Good morning everyone. Now whether you're going to university to study business or some other subject, many of you will eventually end up working for a company of some kind.
Now, when you first start working somewhere you will realise that the organisation you oined has certain characteristics. And we often refer to these social characteristics as the sulture of the organisation-this includes its unwritten ideas,beliefs,values and things like hat. One well known writer has classified company cultures by identifying four major types.
The first type is called the Power Culture, and it's usually found in small organisations.
It's the type of culture that needs a central source of power to be effective, 【1】and because control is in the hands of just one or two people there aren't many rules or procedures. Another characteristic is that communication usually takes the form of conversations 【2】rather than, say, formal meetings or written memos. Now one of the benefits of this culture is that the organisation has the ability to act quickly, so it responds well to threat, or danger on the one hand , and opportunity on the other.
But on the negative side, this type of organisation doesnapos;t always act effectively, 【3】because it depends too much on one or two people at the top, and when these people make poor decisions there's no-one else who can influence them.
And the kind of person who does well in this type of business culture is one who is happy to take risks, 【4】and for whom job security is a low priority.
The next type is known as Role Culture - that's R-O-L-E, not R-O-double L, by the way,and this type is usually found in large companies, which have lots of different levels 【5】in them.These organisations usually have separate departments that specialise in things like finance,or sales , or maintenance，or whatever. Each one is co-ordinated at the top by a small group of senior managers, and typically everyone's job is controlled by sets of rules and procedures -for example,there are descriptions,rules for discipline,and so on.【6】
What are the benefits of this kind of culture? Well firstly, because it's found in large organisations, its fixed costs, or overheads as they're known, are low in relation o its output, or what it produces. In other words it can achieve economies of scale. And secondly, it is particularly successful in business markets where technical expertise is important. 【7】On the other hand, this culture is often very slow to recognise the need for change, 【8】and even slower to react. What kind of person does this type of culture suit Well it suits employees who value security, and who don't particularly want to have responsibility.【9】
Moving on now to Task Cultures - this type is found in organisations that are project oriented. You usually find it where the market for the company's product s extremely competitive, or where the products themselves have a short life-span. Usually top management delegates the projects, the people and other resources. And once these hav been allocated, little day-to-day control is exercised from the top, because this would seem like 'breaking the rules'.
Now one of the major benefits of this culture is that it's flexible. 【10】But it does have some major disadvantages too. For instance, it can't produce economies of scale o great depth of expertise. People who like working in groups or teams prefer this type of culture.
And finally, the fourth category is called the Person Culture...
Question 1 central
The first type is called the Power Culture, and it's usually found in small organisations.It's the type of culture that needs a central source of power to be effective...
Power Culture为大的定位词，small为该企业文化第一个特征，对应题干，进一步定位，注意听后面的内容。根据source of power与power source对应，可确定前面的修饰词central即为所需答案。
Question 2 conversations
Another characteristic is that communication usually takes the form of conversations rather than, say, formal meetings or written memos.
由another引出另一个特征，communication对应题干，是关键定位词。takes the form of“以……的方式”，与题干中的by为同义替换，可推出conversation为正确答案。
Question 3 effectively
But on the negative side, this type of organisation doesn't always act effectively...
on the negative side 是关键定位词，表示开始阐述不足之处。doesn't always act为否定，且act直接对应题干，很容易判断后面的effectively就是所需答案。
Question 4 risks
And the kind of person who does well in this type of business culture is one who is happy to take risks...
person who does well in this type of business culture为定位词，说的就是suitable employee. happy to take"喜欢"与题干中的not afraidof“不怕”意思福符，可判定risks为答案。
Question 5 levels
The next type is known as Role Culture...this type is usually found in large companies,which have lots of different levels in them.
Role Culture为大的定位词，表明开始说第二种文化。large为第一个特征，直接对应题干，进一步定位。 lots of与题干中的many为同又替换，因为题目要求只能填一个单词，所以不能填different levels,故最后答案应为levels。
Question 6 descriptions
... for example, there are specific job descriptions, rules for discipline...
for example对应e.g.,是关键定位词。job直接对应题干，可判断description就是答案，又根据rules for discipline也直接对应题干，再次确定答案就是description。
Question 7 technical
What are the benefits of this kind of culture...secondly,it is particularly successful in business markets where technical expertise is important.
Question 8 change
On the other hand, this culture is often very slow to recognise the need for change...
On the other hand为定位词，说明开始阐述其缺点。slow to recognise 对应题干中的slowtosee,是关键信息，其中recognise 与see为同义替换。the need for change所要表达的意思就是whenchange is needed,所以这里要填入的就是change。
Question 9 responsibility
Well it suits employees who value security, and who don't particularly want to have responsibility.
employee和value security直接对应题干，是关键定位词。don't...want对应题干中的doesn't want,很容易得出此题的答案就是responsibility。
Question 10 flexible
Now one of the major benefits of this culture is that it's flexible...