moral judgment.

 

[注释]more than不仅仅:All the infants died before the first year.But clearly there was more than lack of language here.[1993年试题](所有的婴儿在一周岁以前都死了。但显然这里不仅仅是没有语言的问题。)make reflections on……进行思考、反省

 

[译文]他们可以教得很好,而且不仅仅是为了挣工资,但他们大多数人却很少或没有对需要进行道德判断的、人的问题进行独立的思考。

 

5 The problem of unemployment the governments want solved is as serious as ever in underdeveloped countries.

 

[注释]ever(=at any time before)(过去)任何时间。the governments want solved是定语从词省略。solved是过去分词作宾补。例如:I want the work finished by Saturday.(我希望这项工作在周六前结束。)

 

[译文]这些政府要解决的失业问题和不发达国家中任何时候遇到的失业问题同样严重。

 

6 Andrew,my father's younger brother,will not be at the picnic,much to the family's disappointment.

 

注释]much作副词,修饰介词短语,如:Much to my surprise,she forgot our meeting.(使我感到十分惊讶的是,她居然忘记了我们的会面。)

 

[译文]使我们全家感到失望的是,我父亲的弟弟安德鲁将不参加这次野餐会。

 

7 Help will come from the UN, but the aid will be nowhere near what's needed.

 

[注释]nowhere near(=certainly not,far from)是成语,意为……很远;远不是。例如:Fifty dollars is nowhere near enough.(50美元是远远不够的。)

 

[译文]援助将来自联合国,但是这次援助将远远不是所需要的物资。

 

8 Smoking is so harmful to personal health that it kills seven times more people each year than automobile accidents.

 

[注释]moremany的比较级形式,修饰peopleseven times是度量状语,来说明more的程度。

 

[译文]吸烟对人体健康非常有害,因此每年死于吸烟的人数比死于汽车交通事故的人数多七倍。

 

9 The solution works only for couples who are self-employed, don't have small children and get along well enough to spend most of their time together.

 

[注释]形容词或副词+enough+to do sth.是惯用搭配。

 

[译文]这个解决办法只对于个体户、没有小小孩并且相处融洽能在一起欢度时光的夫妇适用。

 

10 Greatly agitated,I rushed to the apartment and tried the door,only to find it locked.

 

[注释]only+动词不定式置于谓语动词后作结果状语用,表示与主语的主观愿望相反的客观结果,例如:1)He went to the seaside to swim only to be drowned.(他到海边去游泳,结果却被淹死了。)2) They do not have to pay for expensive seats at the theatre, the cinema, or the opera, only to discover,perhaps,that the show is disappointing.(他们没有必要花钱买昂贵的电影票、戏票和歌剧票,结果或许却发现演出的戏十分令人失望。)

 

[译文]我很激动,跑到公寓,想开门,但结果却发现门被锁上了。

 

11 In the long run, however, this hurry to shed full-time staff may be as harmful to industry as it is to the workforce.

 

[注释]as..as...与……一样……。such是形容词,不能作程度状语修饰其他形容词;除非形容词后有名词,则such和该形容词一起修饰该名词。

 

[译文]然而,从长远观点来看,这样匆忙打发掉全时工可能对行业和劳工都是有害的。

 

12 That so many advances have been made in such a short time is the most valid argument for retaining the research unit.

 

[注释]such a(an)+形容词+名词=so+形容词+a(an)+名词。此外,time作“一段时间”解,则为可数名词,故前由加不定冠词aanThat在本题中引导主语从句。

 

[译文]在这么短的时间内已取得如此巨大的成绩是保留这个研究单位的最有力的论据。

 

13 Federally funded training and free back-to-school programs for lait off workers are inder way, but few people believe they will succeed.

 

[注释]littlea little修饰不可数名词的单数形式,而fewa few修饰可数名词的复数形式。本句中第一分句是肯定句,but表示语气的转折文第二分句应为否定句。A littlea few表示肯定意义,而littlefew表示否定意义;又因people是可数名词复数,综上所述,本句中应该用fewlaid-off被解麻的;under way在进进行中。

 

[译文]在联邦政府资成下,为下岗工人举办的培训和免费复学计划正在实施之中,但是几乎没有什么人会认为,上述工作会取得成功。

 

14 John McLarena farmer in Victoria State in Australiatook pride in his horsewhich looked surprised under the sunlight.

 

[注释]look 作半系动词用,后接形容词作表语。类似的半系动词有 sound(听起来),taste(吃起来),smell(闻起来),feel(摸起来)。所有上述动词均可作半系动词用,后接形容词作表语,主动语态表被动意义。例如:1)The story sounds interesting.2)The dish tastes delicious.3)The meat smells sweet. 4) The stone feels hard. take pride in 以……自豪,如: He loved s son and took pride in him .

 

[译文]澳大利亚维多利亚州农民约翰·麦克莱伦为他的一匹马而感到自豪,因为这匹马在阳光下看上去生气勃勃。

 

15 They did not find it worthwhile to prepare for the worst conditions they might meet.

 

[注期]worth adj./prep.(值得),不能单独作表语,其后必须接名词或动名词,worthy adj.(值得,配释上),不能单独作表语,其后必须接of+名词或动名词,也可以接动词不定式,例如:1)Such an act is worthy of death . 2 ) The book is worthy of being read . 3 ) They are not worthy to be chosen,worthwhile adj.(值得于的,有价值的),例如:1)The visit to Paris is worthwhile.(作表语)2) She has a worthwhile job.(作定语)3) I wouldn't think it worthwhile to ask him to join the club.本句中it是形式宾语,worthwhile是宾语补足语,动词不定式短语作实际宾语

 

[]他们并不认为值得为可能遇到的最愿劳情况做准备。

 

16 I'm afraid the TV set which is imported from Japan may be far too expensive.

 

[注释]far作程度状语,常与too连用,意为过于一,例如,The room was small and contained far too much furniture.(这间房间太小,而里面的家具过于多。)all too“实在太”之意,但带有“碗惜”之意。例如:The holiday passed all too soon.(假期过得实在太快了。)又如:Such behaviour is regarded as "all too human", with the underlying assumption that other animals would not be capable of this finely developed sense of grievance.(这种行为被认为是“人之常情”,言下之意,动物或许不会有这种岔恨不平之感。)

 

[译文]恐怕这台从日本进口的电视机可能是过于贵了。

 

五、主语和谓语的一致关系(The Subject-Verb Agreement)

主语和谓语的一致,是指主语在人称和数方面与谓语动词的一致关系。下面以历届考研试题为例加以说明。

 

1 There are many valuable services which the public are willing to pay for, but which do not bring a return in money to the community.

 

[注释]两个which的先行词都是services,故第二个which的谓语应该用第三人称复数形式。注意如果There be句型后是若干个单数名词,则谓语可以用There is。例如:There is"the democratizing uniformity of dress and discourse, and the casualness and absence of deference" characteristic of popular culture.[2006年试题](美国的民主化使人们的衣着和谈吐风格趋于一致,人们漫不经心、不拘礼节,没有强制的顺从,这些都是大众文化的特点。)

 

[译文]有许多有价值的服务项目,公众也愿意支付其费用,但是这些项目没有给社区带来经济回报。

 

2 The amount of pressure which the materials are subject to affects the quality of the products.

 

[注释]本句中subject是形容词,后接介词to,其介词宾语是前面的which

 

[译文]这些材料所受到的压力的量影响产品的质量。

 

3 There ought to be less anxiety over the perceived risk of getting cancer than exists in the public mind today.

 

[注释]than引导比较状语从句,从句中省略the anxiety which

 

[译文]本应减少人们对患癌症的焦虑,可如今公众心目中这种焦虑却有过之而无不及。

4 Despite much research, there are still certain elements in the life circle of the insect that are not fully understood.

 

[注释]关系代词that的先行词是elements,故谓语应为are

 

[译文]尽管进行了大量的研究,在这种昆虫的生活周期中仍有某些因素还没有完全弄懂。

 

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