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专插本英语非谓语动词之动词不定式

2020-01-12

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一、动词不定式

 

1.不定式的构成和特征

 

动词不定式由“to+动词原形构成。及物动词的不定式可以带宾语,也可以被状语修饰;不定式加宾语和状语,构成不定式短语,如:to read the text slowly。不定式的否定结构是在不定式前加not,如:not to do。不定式前也可以加某些疑问代词(who,what,which...)或疑问副词(when,where,how,why...),构成特殊的不定式短语,如:what to do next,how to get there等。

 

2.不定式的主要功能

 

动词不定式在句中起名词、形容词或副词的作用,可以做主语、表语、宾语、定语、状语、宾语补足语和主语补足语。

 

(1)做主语

 

To know what to do is wisdom. To know how to do is skill

清楚做什么是智慧。清楚如何做是技能。

To know everything is to know nothing. 样样皆通,样样稀松

To love and to be loved is the greatest happiness one can get爱他人并为他人所爱是人生最大的幸福。

How to make our life longer is a big problem.怎样使我们活得更长是个大问题。

 

不定式短语做主语时,往往放在谓语后面,而用引导词it做形式主语,放在谓语动词前面。

It is enough to have one close friend in one's life.人生得一知己足矣。

It is difficult to know oneself.人能自知,实属不易。

It is important for him to learn to read.学会读书对他来说是重要的。

It would be wrong for people to marry for money.人们为钱而结婚是错误的。

 

2)做表语

The first and best victory is to conquer self.首要的、也是最好的胜利是战胜自己。

To live is to do something worthwhile.活着就是要做一些有价值的事情。

If you are to succeed you must be patient and persistent. 要想成功,就必须有耐心和毅力

To become a slave is to give up one's freedom.当奴隶就是放弃自由。

 

(3)做宾语

有些及物动词常用不定式做宾语。这些及物动词有:afford,agree,arrange,begin,care,choose,claim,continue, decide, demand, desire, determine, fail, forget, hate, hesitate, hope, intend, learn, like, long,manage, mean, offer, plan, prepare, pretend, promise, refuse, resolve, start, threaten, try, want等。

 

We hope to talk with the native speakers.我们希望同讲本族语的人谈话

He promised not to tell anyone about it.他保证不跟任何人谈起它

What do you plan to do tomorrow?你们打算明天干什么?

You must learn to forgive.你必须学会原谅他人

 

(4)做定语

 

不定式做定语时须放在被修饰的名词或代词之后。

 

He is a pleasant fellow to work with. 他是个很好共事的人。

She was the only one to look after the children.只有她一个人照顾那些孩子。

Are you going to the conference to be held next week?你准备参加下周举行的会议吗?

Teamwork is the ability to work together toward a common aim.团队精神是朝着共同目标而一起努力的能力。

 

(5)做状语

 

不定式做状语主要表示目的、结果或原因等。

 

We live to serve the people heart and soul. 我们活着是为了全心全意为人民服务。

He did excellent work to be general manager of the famous company他工作非常出色,后来成为这家著名公司的总经理。

We shall be very happy to cooperate with you in the project.在此项目中与你们合作,我们非常高兴。

To feel good about yourself, you need to feel good about your work.为了自我感觉良好,必须对工作感觉良

 

(6)做宾语补足语

 

有些及物动词的宾语后常有不定式做宾语补足语,构成复合宾语,这样意义才能完整。

 

这些及物动词有:advise,allow,ask,beg,cause,challenge,command,expect,encourage,force,get,hate,help,invite,leave, like, think, order, permit, persuade, prefer, remind, require, teach, tell, urge, want, warn, wish等。

 

The fool thinks himself to be wise, but the wise man knows himself to be a fool.愚者自以为智,智者自知其愚。

He asked you to call him back at 10 o'clock.他让你10点钟给他回电话。

Please remind me to take my medicine tomorrow.明天请提醒我服药。

I prefer him not to come.我宁愿他不来。

 

有些及物动词的复合宾语中做宾语补足语的不定式不带to,如:使役动词have,let,make,please等,感官动词feel,hear,listen to,look at,notice,observe,see,watch等。

 

What would you have me do?你要我干什么?

She won't let her poor son suffer like this.她不愿让她可怜的儿子受这样的罪。

He made her give up the property.他使她放弃了财产。

She felt someone pat her on the head gently.她感到有人轻轻地拍了拍她的头。

He stood under the tree listening to the bird sing a merry song.他站在树下,听那只鸟唱着欢快的歌。

I didn't notice her go out.我没注意她出去了。

Did you hear him go downstairs ?

你听到他下楼去了吗?

Someone saw her enter the house by the back door.有人看见她从后门进了那所房子。

 

温馨提示:help后面的to可用可不用。如:Can anyone help me (to) carry the sultcase upstalrs?谁能舞我把精子搬接上吗?

 

(7)做主语补足语

 

上述带有宾语及宾语补足语结构的动词,变为被动语态时,原宾语变为主语,原宾语补足语变为主语补足语。不定式做主语补足语时,即使在have,make,hear,see等动词后,不定式的to也不能省略。

 

Time is often said to be money, but it is more-it is life.人们往往说时间是金钱,但时间不止于此——它是生命。

He was asked to make a speech at the meeting.他受邀在会上讲话。

They were made to work day and night.他们被迫日夜干活。

Someone was heard to come up the stairs.听见有人上楼。

 

3.不定式的时态

 

(1)不定式的一般式(to+动词原形)表示动作与谓语动词的动作是同时发生或是在其后发生的

 

She was seen to enter the hall.有人看见她进入大厅。(seento enter两个动作同时发生)

I have s ne news to tell you.我有些新闻要告诉你。(to tell动作发生在have之后)

 

(2)不定式的进行式(to be+现在分词)表示动作与谓语动词的动作是同时发生的,而且正在进行着。

 

They seem to be getting along quite well.他们似乎相处得很好。

He wants to be dressing. 他想要穿衣服。

 

(3)不定式的完成式(to have+过去分词)表示的动作发生在谓语动词的动作之前。

 

I am sorry to have kept you waiting.对不起,让你久等了。

She seems to have read the book before.她好像以前看过这本书

 

4.不定式的被动语态

 

当不定式的逻辑主语是这个不定式所表示动作的承受者时,不定式一般要用被动式(to be+过去分词)形式。

 

It is an honor for me to be asked to speak here.我很荣幸被邀请在这里讲话。(逻辑主语:me)

Let me show you the room to be used as our language lab.

 

 

我来带你看看要用作语言实验室的那个房间。(逻辑主语:the room)

 

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