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雅思听力填空题材料与答案6

2020-01-10

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听力材料:

As we saw in the last lecture, a major cause of climate change is the rapid rise in the level of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere over the last century. If we could reduce the amount of CO2, perhaps the rate of climate change could also be slowed down. One potential method involves enhancing the role of the soil that plants grow in, with regard to absorbing CO2.

Rattan Lal, a soil scientist from Ohio State University, in the USA, claims that the world's agricultural soils could potentially absorb 13 per cent of the carbon dioxide in the atmosphere

- the equivalent of the amount released in the last 30 years. And research is going on into how this might be achieved.

 

Lal first came to the idea that soil might be valuable in this way not through an interest in climate change , but rather out of concern for the land itself and the people dependent on it .Carbon-rich soil is dark, crumbly and fertile, and retains some water. But erosion can occur【1】 if soil is dry, which is a likely effect if it contains inadequate amounts of carbon. Erosion is of course bad for people trying to grow crops or breed animals on that terrain. In the 1970s and ' 80s , Lal was studying soils in Africa so devoid of organic matter that the ground had become extremely hard, 【2】like cement. There he met a pioneer in the study of global warming,who suggested that carbon from the soil had moved into the atmosphere. This is now looking increasingly likely .

 

Let me explain. For millions of years, carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere have been regulated, in part, by a natural partnership between plants and microbes-tiny organisms in the soil. Plants absorb CO2 from the air and transform it into sugars and other carbon-based substances. 【3】While a proportion of these carbon products remain in the plant, some transfer from the roots to fungi and soil microbes, 【4】which store the carbon in the soil.

 

The invention of agriculture some 10,000 years ago disrupted these ancient soil-building processes and led to the loss of carbon from the soil. When humans started draining the natural topsoil, and ploughing it up for planting, they exposed the buried carbon to oxygen.This created carbon dioxide and released it into the air. And in some places, grazing by domesticated animals has removed all vegetation, releasing carbon into the air. Tons of carbon have been stripped from the world's soils - where it's needed - and pumped into the atmosphere.

 

So what can be done? Researchers are now coming up with evidence that even modest changes to farming can significantly help to reduce the amount of carbon in the atmosphere.

 

Some growers have already started using an approach known as regenerative agriculture.This aims to boost the fertility of soil and keep it moist through established practices. 【5】These include keeping fields planted all year round, and increasing the variety of plants being grown. 【6】Strategies like these can significantly increase the amount of carbon stored in the soil,so agricultural researchers are now building a case for their use in combating climate change.

 

One American investigation into the potential for storing CO2 on agricultural lands is taking place in California. Soil scientist Whendee Silver of the University of California, Berkeley, is conducting a first-of-its-kind study on a large cattle farm in the state. 【7】She and her students are testing the effects on carbon storage of the compost that is created from waste - both agricultural, including manure and cornstalks, and waste produced in gardens, such as leaves, branches, and lawn trimmings.【8】

 

In Australia, soil ecologist Christine Jones is testing another promising soil-enrichment strategy. Jones and 12 farmers are working to build up soil carbon by cultivating grasses that stay green all year round.【9】 Like composting, the approach has already been proved experimentally; Jones now hopes to show that it can be applied on working farms and that the resulting carbon capture can be accurately measured.

 

It's hoped in the future that projects such as these will demonstrate the role that farmers and other land managers can play in reducing the harmful effects of greenhouse gases.For example, in countries like the United States, where most farming operations use large applications of fertiliser, changing such long-standing habits will require a change of system Rattan Lal argues that farmers should receive payment not just for the corn or beef they produce,but also for the carbon they can store in their soil.【10】

 

Another study being carried out...

 

答案:

Question 1 dry

Lal first came to the idea... But erosion can occur if soil is dry...

 

Lal与小标题对应,erosion与题干完全对应,均为定位词,注意听后面的内容。soil与题干完全对应,是关键信息,可以确定其后的形容词dry就是所需答案。

 

Question 2 hard

Lal was studying soils in Africa so devoid of organic matter that the ground had become extremely hard.

 

Lal和soils in Africa与题干完全对应,说明开始介绍Lal对非洲土壤的调查。devoid(缺乏的)为干扰信息,后面的extremely与题干中的very为同义替换,是关键信息,确定其

后的形容词hard即为所需答案。

 

Question 3  sugars

Plants absorb CO2 from the air and transform it into sugars and other carbon-based substances.

 

plants和CO2与题干完全对应,是重要定位词。transform...into与题干中的turn...into为同义替换,推测其后的sugars为所需答案。由连词and引出的other carbon-based substances为关键信息,说明sugars是carbon-based substances,由此证实推断正确。

 

Question 4  roots

While a proportion of these carbon products remain in the plant, some transfer from the roots to fungi and soil microbes.

 

此题紧接上一题,some指的就是题平中的someCO2,是定位词,注意听后面的内容。transfer from与题干中的moves from为同义替换,推测the后面的roots为所需答案。soll microbes与题干中的 microbes in the soil相对应,是关键信息,由此确定推测成立。

 

Question 5   moist

Some growers have already started using an approach known as regenerative agriculture This aims to boost the fertility of soil and keep it moist through established practices

 

 regenerative agriculture与题干完全对应,是重要定位词,注意听后面的内容。boost the fertility of soil与题干soil remains fertile相对应,接着由and引出的keep与题干中的remain为同义替换,由此推测其后的moist为正确答案。through established practices中的与题干中的use established practices相对应,为关键信息,证实推断正确。

 

Question 6   variety

These include keeping fields planted all year round, and increasing the variety of plants being grown.

 

本题紧接上一题,keeping fields planted all year round 与题干中的through year-round planting相对应,为定位词。由连词and引出的increasing与题干完全对应,为关键信息, 推测后面的名词variety即为所需答案。of plants being grown与题干中的 of plants that are grown相对应,为关键信息,因此确定答案为variety。

 

Question 7   cattle

One American investigation into the potential for storing CO2 on agricultural lands is taking place in California. Soil scientist Whendee Silver of the University of California,Berkeley, is conducting a first-of-its-king study on a large cattle farm in the state.

 

California与题干完全对应,是重要定位词,注意听后面的内容。conducting a...study on a large与题干中的taking place on a big相对应,为关键信息,其中large与题干中的big为同义替换,由此推则其后的cattle为正确答案。后面的farm与题干相完全对应,为关键信息,证实推断正确。

 

Question 8   gardens

She and her students are testing the effects on carbon storage of the compost that is created from waste-both agricultural, including manure and cornstalks, and waste produced in gardens, such as leaves, branches, and lawn trimmings.

 

本题紧接上一题,compost that is created from waste与题干中的compost made from waste 相对应,是定位词,注意听后面的内容。both agricultural与题干完全一致,再次锁定答案出处,后面由连词and引出的waste produced in 与题干中的 waste from 相对应,为关键信息,确定其后的gardens即为正确答案。

 

Question 9   grasses

In Australia, soil ecologist Christine Jones is testing another promising soil-enrichment strategy. Jones and 12 farmers are working to build up soil carbon by cultivating grasses that stay green all year round.

 

Australia与题干完全对应,是重要定位词,说明开始介绍澳大利亚土壤生态学家的研究。build up soil carbon by cultivating与题干中的increase soil carbon by using相对应,为关键信息,其中buildup与increase为同义替换,cultivating与using表达的意思一致,推测其后的grasses为正确答案。后面的stay green all year round与题干中的are always green相对应,为关键信息,证实推断正确。

 

Question 10   payment

It's hoped in the future that projects...Rattan Lal argues that farmers should receive payment not just for the corn or beef they produce, but also for the carbon they can store in their soil.

 

in the future that projects与小标题future developments相对应,是重要定位词,注意听后面的内容。  farmers should receive与题干中的giving farmers表述意思相符,由此推测提后的名词payment为正确答案。后面的 not only for... they produce,but also for the carbon与题干相对应,为关键信息,证实推断正确。

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