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大学英语四级篇章阅读理解

2020-02-24

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Lesson 3

 

攻克细节题

 

细节题主要考查考生对文章中某项事实内容的辨认、理解以及推理能力,提简章阅读中最常出现的一种题型。今天我们的任务就是熟悉和了解细节题考查方式和解题技巧。

 

题型揭秘

 

细节题大致可分为三类:第一类是细节辨认类,答案是原文中某处细节内容的再现或同义转述;第二类是细节归纳类,答案由原文中两处或两处以上的细节内容归纳总结得出;第三类是细节推理题,答案根据原文中的细节信息推理得出。

 

解答细节题时,主要应注意以下几点:

 

1.根据题干关键词语在原文中定位

根据题干和选项中的人名、地名、时间等关键词语先在原文中定位,然后再根据原文内容进行选择。

 

2.注意题目与原文的转换

在定位题目出处和选择答案时,要注意识别和理解题干和选项对原文内容的转述表达,这样才能快速而准确地定位信息点并选出答案。

 

3.过于绝对和明显不符合常理的选项慎选

含有模糊性的概括词语,如 some,sometimes,certain,someone,more..than,(not)as...as...,less,probably,possible等的选项为答案的可能性较大而含有绝对意义较强的词,如only,everything,all,none,must,never always,alone,everyone,entirely,absolute,any,no,completely等的选项为答案的可能性较小。

 

符合一般规律、意义深刻、富有哲理的选项为答案的可能性较大;而那种明显不符合大众思维、违背常理的选项为答案的可能性较小。

 

4.注意细微之处的干扰

细节题是针对文中的细节内容而设置的,因此干扰选项经常被设计成只在非常细微的地方与原文不同。在解答这类题目时,要将四个选项与原文一一进行仔细对照,识别细微差别,排除干扰项。

 

有些时候,选项本身与原文相符,但与题干要求并不相符,因此在解题时,一定要注意结合题干要求,不要受到其他细节的干扰。

 

Passage One

 

If you're training for a marathon, a proper plan for water intake is important. Of course, there's the risk of dehydration(脱水). But athletes now know they can also get into trouble by drinking too much. Too much water intake can lower levels of sodium(钠) in the blood. The death of a 28-year-old woman following the Boston Marathon caught the attention of many runners and led to new research.

 

Experts advise long distance runners to replace the liquids they sweat out. Their goal is to try to keep someone from getting dehydrated by more than 2 percent of their body weight.

 

One technique for deciding how much water you need is to get the exact numbers. Runners have to weigh themselves before and after a run to determine how much water they've lost. If their weight drops by more than 2 percent, they have not drunk enough water.

 

Hyponatremia occurs when runners drink so much water that blood salt levels drop off. A study published last year tested 488 runners who completed the Boston Marathon and found 13 percent of them had dangerously low blood salt levels. The first sign that runners may notice is slightly swelling in the hands. They can't get their rings off, and then they might feel sick. They may not remember where they are. In fact, most runners get enough salt to get back to normal levels by eating just one meal after a run. Contrary to the old advice that runners should drink as much as they can to prevent dehydration, the new research has shown that the body is a remarkable machine that actually tells you via thirst when you need water.

 

57. According to the passage, the 28-year-old woman in the Boston Marathon     

A) died of dehydration

B) died of hyponatremia

C) died because she had not weighed herself before running

D) die because she had not noticed the seriousness of her illness

 

58. By weighing themselves before and after a run, runners can know        

A) how much water they should intake

B) how much salt they have lost

C) what kind of water they should intake during a run

D) how much weight they have lost in a run

 

59. What could we conclude from the passage?

A) A rich meal before running ensures a good performance.

B) Drinking water is not a way to avoid hyponatremia.

C) Either too much or too little water intake is harmful

D) Taking enough salt during a run can avoid swelling in the body.

 

60. Which of the following is in accordance with the passage?

A) Many long distance runners have no idea of how much water they should take after a run.

B) For most runners, a meal after a run can supplement the salt they lost during a run.

C) The decrease of salt in runners' body will not make them become unconscious

D) Dehydration can elevate the blood salt levels.

 

61. The advice that runners should drink as much as they can to avoid dehydration.

A) is supported by scientific evidence

B) overlooks the truth that thirst can inform runners of how much water they need

C) does not pay attention to runners' individual physical condition

D) ignores the fact that too much water intake may lead to hyponatremia

 

Passage Two

 

Flying over a desert area in an airplane, two scientists looked down with trained eyes at trees and bushes. After an hour's flight one of the scientists wrote in his book"Look here for probable metal". Scientists in another airplane, flying over a mountain region, sent a message to other scientists on the ground, "Gold possible."Walking across hilly ground, four scientists reported, "This ground should be searched for metals." From an airplane over a hilly wasteland a scientist sent back by radio one word,"Uranium."

 

None of the scientists had X-ray eyes: they had no magic powers for looking down below the earth's surface. They were merely putting to use one of the newest methods of locating minerals in the ground-using trees and plants as signs that certain minerals may lie beneath the ground on which the trees and plants are growing.

 

This newest method of searching for minerals is based on the fact that minerals deep in the earth may affect the kind of trees and plants that grow on the surface.

 

At Watson Bar Creek, a brook six thousand feet high in the mountains of British Columbia, Canada, a mineral search group gathered bags of tree seeds. Bags were filled with small branches from the trees. Roots were dug and put into boxes. Each bag and box was carefully marked. In a scientific laboratory the parts of the forest trees were burned to ashes and tested. Each small part was examined to learn whether there were minerals in it.

 

Study of the roots, branches, and seeds showed no silver. But there were small amounts of gold in the roots and a little less gold in the branches and seeds. The seeds growing nearest to the tree trunk had more gold than those growing on the ends of the branches.

 

If the trees had not indicated that there was gold in the ground, the scientists would not have spent money to pay for digging into the deeper. They did dig and found more gold below. They dug deeper. They found large quantities of gold.

 

62. The scientists in airplane can still decide where there are minerals by       

A) observing the characteristics of the trees and plants on the ground

B) studying the soil brought from the ground

C) taking use of the advanced exploring equipment

D) testing some parts of the trees and plants

 

  1. Why do the scientists use the trees and plants as signs to help locate minerals

A) Because there are no other ways to be used since they are in airplane

B) Because the trees and plants are nourished by certain minerals under they live.

C) Because the trees and plants can be found most easily nearly everywhere

D) Because the kind of trees and plants is affected by certain minerals under the earth they live.

 

64.How could the scientists know whether there are minerals in parts of the forest trees taken from Watson Bar Greek?

A) By observing them with microscope.

B) By putting them in vessels with liquid medicine.

C) By testing the ashes of them.

D) By cutting them into pieces.

 

65. By knowing the test result of the ashes of the parts of trees, scientists can      

 A) decide whether to dig into the ground deeper or not

B)decide whether the trees should be protected

C)know how much gold there is under the earth

D)know how deep they should dig to get minerals from under the earth

 

66. The best title of the passage may be    

A) Searching for metals with special power

B) Searching for metals by naked eyes

C) Gold could be found by trees and plants

D)A new method of searching for minerals

 

练习中重点词句提炼

 

词汇提炼

 

Passage One

intake摄入

swelling 肿胀

 

Passage Two

 

wasteland荒原

beneath在……之下

 

句式提炼

 

1. Contrary to the old advice that runners should drink as much as they can to prevent dehydration, the new research has shown that the body is a remarkable machine that actually tells you via thirst when you need water. (Passage One)

注释:短话contrary to...充当状语,意为“与……相反”,该状语中包含一

个由that引导的同位语从句,修饰advice;主句中包含一个由that引导的

实语从句,还包含一个由that引导的定语从句,修饰machine,该定语从句中还包含一个由when引导的宾语从句。

 

2. They were merely putting to use one of the newest methods of locating minerals in the ground-using trees and plants as signs that certain minerals may lie beneath the ground on which the trees and plants are growing. (Passage Two)注释:玻折号后面是解释说明one of the newest methods的;that引导同位语从句,修饰signs;which引导定语从句,充当介词on的宾语,修饰the ground.

 

Lesson 4

 

拿下观点题

 

观点题,主要考查考生对人物观点或态度的理解。今天的任务就是了解如何识别和解答观点题。

 

题型揭秘

 

观点题不仅涉及作者的观点,也会涉及文中人物的观点。常见的提问方式有:

What is the author's attitude toward...?

The author's attitude toward...could be described

According to...,...     .

 

要把握和理解作者或文中人物的观点或态度,主要应注意以下几点:

 

1.利用人名或机构名称进行定位

如果考查的是文中人物或组织机构的观点或态度,那么往往可以根据题干中的人名或组织机构名称在原文中进行定位。

 

2.结合所举例子推断观点或态度

作者常会通过举例来论证观点,因此结合例子内容往往可以推断出作者所持的态度或观点。

 

3.注意结合文章主题综合推断

对于考查作者的行文基调和作者对主题的态度或观点的题,需要分析文章走向,理解文章中心思想,从语篇的层次来判断。切忌根据文章局部内容所体现出来的感情色彩,对作者的态度妄下判断。

 

4.熟悉具有感情色彩的词语

文章中经常会出现能够直接体现人物态度或观点的带有感情色彩的词语,根据这些词语往往可以推断出作者的观点或态度。一般来讲,如果文中出现的豪义词比较多,那作者的现点就应该是正面(赞成)的;如果文中出现的贬义词较多,那作者的观点就是负面(反对)的;如果通篇使用的都是中性词语,那作者的观点往往就是客观的。另外,观点态度题的选项中也经常会出现这类具有感情色彩的词语。

 

Passage One

 

Many historians of the twentieth century look back at the fifteenth century and say, "Machiavelli was the first political scientist in history." They say that he looked at politics for the first time with the factual eye of a scientist. He was only interested in the facts. He thought that politics and morality didn't go together very often, but he studied ideas of right and wrong, along with politics; government leaders, he wrote,could use these ideas to get and keep power.

 

In Machiavelli's opinion, the nature of human beings is usually evil, so a good person must always fail. He thought it was important for a political leader to know how to be bad. In fact, Machiavelli saw leaders of government as people above ordinary human beings; so he believed, they are also above ordinary morality. Good and evil, he said, are only ideas that weak people use to excuse weakness; powerful people use these ideas to keep other people weak. They can lead because they want power and because they fight for it. Also, these leaders are not usually afraid to leave morality behind , so they don't have ideas of right or wrong to stop them . They think only of power. It is nice, Machiavelli said, if political leaders can also be good people, but they must know how to be bad when the time comes.

 

Machiavelli said that it is natural to fight for power and that there are two methods people use : law and physical force . The first method is the way of human beings. They do this to get and keep power.

People are evil, in Machiavelli's opinion, so war and fighting are always in the world; they are a natural part of it. Political leaders know the way of nature, of people,and animals,and they use their knowledge to get what they want.

 

57. According to the passage, a political scientist is a person who    .

A) studies politics and science at the same time

B) concerns about science as a politician

C) knows politics as well as science

D) studies politics in a scientific way

 

58. Which of the following can best express Machiavelli's idea?

A) There is nothing absolutely right or wrong in the world.

B) Political leaders know the ideas of right and wrong and use them to stop themselves from doing something wrong .

C) Weak people use the ideas of right and wrong to keep inward peace.

D) Compared with power, ideas of right and wrong are nothing to political leaders.

 

59. It is not difficult to learn from the passage that Machiavelli believes      

A) political leaders are special human beings and have different morality

B) human beings are usually bad and are certain to fail

C) powerful people use ideas of right and wrong to control themselves

D) political leaders should keep morality in mind

 

60. What does Machiavelli think of political leaders?

A) They would never be good people.

B) They are afraid to desert morality.

C) They only think of power and ignore morality.

D) They are evil in nature.

 

61. What is the passage mainly talking about?

A) The behavior of politicians.

B) The similarity between human beings and animals.

C) The difference between political leaders and common people.

D) The scientific view of politics.

 

Passage Two

 

The dedication(献词)in Connelly's most recent book,Fatal Misconception:The Struggle to Control World Population, reads "To my parents, for having so many children."

 

Columbia University historian Matthew Connelly, the youngest of eight children to Roman Catholic parents, nonetheless manages to write a fairly balanced history of the broad population-control movements in the 20th century. As populations and life spans rose dramatically over that time period, countries and organizations initiated immigration restrictions, breeding programs, and other directives aimed at adjusting human reproduction.

 

Often launched under the guise of reducing poverty and even saving the earth,family planning became a means for wealthy foundations, foreign aid agencies, the United Nations, and others to plan other people's families, he concludes.

 

The author sets out how some leading population control groups acted in underhanded ways, pretending to advance one agenda such as a rise out of poverty or the betterment of mankind, while harboring another such as breeding out perceived misfits(与要求不符的东西).

 

The impact of the 20th century's many and varied programs to control population have changed the world, and sometimes in unexpected ways. Throughout the 20th century people were promised that they'd have more things if they had fewer children.But now that Asians have reduced their reproductive rate to 2.1 children, for example, there are other issues to consider. If they also have air conditioning and automobiles,they will have a much greater impact on the global ecosystem than a billion more subsistence farmers, he writes.

 

The world population growth is slowing and the age of population control appears to be over for the moment, but Connelly writes that his book is not just about history:ale about the future. It is a cautionary tale about the future.

 

Future challenges such as global warming and population stabilization in countries with aging populations and declining birthrates may lead to a new age of population control. And this time around, the experiments, completed with genetic counselors and possible genetic enhancement technology, could be much more dangerous.

 

Connelly asks the reader to reject population control by looking at its history and learning from it. It's a precaution worth taking.

 

62. From the dedication of Connelly's most recent book we know that his attitude towards population control is     

A)praiseful

B) uninterested

C) neutral

D)negative

 

63. What's the meaning of the word "underhanded" in Line 1, Para. 4?

A) With the hand kept below the level of shoulder.

B)Doing many things at the same time.

C) Doing things in a secret or dishonest way

D) Doing things with a great power.

 

64. In 20th century, family planning was usually taken in the name of ____by the leading population control groups

A) eliminating poverty completely

B) improving human being

C)saving the earth

D) keeping out of immigrators

 

65. According to the passage, what had happened in 20th century?

A) The population-control movements had just emerged.

B) The human being's life spans had kept a low level.

C) The population control had changed world in various ways.

D) The reproductive rate of Asians had fallen to 2.1 children.

 

66. Which of the following is TRUE about the author's opinion on Connelly's new book?

A) It has described an out-of-real image of population control.

B) It has told the population-control history and given valuable advice.

C) It has overrated many new methods of population control.

D) It has figured out plenty of new methods of population control.

 

Lesson 5

 

练透语义题

今天我们要解决的是语义题,它主要测试考生对文章中出现的关键词语或句子所表达含义的理解能力。

 

题型揭秘

 

语义题可能针对单词和短语,也可能针对句子。常见的提问方式有:

 

The word"..."mostly probably means     

By saying "...", the author means      

The word "..." mostly probably refers to    

Which of the following is the closest in meaning to the word"..."?

 

要正确理解文中词语或句子的含义,主要应注意以下几点:

 

1.切忌从字面意思来理解

语义题的干扰选项经常是根据我们所熟知的含义或词语或句子的表面含义

设置,如果仅根据词语和句子的字面意思去选择答案,则很容易掉进考官的

陷阱。

 

2.不能只根据孤立的句子来判断

要理解词语和句子的含义,绝对不能孤立地根据某个句子或短语作出判断,

应把它放到上下文中去理解。

 

3.注意词语前后对其的解释说明

一般来说,如果所考词汇是超出四级大纲的生词,那么在该词的前后往往

会有该词的定义或对其的解释说明,这类定义或解释说明经常可以通过像

namely,that is,in other words等标志性词语或是破折号、冒号或括号等特殊的

标点符号来识别。

 

另外,有时候这种定义或解释说明也会通过定语从句表达出来。

 

4.注意结合文章和段落主旨进行判断

这一点主要针对对句子的语义理解。句子所表达的意思一定是和文章或段落的主旨相关的,因此在判断句子的含义时,要结合文章或段落的主题,在不违背文章或段落主题的前提下,利用上下文判断句子所表达的含义和所起的作用。

 

5.利用排除法进行选择

如果直接判断词或短语的含义比较困难,也可以将各选项代入原文,代替所考查词汇或短语在原文中的位置,看其是否能使上下文语义通顺,利用排除法进行选择。

 

Passage One

 

Reaching new peaks of popularity in North America is Iceberg Water which is harvested from icebergs off the coast of Newfoundland, Canada.

 

Arthur von Wiesenberger, who carries the title Water Master, is one of the few water critics in North America. As a boy, he spent time in the larger cities of Italy,France and Switzerland where bottled water is consumed daily. Even then, he kept a water journal , noting the brands he liked best . " My dog could tell the difference between bottled and tap water," he says.

 

But is plain tap water all that bad? Not at all. In fact, New York's municipal water for more than a century was called the champagne of tap water and until recently considered among the best in the world in terms of both taste and purity. Similarly, a magazine in England found that tap water from the Thames River tasted better than several leading brands of bottled water that were 400 times more expensive.

 

Nevertheless, soft-drink companies view bottled water as the next battle-ground for market share-this despite the fact that over 25 percent of bottled water comes from tap water: PepsiCo's Aquafina and Coca-Cola's Dasani are both purified tap water rather than spring water.

 

As diners thirst for leading brands, bottlers and restaurateurs salivate(垂诞)over the profits . A restaurant's typical mark-up on wine is 100 to 150 percent ,whereas on bottled water it's often 300 to 500 percent. But since water is much cheaper than wine , and many of the fancier brands aren't available in stores , most diners don't notice or care .

 

As a result, some restaurants are turning up the pressure to sell bottled water. According to an article in The Wall Street Journal, some of the more shameless tactics include placing attractive bottles on the table for a visual sell, listing brands on the menu without prices, and pouring bottled water without even asking the diners if they want it .

 

Regardless of how it's sold, the popularity of bottled water taps into our desire for better health, our wish to appear cultivated, and even a longing for lost purity.

 

57. What do we know about Iceberg Water from the passage?

A) It is a kind of iced water.

B) It is just plain tap water.

C ) It is a kind of bottled water .

D) It is a kind of mineral water

 

58. By saying "My dog could tell the difference between bottled and tap water"(Line3, Para. 2), von Wiesenberger wants to convey the message that      

A) plain tap water is certainly unfit for drinking

B) bottled water is clearly superior to tap water

C) bottled water often appeals more to dogs' taste

D) dogs can usually detect a fine difference in taste

 

59. The "fancier brands"(Line 3, Para. 5) refers

A) tap water from the Thames River

B) famous wines not sold in ordinary stores

C) PepsiCo's Aquafina and Coca-Cola's Dasani

D) expensive bottled water with impressive names

 

60. Why are some restaurants turning up the pressure to sell bottled water?

A) Bottled water brings in huge profits.

B) Competition from the wine industry is intense.

C) Most diners find bottled water affordable.

D) Bottled water satisfies diners' desire to be fashionable.

 

61. According to the passage, why is bottled water so popular?

A) It is much cheaper than wine.

B)It is considered healthier.

C) It appeals to more cultivated people.

D) It is more widely promoted in the market.

 

Passage Two

 

Acting is such an overcrowded profession that the only advice that should be given to a young person thinking of going on the stage is "Don't!". But it is useless to try to discourage someone who feels that he must act, although the chances of his becoming famous are small. The normal way to begin is to go to a drama school.

 

Usually only students who show promise and talent are accepted, and the course lasts two years. Then the young actor or actress takes up work with a play company,usually as assistant stage manager. This means doing everything that there is to do in the theatre: painting scenery, looking after the furniture, taking care of the clothes,and even acting in very small parts. It is very hard work indeed, the hours are long and the salary is tiny. But young actors with the stage in their blood are happy,waiting for the chance of working with a better company, or perhaps in films or television.

 

Of course, some people have unusual chances, which lead to fame and success without this long and dull training. Connie Pratt, for example, was just an ordinary girl working in a bicycle factory. A film producer happened to catch sight of her one morning waiting at a bus stop, as he drove past in his big car. He told the driver to stop,and he got out to speak to the girl.He asked her if she would like to go to the film company to do a test, and at first she thought he was joking. Then she got angry and said she would call the police. It took the producer twenty minutes to tell Connie that he was serious. Then an appointment was made for her to go to the company the next day. The test was successful. They gave her some necessary lessons and within a few weeks she was playing the leading part in a film, which made her well-known overnight throughout the country. Of course, she was given a dramatic name, which is now world famous. But chances like this happen once in a blue moon!

 

62. Young people should not be encouraged to become actors mainly because       

A)actors are very unusual people

B) the course at the drama school lasts too long

C) acting is very hard work

D) there are already too many actors

 

63. An assistant stage manager's job is difficult because he has to____.

A) do all kinds of stage work B) work for long hours

C) wait for a better opportunity D) have a talent for acting

 

64. What does the sentence "Young actors with the stage in their blood are happy"mean in Paragraph One?

A) They don't care if their job is hard,

B) They like the stage naturally,

C) They are born happy,

D) They are easily satisfied.

 

65. Connie Pratt thought the film producer was joking, for she     

A) didn't know who the man was

B) never wanted to become an actress

C)was just an ordinary worker

D) had no interest in art

 

66. The phrase "once in a blue moon" in the last sentence means     

A) immediately   B)unexpectedly   C)slowly   D)rarely

 

练习中重点词句提炼

 

词汇提炼

 

Passage One

 

shameless无耻的

tactics策略,战术

regardless of 不管,不顾

cultivated有教养的

 

Passage Two

 

with sth. in one's blood 天生热爱

once in a blue moon 千载难逢

 

句式提炼

 

1.Nevertheless,soft-drink companies view bottled water as the next battle-ground for market share-this despite the fact that over 25 percent of bottled water comes from tap water: PepsiCo's Aquafina and Coca-Cola's Dasani are both purified tap water rather than spring water.(Passage One)

注释:破折号后面对前面内容进行补充说明;despite是介词,意为尽管,表示让步,that引导同位语从句,修饰fact;冒号后面是举例说明;rather than意为而不是,连接并列成分。

 

2. Acting is such an overcrowded profession that the only advice that should be given to a young person thinking of going on the stage is "Don't!", (Passage Two)

注释:such...that意为如此……以至于that后面是结果状语从句;结果状语从句中的主语the only advice带有一个that引导的定语从句;现在分词短语 thinking of...a young person的后置定语。

 

3. But it is useless to try to discourage someone who feels that he must act,although the chances of his becoming famous are small. (Passage Two)

注释:本句是一个包含although引导的让步状语从句的复合句。主句中,it充当形式主语,真正的主语是后面的不定式短语to try to...;who引导定语从句,修饰someone

 

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