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专插本英语虚拟语气

2020-01-12

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第二节  虚拟语气

 

1.虚拟语气在含有非真实条件从句的复合句中的用法

 

1)与现在事实相反的假设

 

构成:if引导的条件句的谓语动词形式:动词过去式或were

主句的谓语动词形式:would+动词原形

 

If you saw him now, you wouldn't recognize him. 如果你现在看见他,你会认不出他来了。

It I had time, I would certainly go to the movies with you.如果有时间,我肯定陪你去看电影。

What would you do if you wore in his position?要是你处在他的位置,你会怎么办?

If the manager were here, he mighu make a decision.要是经理在这儿,他也许会作出决定。

 

2)与过去事实相反的假设

 

构成:计引导的条件句的谓语动词形式;had+过去分词

主句的谓语动词形式:would+have+过去分词

 

If I had left a little earlier , I would have caught the train . 我要是早点动身就赶上大车了If she hadn't taken your advice, she would have made a big mistake地要不是听了你的劝告,就要犯大错误了

I could hare done it better if I had been more careful.我要是再细心一点,是可以做得更好的。

If I hadnt been illhe might have come.要不是生病,他是会来的。

 

3)与将来事实相反的假

 

构成:if引导的条件句的谓语动词形式:shouldwere to+动词原形

主句的谓语动词形式:would+动词原形

 

If he should fail , we would encourage him to try again万一他失败,我们就鼓励他再试一试。

If it should rain tomorrow, what would we do?万一明天下雨,我们能做些什么呢If she were to marry Jack, she would be happy. 如果她嫁给杰克,她会幸福的

If he were here this evening, we would play cards. 如果他今晚在这里的话,我们就可以玩辞了。

 

2.虚拟语气在由介词短语所表示的假设条件下的用法

 

有时不用if引导条件从句,而用介词短语来表示违背事实的假设条件,这时句中的谓语动词仍用虚拟语气形式。

 

Without air, there would be no wind or clouds.没有空气就不会有风,也不会有云。

But for your help we couldn't have succeeded. 要不是你的帮忙,我们是不会成功的。

Under such circumstances I would probably have done the same.在这种情况下,我也可能做出同样的事情。

With better equipment,we could have done it better.要是用更好的设备,我们会干得更好。

 

3.虚拟语气在不含连接词if的省略句中的用法

 

导的条件句中有were,had,should,could时,可以省略if,而把were,had,should,could放在句首,用倒装句结构。

 

Were they to get married they would be happy.要是他们结婚的话,他们会丰福的。

Had she not been ill, she might hate come. 要不是生病,地会来的。

Should I have time, I would call on her.我要是有时间就去看她

Could you meet Mary, you should not be able to recognize her.要是你见到玛丽的话,你也会认不出她了。

 

4.虚拟语气在名词性从句中的用法

 

1)主语从句

 

在下列结构的主语从句中,谓语动词要用虚拟语气形式(谓语用动词原形或should+动词原形):It is necessary/important/essential that is ordered commended/proposed/suggested that...

It is desired that we (should) get everything ready before Friday.要求一切在星期五之前准备好

It is necessary that he(should)be sent there at once.有必要马上派他到那里去。

It is essential that the program be loaded into computer. 把程序输进计算机非常必要。

It is suggested that the meeting be held at some other time.人们建议换一个时间开会。

 

2)宾语从句

 

在下列动词后面的宾语从句中,谓语动词要用虚拟语气(谓语用动词原形或should+动词原形)uggest(建议),insist(坚持),recommend(推荐),order(命令),propose(提议),require(要求),advis(劝告),request(请求),desire(渴求),command(命令),demand(要求)等。

 

She insisted that the seats(should)be booked in advance.她坚持要预订座位。

The workers demanded that their wages be raised by 10 percent.工人们要求增加10%的工资。

He advised that the doctor(should)be sent for.他建议我们派人去请医生。

He requested that the manager give him an interview. 他请求经理给他一次面试机会

 

3)表语从句和同位语从句在下列名词后面的表语从句和同位语从句中,谓语动词要用虚拟语气形式(谓语用动词原形或 should +动词原形):advice,demand,order,necessity,desire,decision,pray,preference,proposal,requirement suggestion, idea, request, resolution, plan, motion等。

 

My desire is that the members of the family (should) gather once a year.我的愿望是家庭成员每年聚会一次。

指令要求记录这些婴儿的全部活动。

The instruction was that notes be taken on everything the babies did.指令要求记录这些婴儿的全部活动。

He gave the order that the results of the experiment (should) be checked again.他命令对那次实验结果重新核对。

I am in favor of his proposal that a special committee be set up to examine the problem我赞成他的提议,成立一个特别委员会研究这个问题。

 

5.用于下列句型中:

 

1)表示祈愿的动词wish引导的宾语从句中

 

I wish I knew the answer to the question.我希望我知道这个问题的答案。(可惜不知道)He wishes(wished)he had not lost the chance.他真希望没有失去这次机会。(事实上机会已经失去了,表示碗惜)

 

2)在表示祈愿的if only

 

If only he were here.如果他在这儿就好了。

If only you would listen to reason.你如果听从道理就好了。

 

3)as if,as though引导的状语从句中,谓语动词一般要用“werehad+过去分词”的形式来表示虚拟语气。(此时也可用陈述语气)

 

 He treats me as if I were a stranger. 他那样对待我,好像我是陌生人似的。

She talked about the film as if she had really seen it.地谈论那部影片,就好像她确实看过一样

She looked as if she were ill.看她的样子,好像生病了。

 

温馨提示:如果事情可能发生,那么方式状语从句中谓语动词可用陈述语气。

 

4)it's(high/about)

 

It's time we did/should do our homework.我们该做作业了。

It's time we went/should go to bed.我们该上床睡觉了。

 

5)would rather/'d rather句型中用过去时和过去完成时分别表示与现在和过去事实相反的愿望。We'd rather you didn't know it.我们宁愿你不知道这件事。

We'd rather we hadn't been there before.我们宁愿以前从没去过那里。

 

6)“may+动词原形表示祝愿但愿

 

May you be happy. 祝你快乐!

May you succeed! 祝你成功!

 

7)用动词原形表示祝愿。

Long lite the people!人民万岁!

God bless you!愿上帝保佑你!

 

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