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专插本英语非谓语动词之过去分词

2020-01-12

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四、过去分词

 

1.过去分词的构成和特征

规则动词的过去分词与过去式同形,由动词原形+ed”构成。不规则动词的过去分词的构成没有规则。过去分词可以带状语,带有状语的分词称为分词短语。

 

2.过去分词的语法功能

 

过去分词在句中起形容词和副词的作用,可以做定语、状语、表语和宾语补足语等。

 

(1)做定语

 

过去分词做定语通常放在被修饰词之前;过去分词短语做定语一般放在被修饰词之后。

,Chance favors the prepared mind.机会垂青有准备的人

A watched pot never boils.心急锅不开。

The suggestion sent to the committee was adopted.呈送给委员会的建议被采纳了。

Children disciplined when they are young will become good citizens.小时候受过训练的孩子会成为好公民。

 

(2)做状语

 

Deeply moved by her words, the old man agreed to her request.老人被她的话深深感动了,所以答应了她的要求。(原因)

Simply stated, a habit is something you do so often that it becomes easy.简而言之,习惯是指经常做而变得简单的事情。(条件)

Some metals will melt only when heated to high temperature某些金属须加高温后才会熔化。(时间)

United we stand, divided we fall. 团结就是胜利,分裂必然失败。(条件)

Wounded, the brave soldier continued to fight虽然受伤了,那名勇敢的战士仍然继续作战。(让步)

 

3)做表语

 

A man is not finished when he is defeated. He is finished when he gives up.一个人不会毁于失败,而会毁于放弃。

I am convinced of his honesty.我相信他是诚实的。

Her illness continued unchanged.她的病仍没有好转。

They are satisfied with their present job. 他们对现在的工作很满意。

 

(4)做宾语补足语

 

If you want a thing well done, do it yourself. 如果希望出色地完成一件事,就要亲自干。

I found this city greatly changed.我发现这座城市变化很大

There was such a noise that he couldn't make himself heard.声音这么吵,他无法使别人,到他的话。

She saw the thief caught by policeman.她看见那小偷被警察抓住了

 

3.分词的独立结构

 

分词的独立结构由逻辑主语(名词、代词)+分词构成,可以表示时间、原因、条件、方式或伴随情况等。在独立结构中,分词的逻辑主语可以是分词动作的执行者,也可以是分词动作的承受者;可以是现在分词,也可以是过去分词。

 

(1)逻辑主语+现在分词(这一结构表示主动意义)

 

Mary coming back, they discussed it together.玛丽回来后,他们一起讨论了那件事。(时间)

The teacher having finished the lesson, the students left the lecture hall.教师讲课结束以后,学生们就离开了讲堂。(时间)

Weather permitting,we shall go there on foot.如果天气允许,我们将步行去那里。(条件)

Advice failing, we have to use force.劝说不成的话,我们不得不使用武力。(条件)

Nobody having any more to say, the meeting was closed.没有人再说什么,会议就结束了。(原因)

That being the case,we'd better make another plan.情况既然如此,我们最好重新制订计划。(原因)

There are many kinds of steel, each having its use in industry钢有许多种,每种在工业上都有它的用途。(伴随情况)

she walked a long the path her day (件值情况) close behind.

 

(2)逻辑主语+过去分词(这一结构表示被动意义)

 

This done,we went home.这个做完后,我们就回家了。(时间)

The table set, they began to eat dinner.桌子摆好以后,他们开始用餐。(时间)

Everything taken into account, this plan seems to be more workable.

从各方面考虑,这个计划似乎更可行。(条件)

Health and persistence given, one can do great things.拥有健康的身体和顽强的毅力,一个人能做出伟大的事情。(条件)

He was lying on the grass, his hands crossed under his head.他躺在草地上,头枕双手。(伴随情况)

He returned three days later, his face covered with mud.他三天后回来了,脸上沾满了泥。(伴随情况)

 

4.现在分词与过去分词的区别

 

现在分词与过去分词的区别主要表现在语态和时间概念上。在语态上,现在分词(除被动式外)表示主动意义,过去分词意义。在时间上,现在分词表示动作正在进行,过去分词则表示动作已经完成。在特性与状态上,现在分词表示它所说明的名词的特性;过去分词表示它所说明的名词或代词的状态。

 

he news is exciting,这则消息很鼓舞人心。(特性)

We are all excited to hear the news.我们听了这则消息都很振奋。(状态)

I heard someone opening the door.我听见有人开门。(主动)

I heard the door opened.我听见门开了。(被动)2100

I saw him taking the book away.我看到他把书拿走了。(进行)

Lifted bodies have energy.被举起的物体具有能量。(完成)

 

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