新闻中心

托福阅读题目与讲解

2020-01-11

image

 

课程咨询

微信图片_20190810111907

 

Eating disorders have been most commonly associated with women and therefore most studies on anorexia nervosa have been concentrated within the female population. Such gender bias however makes it less likely that a doctor will diagnose a male as having an eating disorder or anorexia nervosa even though the symptoms might be identical.

 

Men are far less likely to discuss an cating disorder with other men or with women. Their doctors are more likely to diagnose them as having a bout of depression due to stress or some kind of upset rather than suffering from an eating disorder because such disorders have been largely labeled female diseases. This is mostly due to the cultural differences between men and women.

 

Discussions about beauty, new diets and body weight are seen as the female arena of discussion that males seldom enter. Also,traditionally men's beauty is displayed in body mass, building muscle,and body building and therefore to discuss issues surrounding weight loss is not seen as particularly masculine because men "Don't have psychological problems" and "Don't talk about their feelings"even though men do suffer from anorexia.(A)

 

The disease is far more common in the Western world than anywhere else and there is much cause for concern as recent research suggests that the disease is on the increase. The disease mostly manifests itself during adolescence when the signs of obvious weight loss become apparent. People who suffer from the disease have a genuine and constant terrifying fear of gaining weight, even when their weight is much less than people of their same height and stature.

 

Doctors have been able to characterize the disease because the sufferer's body weight is about 15% below average for their height.Suffers also tend to avoid fatty foods, use laxatives, diuretics or engage in excessive exercise. Because people live in a world obsessed with image and a fashion and cosmetics industry that forces an image of the ideal body, it can sometimes be difficult to distinguish between anorexic and those who have a higher interest in their physical appearance than most people. Anorexics can be distinguished from a non-anorexics because weight loss is completely self-induced and the sufferer goes to extremes to lose weight, also engaging in self-induced vomiting until eventually the situation fast gets out of control.

 

Sufferers are also completely preoccupied with their bodies and actually believe themselves to be fat when in reality they are malnourished and starkly thinner than their peers. They also begin to lose interest in activities their peers are involved in such as socializing and very often become withdrawn. These are common symptoms in many adolescents but coupled with the obvious and drastic weight loss and lack of concentration it is easier to diagnose an adolescent with the beginning stages of anorexia.

 

The actual cause of the disease is unknown but scientists believe that biological and social factors play a role and sometimes the disease can be triggered by traumatic events such as a death in the family,stress or the onset of puberty.(B)

 

While it is true that most suffers of the disease are female, some10% are male. Studies show that there are differences between male and female anorexics. Female sufferers tend to view themselves as fatter, more overweight than males with the same condition. Males tend to engage in less self-induced vomiting, take fewer laxatives and diuretics, are more motivated but have more physical complaints. It has been suggested also that there is a link between males with the disease to tending to be homosexual. The actual figure is unknown and it is important to understand that such a link does not indicate that all male sufferers of anorexia nervosa or eating disorder are homosexual. Also there tends to a higher rate in suicide attempts ir male sufferers. The biggest problem, however, is diagnosing male anorexia or eating disorder because of the common belief that such disease are essentially female although the medical profession is mor aware of male anorexia than ever before.

 

Sufferers can go many years without treatment but eventually sufferers lose more body weight, as much as 25-30%, which leads to chronic illness and even death. The mortality rate is as high as 5%Others are lucky because sometimes onset of the disease can be temporary with complete recovery.(C)

 

There is treatment for suffers of this terrible disease. In some cases sufferers are treated by medication, usually when the disease is accompanied by severe depression. Usually though sufferers are referred to a psychologist or a therapist and are encouraged to join self-help groups and are counseled by people who have first-hand experience of the disease themselves.(D)

 

 

Question 27:

In paragraph 1, the word bias is closest in meaning to

A  dislike

B  assumption

C  precjudice

D  favouritism

 

Question 28:

Why might a doctor wrongly diagnose an eating disorder in males as stress related?

A Men suffer from stress much more than women.

B Women are much more likely to be concerned about their appearance.

C The statistics are far higher in women.

D Some diseases are thought to affect women more than men.

 

Question 29:

In paragraph 3, the word seldom is closest in meaning to

A frequently

B never

C rarely

D forbidden

 

Question 30:

In paragraph 3, why does the author infer that male beauty is different from female beauty

 

A Women think make up is necessary to make them look beautiful.

B It's not considered very manly to discuss fashion and one's appearance.

C Men think women find muscles attractive.

D Male beauty focuses on the physical aspects of the body.

 

Question 31:

In paragraph 4, why does the author say that researches are concerned about the disease?

A It is contagious.

B Sufferers are experiencing far more fear about gaining weight than ever before.

C The Western fashion industry is encouraging the disease.

D It is on the rise.

 

Question 32:

In paragraph 5, why does the author say that it's sometimes difficult to distinguish non-anorexics from genuine sufferers

A Our societies have become preoccupied with appearance.

B Most people these days avoid eating fatty foods.

C Exercise has become a recognized health hazard.

D Most young want to have the ideal body weight.

 

Question 33:

According to the passage, what are the warning signs that an adolescent might be developing the disease?

A Severe mood swings

B An absolute terror of being or becoming fat

C A combination of physical and emotions symptoms

D Lack of attendance at school

 

Question 34:

According to the passage, who will most likely get the disease?

A Only females between the ages of 10-16

B It is mostly hereditary.

C Anyone who is not an adult

D Anyone who experiences painful events

 

Question 35:

In paragraph 5, which of the following statements most accurately reflects the author's opinion about the fashion and cosmetics industry ?

A It is responsible for a lot of suffering among young adults.

B It is the root of all eating disorders because want to be thin .

C It projects an unattainable image of perfection

D It has produced a society that judges people by appearance.

 

Question 36:

According to the passage, which of the following statements is true about the discase?

A Only 5% of sufferers recover.

B Only lucky people can survive the disease

C The disease is sometimes just a passing phase.

D Sufferers can recover only after hospitalization.

 

Question 37:

In paragraph 6, why does the author state that in reality sufferers are malnourished and starkly hinner than their peers?

A To explain that the disease is caused by the weight loss problem

B To argue that peer pressure can cause stress to some people

C To point out that obsession with their bodies resulted in the problems

D To persuade that sufferers have serious psychological problems

 

Question 38:Look at the four squares(A,B,C,D)that indicate where the following sentence could be added to the passage.

These kinds of groups report the highest success rate in ueating the disease because the sufferers can relate to others in their same position.

Where would the sentence best fit?

Click on a square to add the sentence to the passage.

 

Question 39:

Directions: Complete the table by matching the phrases below.

Directions: Select the appropriate phrases from the answer choices and match them to the appropriate gender to which they relate. TWO of the answer choices will NOT be used. This question is worth 4 points.

 

Women with anorexia nervosa

 

  1.                           
  2.                           
  3.                           

 

Men with anorexia nervosa

  1.                         
  2.                         
  3.                         

 

Answer Choices:

1. More individuals in this group try to end their suffering.

2. Some people think they are much heavier than they actually are.

3. Some individuals suffer far more from other not related symptoms.

4. There is link between homosexuality and sufferers of the disease.

5. Some males are not diagnosed because their doctors think it is a female disease.

6. Self-induced vomiting is a serious problem.

7. Most sufferers come from this group.

8. There are differences between male and female sufferers of the disease.

 

参考译文:

 

进食障碍主要与女性有关,因此对神经性厌食的大部分研究都是针对女性的。但这样的性别偏见会影响医生对有同样症状男性病人的进食障碍或神经性厌食的诊断。

 

男性一般很少与其他男性或女性讨论有关进食障碍的话题。这样的疾病通常被诊断为女性疾病,因此男性得这种病的时候医生很容易把它诊断为压力或烦恼引起的一种忧郁症,而不是进食障碍。这主要是由男性和女性的文化差异导致的。

 

有关美丽、饮食、体重的话题通常是女性喜欢的谈资,男性几乎不参与这种话题。而且传统的男性美主要体现在体质、肌肉和健美等方面。因此,关于减肥的讨论会被看做没有男子气概。即使男人的确得了厌食症也不会谈论,因为男人“没有心理问题”,“不谈论情绪”。

 

这种疾病在西方最常见。最近的研究表明这种疾病在不断增加,因此我们要关注这种疾病。进食障碍一般出现在体重减轻最明显的青春期。即使比自己同样身高、同样身材的人体重少很多,患者仍然从内心害怕体重的增加。

 

患者的体重比同身高人群的平均体重轻将近15%,医生就可以断定是进食障碍。患者还会避开油腻食品,使用泻药、利尿剂或进行剧烈的运动。因为人们生活在强调身材、时尚、化妆品的世界上,因此有时很难区分厌食症患者和对自己的身材极度敏感的人,厌食症患者与非厌食症患者有区别,因为体重减少完全是由自己造成的,患者极度减轻自己的体重,自己扣哦呕吐,直至病情迅速恶化无法控制。

 

很多患者极度关注自己的身材,虽然她们营养不良而且身材比同龄人苗条,但还是认为自己很胖。她们渐渐对同龄人参加的社交活动失去兴趣,常常变得不合群。这是青少年当中很普遍的症状。明显的体重减轻和注意力不集中相结合时就可以诊断为厌食症的初期。

 

该疾病的实际病因仍然未知,但科学家们认为生理上、社会上的原因,或者家人的死亡、压力、青春期的开始等引起创伤的事件会导致厌食症。

 

大部分厌食症患者是女性,但约有10%是男性。研究结果表明,男性厌食症患者和女性厌食症患者之间有差异。同种状态下,女性比男性更易认为自己的身体很胖,超过了正常的体重。男性患者一般很少扣喉呕吐,也不服用泻药和利尿剂,他们多由其他因素引起,但身体有较多不适。似乎男性厌食症患者和同性恋倾向有很大关联。虽然还不知道实际数据,但需要指出的是并不是说所有的男性神经性厌食症患者都是同性恋。而且男性患者的自杀率也很高。虽然医学上对男性厌食症有了更多的认识,但这种疾病原来是妇女疾病的传统想法使男性厌食症或进食障碍的诊断成为最大的困难。

 

患者不进行治疗也可以生存数年,但最终体重会减少25-30%,导致慢性疾病甚至是死亡。其死亡率会高达5%。其他的患者会幸存下来,因为在患病初期常可以完全康复。

 

对这种可怕的疾病也有治疗方法。在一些病例中,在患者伴有严重忧郁症的时候进行药物治疗,但一般会把患者送到精神科医生或者是治疗专家那里,并鼓励他们参加自助团体活动,和有过直接经验的厌食症患者进行交流。

 

词汇:

eating disorder 进食障碍 most commonly主要是 associated with与…有关anorexia nervosa神经性厌食症 concentrate集中 gender性别 a bias偏见diagnose诊断 symptom 症状 m identical同样的 a bout of一次 depression忧郁症upset心烦意乱 argely主要地 abel标注 mostly主要,大概 due to因…cultural文化的 arena领域 traditionally传统地 muscle肌肉 therefore因此weight loss体重减少·particularly特别是masculine男子气概的

concern 忧虑 recent最近的 m on the increase增加 manifest出现adolescence青春期 obvious明确的 apparent显然的 genuine真的constant持续的 terrifying惊人的 stature身材 a characterize表现…的特色tend to 倾向 avoid 躲避 a fatty油腻的 m laxatives泻药 diuretics 利尿剂engagein参与… excessive过分的mobsessed with困扰于adistinguish区别physical appearance外貌 completely完全地 m self-induced由自己引起的

a go to extremes 极端倾向 √ vomit 呕吐 eventually结果 out of control无法控制的m be preoccupied with全神贯注于... in reality现实的 malnourished 营养失调的starkly完全 peer同龄人abe involved in涉及 socialize社交 withdrawn孤僻的adolescent青少年 adrastic猛烈的 ack缺乏 concentration集中 complaint 抱怨homosexual同性恋 a figure外形,认为 ndicate表明 suicide自杀 attempt试图essentially本来 medical profession 医疗事业 a treatment治疗=chronic慢性的mortality rate死亡率 onset开始 temporary暂时的 recovery恢复 terrible 恐怖的medication药物治疗 accompany伴随 severe严重的 psychologist心理学家m therapist临床医学家·first-hand直接的

 

问题27、与第一段的单词bias含义接近的是:

A 厌恶

B 假设.

C偏见

D偏祖

解析:bias偏见的意思,与prejudice是同义词。

答案:C

 

问题28:为什么医生会把男性进食障碍误诊为与压力有关?

A男性承受的压力比女性更大。

B女性比男性更关心自己的外貌。

C统计上女性的数量更多。

D有的疾病被认为对女性的影响比男性更大。

解析:第二段的“because such disorders have been largely labeled female diseases"说明了男性进食障碍的误诊原因。

答案:D

 

29:与第三段的单词seldom含义最相似的是:

A频繁地

B从不

C罕见地

D被禁止的

解析:seldomrarely都是意为很少,不常的副词。

答案:

 

问题30:第三段中,作者为什么推论男性美与女性美是不一样的?

A 女人认为需要化妆来使她们看起来更漂亮。

B谈论时装和外貌的男人被认为没有男子气概。

D 男性美注重的是身体的健美。

解析:文中写道“traditionally men's beauty is displayed in body mass,building muscle,and body building",因此D是正确答

答案:D

 

问题31:第四段中,作者为什么说研究者们担心这种疾病?

A 这种疾病会传染。

B患者比以前更害怕体重的增加。

西方的时装业促发这种疾病。

D这种疾病正在增加。

解析:第四段的第一个句子提到“there is much cause for concern as recent research suggests that the disease is on the increase",因此D是正确答案。

答案:D

 

问题32:第五段中,作者为什么认为分辨真厌食症患者和非患者很困难?

A 我们的社会过于注重外貌。

最近大部分的人都不吃油腻的食物

C公认运动威胁健康。

D大部分的年轻人想拥有理想的体重

解析:文中表明道"Because people live in a world obsessed with image and a fashion and cosmetics industry...it can sometimes be difficult to distinguish",因此理由是A

答案:A

 

问题33:根据文意,青少年患这种疾病的征兆是什么?

A 情绪的严重变化

对肥胖的极度恐惧

C身体上和精神上的复合症状

D上课缺席

解析:第六段“coupled with the obvious and drastic weight loss and lack(concentration it is easier to diagnose an adolescent with the beginning stages of anorexia"表明,体重减轻等身体上的症状和注意力减退等精神上的症状一起出现。

答案:A

 

问题34:根据文意,哪个人群患这种疾病的可能性最高?

A 10岁到16岁的女性

B主要是遗传来的

非成年人

D有痛苦经历的人

解析:没有提及病人的具体年龄,第六段说“the disease can be triggered by traumatic events such as a death in the family, stress or the onset of puberty",有这些痛苦经历的人患病的可能性很高。

答案:D

 

问题35:第五段中,以下陈述中哪一项最准确地反映了作者对时装业和化妆品业的看法?

A 它是年轻人痛苦的原因。

B 它是一切进食障碍的根源,因为人们都想变苗条

它表现了无法达成的完美形象。

D 它造就了以貌取人的社会。

解析:文中写道“Because people live in a world obsessed with image and a fashion and cosmetics industry that forces an image of the ideal body, it can sometimes be difficult to distinguish between anorexics and those who have a higher interest in their physical appearance than most people",表明人们把时装业和化妆品产业看成是外貌至上的原因。

答案:D

 

问题36:

B运气好的人才能活下来。

C厌食症只不过是一个短暂的过程。

D患者只有住院治疗才能康复。

第九段表明“sometimes onset of the disease can be temporary with complete recovery",因此说厌食症只是暂时的疾病,C是正确答案。

答案:C

 

问题37:第六段中,作者说现实中患者营养不良、比同龄人更瘦的目的是什么?

A为了说明疾病是因体重减轻而产生的。

B为了主张同龄人的压迫感会给一些人带来压力。,

为了指明对身体的困扰导致问题的产生。

D为了说明患者有严重的心理疾病。

解析:由“Suffers are also completely preoccupied with their bodies and actually believe themselves to be fat when in reality they are malnourished and starkly thinner than their peers"可以看出,这种疾病是由于患者对自己的身体过分关注而产生的。

答案:C

 

问题38:请看文中的四个方框,下面的句子应添加到其中一处。

这种类型的团体中患者可以和其他同样状态的人交流,因此治疗厌食症的成功率最高。

此句放在哪处最合适?

点击方框,在文中添加该句。

解析:D之前说道“and are encouraged to join self-help groups and are counseled by people who have first hand experience of the disease themselves",而此句应该添加于其后,来说明这个组织的优点。

答案:D

 

问题39:要求:搭配下列短语,完成表格。

说明:从选项中选择适当的短语,将它们与相关的性别搭配到一起。选项中有两项不被选择,本题分值为4分。

1.团体内的更多个人想消除他们/她们的痛苦。

2.有些人认为自己比实际的体形更胖。

3.有些人遭受许多与之无关的症状。

4.同性恋和这种疾病的患者间有联系。

5.主治医师认为厌食症是女性疾病,因此一些男性不会被诊断出此病。

6.扣喉呕吐是很严重的问题。

7.大部分的患者来自这个团体。

8.厌食症的女性患者和男性患者间有差异。

 

答案:

Women with anorexia nervosa

2. Some people think they are much heavier than they actually are.

6. Self-induced vomiting is a serious problem.

7. Most sufferers come from this group.

 

Men with anorexia nervosa

1. More individuals in this group try to end their suffering.

3. Some individuals suffer far more from other not related symptoms.

4. There is link between homosexuality and sufferers of the disease.

 

image

 

课程咨询

微信图片_20190810111907​​​​​​​

上一篇

这里有最新的公司动态,这里有最新的网站设计、移动端设计、网页相关内容与你分享