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专插本英语非谓语动词之现在分词

2020-01-12

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三、现在分词

 

1.现在分词的构成和特征

 

现在分词由动词原形+ing”构成。及物动词的现在分词可以带宾语,也可以带状语,带有状语或宾语的分词称为分词短语,如:telling a story slowly。否定式是在现在分词前加not。现在分词与动名词构成形式相同,因此,有的语法书上把它们统称为动词的ing形式。

 

2.现在分词的语法功能

 

现在分词的作用相当于形容词和副词,在句中可以做定语、状语、表语、宾语补足语等。

 

(1)做定语

 

现在分词常用来修饰名词或代词。单个分词做定语通常放在被修饰词之前,分词短语做定语一般放在被修饰词之后。

 

Life is an exciting business.人生是一项激动人心的事业

All moving bodies possess energy.一切运动的物体都具有能量

A man getting up as soon as the cock crows is a hardworking man.鸡鸣即起的人是一个勤奋的人。

He is a businessman growing rich in recent years.他是一位最近几年才富起来的商人。

 

(2)做状语

 

Hearing the news, they immediately set off for Beijing.听到这个消息,他们立即出发到北京去了。(时间)

Relying on our efforts, we overcame all the difficulties.我们依靠自己的力量,克服了一切困难。(原因)

He turned off the lamp, seeing nothing.他熄了灯,什么也看不见了。(结果)

Turning to the right, you will find a path to the village.向右转弯,你就可以找到一条通向村庄的小路。(条件)

He walked down the hill, singing softly to himself.他从小山上走下来,一路哼着曲儿。(方式或伴随)

 

(3)做表语

 

No matter what kind of work you do, it needs to be fulfilling and satisfying.不论你做什么工作,都需要给人带来成就感和满足

The film is very moving and instructive.这部电影既感人又有教育意义。

The situation proves encouraging.形势是令人鼓舞的。

The story of his life sounds interesting.他的生平听起来很有趣。

 

(4)做宾语补足语

 

Without goals, you find yourself hoping things will happen.没有目标,你会发现自己在期待事情的发生。

I found those students studying very hard.我发现那些学生学习非常努力。

She suddenly heard some knocking at the door.她忽然听到有人敲门。

He sat at his desk and watched others doing the work for him.他坐在写字台前看着别人为他干活。

 

试比较:有些感官动词后既可带不定式(有时不带to)做宾补,也可带现在分词做宾补,二者在意义上稍有区别:不定式做宾补表示一个完整的动作(已完成),现在分词做宾补表示瞬间的动作(正在进行)。如:I saw him enter the room.我看见他进了房间。(已进去)I saw him entering the room.我看见他正走进房间。(正注房间里走)

 

3.现在分词的时态

 

现在分词的一般式由动词原形+ing”形式构成。现在分词的完成式(having+过去分词)主要用在状语中,表示这个动作在谓语动词所表示的动作之前发生。

 

Having dressed myself,I went to the office.我穿好衣服就去了办公室。

Having watered the vegetables, the farmer took a short rest.给蔬菜浇完水,这位农民休息了一会儿。

Not having done it right, he tried again. 他没有做对,又试了一次。

The person haring experienced difficulties of life will not be discouraged easily.体验过人生艰辛的人不会轻易丧失信心

 

4.现在分词的被动语态

 

(1)现在分词的被动式(being+过去分词)不仅表示被动的动作,而且表示这个动作正在发生,或者这个动作与谓语动词的动作同时发生。

 

The first step being taken, the rest is easy. 迈出第一步之后,其余就可以迎刃而解了。

The questions being discussed are of great importance.正在讨论的问题非常重要。

The bridge being built there will be one of the longest in China.正在建造中的那座桥将是中国最长的大桥之一

He found the topic being discussed everywhere.他发现到处都在讨论这个问题。

 

(2)现在分词的完成被动式(having been+过去分词)不仅表示被动的动作,而且表示这个动作动词所表示的动作之前发生。

 

Having been given such a good chance, how could she give it up?既然得到这样一个好机会,她怎么可能放弃呢?

Having been told that some guests were coming, she shopped all morning in that supermarket.听说有客人要来,她整个上午都在那家超市购物。

Having been married forty years , they still love each other .他们结婚40年了,仍然相亲相爱。

 

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