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专插本英语非谓语动词之动名词

2020-01-12

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二、动名词

 

1.动名词的构成和特征

 

动名词由动词原形+ing”构成。及物动词的动名词可以带宾语,也可以被状语修饰;带有宾语和状语的动名词称为动名词短语,如:reading a book quickly。否定式是在动名词前加not

 

2.动名词的语法功能

 

动名词在句中起名词的作用,可以做主语、表语、定语、动词宾语、介词宾语等。

 

(1)做主语

 

Believing in yourself is the secret of success. 相信自己是成功的秘诀

Saying is easier than doing.说比做容易。

Mastering a skill means a great deal of practice.掌握一种技能意味着大量的实践。

Breaking up water into hydrogen and oxygen is a chemical change把水分解为氧和氧是一种化学变化。

 

在某些结构中,也可用it做形式主语,把做主语的动名词后置。

 

It is no good learning without practice. 光学习不实践是无用的。

It is dangerous your swimming in this river.你在这条河里游泳很危险。

It is no use asking her advice.征求她的意见没有用。

It is a waste of time discussing such matters.讨论这样的事情是浪费时间。

 

(2)做表语

 

The best policy is being honest.诚实是上策。

That is asking for trouble.那是自找麻烦。

The real problem is getting to know the needs of the customers.真正的问题是了解客户的需求。

The subject of life is making choices.人生的课题就是作选择。

Seeing is believing,眼见为实。

 

(3)做定语

 

有时动名词还可以放在名词之前做定语。

 

singing competition歌咏比赛

a sleeping car 小轿车

reading material 阅读材料

teaching method 教学方法

There are many new magazines on literature in the reading room of our department.我们系的阅览室里有多种关于文学的新杂志。

A washing machine can help save you a lot of time and energy.洗衣机可以帮助你节省很多时间和精力

Take a walking stick with you. It may be useful for climbing the mountains.带上拐杖吧。也午它对爬山有用。

 

4)做动词宾语

 

以下及物动词及短语动词常用动名词做宾语,而不能用动词不定式做宾语:admit,suggest,dislike,appreciate, complete, consider, delay, deny, enjoy, escape, finish, forgive, imagine, keep, mind, miss, permit, postpone,practise,prevent,propose(建议,提议),require,risk,suggest,can't help,give up,keep on,put off等。

 

Change requires taking the right action.变化要求采取正确的行动。

I enjoy seeing you and talking about old times.我喜欢和你见面共叙旧情。

He is considering asking his employer for a rise.他正在考虑要求庭主给他涨工资。

appreciate her devoting herself to the cause of education.我钦佩她献身教育事业的精神。

 

(5)做介词宾语

 

动名词也做介词的宾语,构成介词短语,在句中做定语、状语或表语。

Keep on learning as long as you live.活到老,学到老

Man's dream of flying in space has come true.人类太空飞行的梦想已成现实。

He hasn't much experience in running factories.他没有多少管理工厂的经验。

She left without saying goodbye to us.她没有向我们告别就走了。

 

3.动名词的时态

 

(1)动名词的一般式(动词原形+ing)表示的动作通常与谓语动词的动作同时或在其后发生。

 

Children enjoy reading picture-story books.孩子们喜欢看小人书。(enjoyreading同时发生)

I am thinking of getting a new dictionary. 我正在考虑买一本新词典。(getting am thinking 以后发生)

 

(2)动名词的完成式(having+过去分词)表示的动作在谓语动词动作之前发生。

 

He is proud of haring won the first prize.他很自豪获得了一等奖。

 

4.动名词的被动语态

 

当动名词逻辑上的主语(指修饰动名词的物主代词或名词的所有格)是动名词动作的对象时,动名词一般要用被动形式(being+过去分词/having been+过去分词)。

 

Respecting others means being respected.尊敬他人就是尊重自己。

He insisted on being treated as an ordinary employee. 他坚持把自己当做普通雇员对待。

After hating been intertieuced, she was offered the job.面试后,她得到了那份工作。

I heard of his hating been chosen to be the coach of the team.我听说他被选为球队的教练。

 

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