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倒装语序

2020-01-10

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倒装包括部分倒装和完全倒装。部分倒装是将系动词、助动词或情态动词提到主语之前,而完全倒装是将谓语动词全部提到主语之前。

 

1部分倒装

 

1Only+状语位于句首时,句子构成部分倒装

 

Only+单词或短语状语位于句首

 

Only in the past few years has the technology improved enough for the prices to drop sufficiently to make them commercially viable.

只有在过去的几年里这项技术才得到提高,足以把价格降到在商业上可行的水平。

 

Only+状语从句位于句首

 

Only when he saw that the man was actually telephoning the police did he realize that they had all been the victims of a hoax.

只有当他看到这个人确实在打电话报警时,他才意识到他们都成了一场骗局的受害者。

 

2带有否定意义的状语从句时,句子构成部分倒装

 

Never before the planets linguistic diversity shrunk at such a pace.

地球上的语言多样性从未以这样的速度减少过。

 

Not only with doctors or lawyers is the required role behavior so constrained that if you are in that role for long it eventually becomes part of you ,part of your personality.

必需的角色行为具有明显的强制性,这不仅体现在律师和医生身上,如果你长期担任此角色,那么它最终也将成为你的一部分,你个性的一部分。

 

Application is absolutely free! Nor are there any annual fees or administration fees.

绝对免费申请!无须交纳任何年费或管理费。

 

带有否定意义的状语包括:

Neither(或nornever绝不;little一点也不;seldom不常;nor 不;nowhere任何地方也不;rarely不常;hardly几乎不;scarcely几乎不;hardly..when ...就;in vain 徒劳;no longer 不再;no more不再; not until 直到......才;scarcely...when ......就;no sooner...than ......就;not only...but also 不仅......而且;at no point 在任何时候都不;in no time 在任何时候都不;by no means 决不;in no case 在任何情况都不;in no way 决不;no where in the world 世界上任何地方都不;on no account 决不;under no circumstances 决不;not in the least 一点儿也不。

 

3so 或者as 位于句首时,句子构成部分倒装

 

如果前一句是肯定表达,后一句表达的情况和前一句相同,则后一句可用soas开头,构成部分倒装。

 

Mars is too dry and poor in oxygen ,Venus far too hot ,and so is Mercury.

火星太干燥,缺少氧气,金星实在太热,水星也一样。

 

The topic of conversation and characteristics of the social setting are also highly relevant ,as are the personal qualities of the informants.

谈话的话题和社会环境的特征也有很大关系,就像提供语料的讲本地话的人的个人品质那样重要。

 

在表示前后两句的肯定表达情况相同时,也常用as...so...句型,后一句常用倒装语序。

 

As the number of Japanese tourists traveling abroad has grown ,so too is it a part of history.

随着日本出国旅游人数增长,澳大利亚所占日本人出境旅游市场的份额也得到增长。

 

In the broadest sense, just as archaeology is an aspect of anthropology, so too is it a part of history.

从最广泛的意义上讲,就像考古学家时人类学的一方面一样,它也是历史的一部分。

 

As the number of older persons increases, so will the need to ensure their social inclusion, based on an income from decent work or retirement and a chance to participate in community life through employment, volunteer work or other activities.

随着老龄人口的增长,确保老年人被社会包容的必要性也在增长,这种包容的基础来自体面的工作或者退休的收入,以及通过就业、志愿工作或其他活动参与社会生活的机会。

 

 

4So ...that 句式中的部分倒装

 

so...that 句式时,将so...提前至句首,主句构成部分倒装。

 

So ordinary and routine this become to us that it takes a determined leap of the imagination to grasp the impact of those first moving images.

这对我们而言非常和普通,需要想象力的坚定飞跃才能理解这些第一批动感图像所产生的影响。

 

So impressive was this invention, so difficult was it to exceed this speed limit, that nearly 3500 years later, when the mail coach began operating in England in 1784, it averaged a mere ten mph.

这项发明令人如此印象深刻,而超过这一速度极限又如此困难,以至于几乎在过去了3500年以后,当第一辆邮政马车在1784年的英格兰开始运行时,其平均速度只有每小时10英里。

 

5比较状语从句中的部分倒装

 

在比较状语从句中,than 或第二个as之后的部分往往构成部分倒装。

 

As a group they generally came up with the same meaning at least as frequently as did sighted subjects .

作为一个小组,他们一般情况下得出的相同意思至少和有视力的人一样频繁。

 

Students with strong motivation are more likely to succeed than are those with poor motivation.

动机强的学生比动机弱的学生更有可能成功。

 

6当某些副词或状语位于句首时,句子构成部分倒装

 

这类副词或状语多表示时间、频率、或者程度,包括有only recently ,always, often, many times many a time, particularly, well 等。

 

Only recently did he have a chance to visit his hometown.

只是到了最近他才有机会去家乡探望。

 

Many a time has he helped me with my English study.

他曾许多次帮助我学习英语。

 

Twice within my lifetime have World Wars taken place.

在我的一生中发生过两次世界大战。

 

Not even once this year have we increased the prices of any goods we sell.

今年我们所出售的商品一次也没有涨过价。

 

Well do I remember the day when it happened.

我清楚地记得这件事发生的那一天。

 

7让步状语从句中的部分倒装

 

在由asthoughwhether引导的让步状语从句中,可以构成部分倒装。

 

Asthough引导的状语从句构成部分倒装

 

方式为:将从句末尾的单词或词组提前至句首。需要注意的是,用连词though时,从句也可以使用正常语序;而用连词as时,从句必须使用倒装语序。

 

This young fellow was clever because the first thing he did was study other systems ---primitive as they were --- of moving pictures and then put all the existing technologies together to make the first entire motion picture system.

这位年轻人很聪明,因为他做的第一件事情就是研究其他移动图像系统----- 尽管很原始 ----- 然后综合利用一切现有的技术,制作第一个完整的电影系统。

 

An intellectual breakthrough, though it may be ,does not automatically ensure that the transition is made from theory to practice.

一项智力上的突破,哪怕也许很出色,也不一定顺理成章地确保从理论过渡到实际应用。

 

Whether引导的状语从句构成部分倒装

 

whether引导的状语从句中,当省略whether时,系动词使用原形,并且提前至句首。

 

不管是出售货物还是装运货物,每天的生意都进行得很顺利。

 

While newspapers and TV stations may aim to report world events accurately, be they natural or human disasters, political events or the horror of war, it is also true that their main objective is to sell newspapers and attract listeners and viewers to their stations.

尽管报纸和电视台可能追求准确地报道世界事件,不论是自然灾难还是认为灾难,也不论是政治事件还是战争的恐怖。但是,他们的主要目标还是出售报纸,吸引和观众来关注他们的电视台。

 

as引导的原因状语从句中的部分倒装

 

当原因状语从句由as 引导时,可以构成倒装,方式和as引导的让步状语从句的倒装完全相同。

 

It is unrealistic to expect very high levels of water -use efficiency in many developing countries, faced as they are with a chronic lack of capital and a largely untrained rural workforce.

期望在许多发展中国家有很高的用水效率并不现实,因为他们面临着长期缺乏资金以及农村劳动力在很大程度上没有受过培训的问题。

 

9虚拟条件句中的倒装

 

在虚拟语气的条件句中,如果省略连词if,从句就构成部分倒装。

 

针对过去的虚拟语气条件句中的倒装

 

The cave might never have been discovered had not the entrance been spotted by the distinguished French potholer, Berger.

 

如果不是法国著名洞穴探险家发现波格发现了这个入口,这个洞穴或许永远也不会被人发现。

 

针对现在的虚拟语气条件句中的倒装

 

I dont know what I should do for relaxation, were it not for the innumerable detective stories.

 

如果没有那么多侦探小说,我不知道该如何消遣呢。

 

针对将来的虚拟语气句中的倒装

 

Should it rain tomorrow we would cancel the gathering.

 

如果明天下雨,我们就取消这次聚会。

 

Were I to go the moon some day, I could see the surface of the moon with my own eyes.

 

假如有朝一日我去月球,我就能够亲眼看到月球的表面。

 

在真实条件句中,当省略if时构成的倒装

 

if+should条件句中,如果省略if,则将should提前至句首。句中的should表示可能性。

 

Should none of your choices be available, we will do our best to suggest suitable alternatives.

 

如果你的选择已经全部订出,我们将尽力向你推荐其他合适的选择方案。

 

We will send you Booking Confirmation, together with advice on how to reach your holiday cottage and the telephone number of a local contact should you require further details on the cottage before leaving home.

 

如果你在离家前需要了解更多的细节,我们将寄给你预定确认书,并告诉你如何让到达假日别墅,以及当地的电话联系方式。

 

2完全倒装

 

1 - - 表结构可构成完全倒装

 

这种表达一是为了对主语加以强调,二是由于主语过长,为了保持句子平衡,故将主语置于句尾。

 

Within easy reach is an unspoilt coastline.

 

保存完好的海岸线近在咫尺。

 

Of growing interest is the way in which much of what we might see as disposable is ,elsewhere, recycled and reused.

 

很多东西我们原本以为该处理或丢弃的,却在别处又被回收利用了,这种废品回收的办法引起了人们越来越浓厚的兴趣。

 

Attached to the Booking Confirmation will be a not showing the balance due on your holiday and the date by which it is payable.

 

随确认书寄出的还有一张通知单,上面写明结欠款项以及交款日期。

 

Particularly interesting are a series of collections which continue to document the evolution of ceremony and of material forms for which the Department already possesses early (if not the earliest) collections formed after the first contact with Europeans.

 

特别有趣的是,一系列的收藏品继续要以实证来说明礼节仪式和物质形态的演变过程,为达到此目的,该馆原有的早期(如果还算不上是最早的话)馆藏展品可予佐证,这些馆藏展品形成于和欧洲人初次接触之后。

 

2当直接引语在前时,句子可构成完全倒装

 

当直接引语在前,主谓部分在后,则主谓部分可以构成完全倒装。

 

The people you employ are your ambassadors,says Peter Griffin, managing director of a major retailer in the UK.

 

“员工就是你的大使,”英国一家主要的零售企业的经理彼得.格里芬说。

 

there will be an increasing specialization in the marketplace,predicts Mr Blyth, Customer Services Manager of a large UK bank.

 

“市场的专业化程度将会不断增强,”英国一家银行的客服经理布莱思先生预测说。

 

Not only did it solve a problem that intrigued man for ages, but, more importantly, it literally opened the door to exploration of the universe.

 

它不仅解决了长期以来人类兴趣的一个问题,而且更重要的是,它实际上打开了探索宇宙的大门。

 

 

3当方位副词位于句首时,句子可构成完全倒装

 

From uniforms and workwear has emerged corporate clothing.

 

制服和工装演变成了“企业衣着”。

 

In this tiny brain are encoded some of the most complex and amazing behavioral patterns witnessed outside humankind.

 

在这个微小的大脑之中隐藏着一些人类看不到的最复杂、最惊人的行为模式。

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