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名词性从句

2020-01-09

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名词从句指的是行使名词功能的从句,按照所发挥的具有功能,又可分为主语从句、宾语从句、表语从句、同位语从句以及补语从句。

 

 

1主语从句

 

主语从句在全句中发挥主语功能。

 

结合例句,体会主语从句的具体用法。

 

1that引导

 

That this has not happened may be the fault of the university.

 

这样的事情没有发生其责任可能在大学。

 

That all great art has this power of suggesting a world beyond is undeniable.

 

不可否认,一切伟大的艺术都具有一种联想天外世界的能力。

 

主语从句经常置于句尾,而用代词it作形式主语放在句首。

 

It is often important that you make it clear what your particular role is at a given time.

 

在一个特定阶段,你要搞清楚你的特殊角色是什么,这一点往往非常重要。

 

It is strange that the rocket was generally ignored by writers of fiction to transport their heroes to mysterious realms beyond the Earth, even though it had been commonly used in fireworks displays in China since the thirteenth century.

 

令人奇怪的是,尽管自13世纪以来火箭在中国已广泛用于烟花展演,火箭之类的话题却往往被小说家所忽略而未能将他们的主人公运载到地球以外的神秘星球上去。

 

It is probable that, some time in the tenth century, black powder was first compounded from its basic ingredients of saltpetre, charcoal and sulphur.

 

情况很可能是这样的:在10世纪的某个时期,人们首次用硝石、木炭和硫磺作为基本原料合成黑色炸药。

 

2what引导

 

What are utilitarian objects to a Westerner may be prized be prized objects in other cultures.

 

对于西方人来说是功利主义的东西,在其他文化背景中却可能是珍藏品。

 

What makes a language endangered is not just the number of speakers, but how old they are .

 

使语言濒临灭绝的不仅是使用人数,还有使用者的年纪。

 

3whether 引导

 

Its a mass extinction, and whether we will ever rebound from the loss is difficult to know.

 

这是一种规模的灭绝,我们能否挽回这种局面现在很难知道。

 

It doesnt matter whether youre an experienced musician or a complete beginner.

 

不管你是资深的音乐家,还是完全的初学者,这都无所谓。

 

4how引导

 

How long the course takes is to you.

 

课程花费多长时间取决于你自己。

 

Wittingly or unwittingly, how we look sends all sorts of powerful subliminal messages to other people.

 

我们的外表有意无意地向其他人传递各种强烈的潜意识信息。

 

5where引导

 

Where we disagree is on how we respond to these threats.

 

我们的分歧在于如何应对这些威胁。

 

When it has been decided where we are going to drill, we put up at the surface an oil derrick.

 

当决定好要在什么位置钻井后,我们就在地面上搭起油井井架。

 

 

6并列主语从句

 

Whether such a sense of fairness evolved independently in capuchins and humans ,or whether it stems from the common ancestor that the species had 35 million years ago, is as yet, an unanswered question.

 

这是一种公平感是在卷尾猴和人类身上各自发展而来的,还是起源于这两种物种在3500万年以前的共同祖先,迄今为止仍是一个未解的问题。

 

It is said that the nerve poison is the more primitive of the two, that the blood poison is ,so to speaks, a newer product from an improved formula.

 

据说,神经毒液是两者中较为原始的一种,而血液毒液不妨说是经过改进配方制成的较新产品。

 

 

 

7双重主语从句

 

How it came about that snakes manufactured poison is mystery.

 

蛇是怎样生产毒液的现在还是一个谜。

 

该句的主语部分有两个层次:how it came about 为第一层次,that snakes manufactured poison 为第二个层次,作前一个层次的主语。

 

 

2表语从句

 

标语从句在全句中发挥表语的功能。

 

结合例句,体会标语从句的具体用法。

 

1that引导

 

One advantage of being an only child is that there is less arguing within the family.

 

独生子女的一个好处在于,在家庭内部争吵较少。

 

The biggest change in China is that it has become more available to more people.

 

中国教育的最大变化就是,已经有更多的人们可以接受教育。

 

2what引导

 

This is what the sculptor mush do.

 

这是雕塑家必须要做的。

 

The question is what step we should take next.

 

问题在于下一步我们该采取什么措施。

 

3because 引导

 

The newspaper returned a profit. This was partly because advertising space was bought in the paper by large department stores.

 

报纸获得了收益。部分原因在于报纸上的广告版面出售给了大百货商店。

 

4how引导

 

Thats of course how the college got their names.

 

那显然就是这所学院名称的由来。

 

The big problem is how we can get rid of poverty.

 

一个很大的问题是我们如何摆脱贫困。

 

5when引导

 

One is generally aware when one has said something, or acted in some way which has left on other people an impression not strictly in accordance with the facts.

 

一个人说的某句话或做的某件事情,给人留下的印象不完全符合事实,他对这种情况通常是清楚的。

 

6where引导

 

These fracture zones, where the collisions occur, are where earthquakes happen.

 

这些发生碰撞的断痕带是发生地震的地方。

 

7whether 引导

 

The critical question now is whether this can become the norm, rather than the exception.

 

当前关键的问题是这种做法能否成为标准,而不是一种例外。

 

8who引导

 

Free leisure time allows them to be who they truly are.

 

自由支配的空闲时间让他们成为真正的自己。

 

9why引导

 

Appreciation of sculpture depends upon the ability to respond to form in three dimensions. That is perhaps why sculpture has been described as the most difficult of all arts.

 

欣赏雕塑取决于对三维形态的反应能力。也许,这就是为什么雕塑被描述为最难的艺术的原因。

 

10as if 引导

 

It looks very much as if sleeping is not simply a matter of giving the body a rest.

 

很有可能睡眠不仅仅是让人体获得休息。

 

11两个或两个以上并列的标语从句

 

The myth of scientific method is not only that it is inductive but also that the hypothetico-deductive method proceeds in a step-dy-step, inevitable fashion.

 

科学方法的神秘之处不仅在于它是归纳法,而且体现在这样一个事实上:“假设-演绎法”是一个一步接一步,不可跳跃的过程。

 

3宾语从句

 

宾语从句在全句中发挥宾语功能,可位于动词之后,也可位于介词之后。

 

结合例句,体会宾语从句的具体用法。

 

1that引导

 

引导词that经常可以省略。

 

I agree that international sporting occasions such as the Olympics and the World Cup can be very effective in easing international tensions.

 

我同意如奥运会和世界杯足球赛之类的体育赛事对缓解国际间的紧张局势非常有效。

 

This chart clearly indicates that there are some significant differences in spending habits within European countries.

 

该表清楚地表明了欧洲国家之间存在显著的消费习惯差异。

 

Many people claim they feel better in negatively charged air.

 

很多人说自己在呈现负电荷的空气里感觉更舒服。  

 

2what引导

 

During the course of this morning we hope to give yo a clear idea of what we offer in our training programs.

 

今天上午这段时间里,我们希望让你们清楚地了解我们的培训项目所开设的课程。

 

We have to ask ourselves very seriously what will happen if this twofold use of knowledge, with its ever-increasing power continues.

 

我们不得不十分严肃地问一问自己,威力日益增强的知识,如果仍然这样不明辩是非地继续应用下去,将会产生说明后果。

 

3)、how引导

 

How表示方式

 

A simple analogy can help us to understand how a rocket operates.

 

一个简单的类比将有助于我们理解火箭是如何运作的。

 

Through its collections, the Departments specific interest is to document how objects created and used.

 

根据馆内现存的收藏品来看,该馆专为各种用具的制作方法及其用途提供证明并记录在案。

 

In June 1992 political and environmental leaders from across the world met in Rio de Janeiro to discuss how developing countries can advance their economies destroying their natural resources.

 

19926月,来自世界各地的政治、环保方面的领导人在里约热内卢聚首,讨论发展中国家如何才能在不破坏自然资源的前提下促进各自经济的发展。

 

Psychologists have also studied how being cold affects performance.

 

心理学家也研究了天气寒冷如何影响人们的表现。

 

How 表示程度

 

The exhibition demonstrates how advanced the suffragettes were in their thinking, in the marketing of their campaign, and in their work as shrewd and skillful image-builders.

 

展览展示了女权运动者在思想、运动的市场营销和敏锐熟练地树立形象这些方面有多么超前。

 

Scientists have also discovered genes that influence how quickly a person becomes violent.

 

科学家们还发现了可以影响人们变得狂暴的过程快慢的基因。

 

4ifwhether引导

 

引导动词的宾语从句时,ifwhether都表示“是否”,但是,当从句中有oror not 时,则使用whether

 

The course will give students the experience to decide if they wish to pursue an interest in this field.

 

该课程给予学生亲身体验的机会,以便他们决定是否在这一领域继续发展自己的兴趣。

 

Please state whether you are married or single.

 

请你说明你是已婚还是未婚。

 

当从句作介词的宾语时,只能使用whether引导

 

I hesitated about whether I should accept the invitation.

 

我对是否应接受邀请犹豫不决。

 

Im talking about whether each medium should be used with different sized groups.

 

我现在说的是每种媒体是否应该为不用大小的群体所利用。

 

5why引导

 

I can see why it may be good thing to have some kind of censorship.

 

我能够明白为什么审查或许是件好事。

 

Here we have two radically different explanations for why so many teacher-subjects were willing to forgo their sense of personal responsibility for the sake of an institutional authority figure.

 

在这里,对于为什么会有那么多扮演教师的测试对象愿意因为制度上的权威人物而放弃他们自己的个人责任,我们有两种完全不同的解释。

 

6which引导

 

This indicates which floor your room is on.

 

这指明你的房间在哪一层。

 

Decision makers must have way of determining which of several alternatives is best.

 

决策者们必须哟偶某种办法决定几个可选项中哪一个是最好的。

 

7where引导

 

This means that the children grow up without consideration for others and without any understanding of where their standard of living comes from.

 

这意为着孩子在成长过程中从不为他人者想,也不明白他们的幸福生活来自何处。

 

8who引导

 

It is difficult to say who has the right to judge whether children working is wrongor valuable.

 

很难说谁有权力评判儿童做工是“错误的”还是“有价值的”。

 

From being a simple means of identifying who is member of staff, the uniform is emerging as a new channel of marketing communication.

 

制服不再简单地用来分辨谁是企业的员工,它正在演化成营销传播的一种新途径。

 

9when引导

 

Nobody could tell when the war will end.

 

没有人知道这场战争什么时候会结束。

 

 

 

10whatever引导

 

Children are allowed to have whatever they want, regardless of price.

 

不管价格多少,孩子们要什么就给什么。

 

Traffic flows rise to fill whatever scale of highways are provided for them.

 

车流的增长会使任何规模的公路网车满为患。

 

 

11两重或多重宾语从句

 

有时,宾语从句中包含着较小的宾语从句,形成两个或多个层次的错综关系。

 

Many believe that the story first began in American in 1877, when two friends were arguing over whether a horse ever had all four feet or hooves off the ground when it galloped.

 

许多人认为这个故事起源于1877年的美国,当时有两个朋友争论马在奔跑的时候是否四个蹄子同时全部离开地面。

 

Specifically, Milgram told each volunteer teacher-subjectthat the experiment was in the noble cause of education, and was designed to test whether or not punishing pupils for their mistakes would have a positive effect on the pupilsability to learn.

 

具体地说,米尔格兰姆告诉每个扮演“教师”角色的志愿者,实验室为了高尚的教育事业而设计的,主要是看惩罚学生所犯的错误是否对学生的学习能力有积极的影响。

 

 

4同位语从句

 

同位语从句在句中发挥同位语的功能,对前面名词的内容予以明确而具体的解释说明的名词都比较抽象笼统。

 

结合例句,体会同位语从句的具体用法。

 

1that引导

 

There is mounting evidence that learning a languages psychological changes in the brain.

 

有越来越多的证据显示,学一种语言会使大脑产生心理变化。

 

Overall this graph gives evidence that Australias share of Japans tourist market has been on the rise and will continue to do so.

 

该图表整体可以证明澳大利亚占有的日本人出国旅游从市场份额一直处于上升阶段并且会持续增长。

 

There is some likelihood that all accountants will be alike or that all blondes are similar.

 

有这样的可能性:所有会计人员将趋于雷同,或全部的金发碧眼女郎都彼此相似。

 

The apparent simplicity of Indian ways of life has been judged an evolutionary adaptation to forest ecology, living proof that Amazonia could not, and cannot, sustain a more complex society.

 

印第安人简单的生活方式时显而易见的,且已被认定为是对森林生态环境一种逐步进化的适应,生动地证明了亚马逊河地区过去不能、现在也不能支撑起一个更为复杂的社会。

 

There is no doubt that crimes against the personrise in the summer, when the weather is hotter and fall in the winter, when the weather is colder.

 

无疑,“非犯罪人本意的犯罪现象”在天气较为炙热的夏天会上升,在天气较为寒冷的冬季则会下降。

 

2由其它词引导的同位语从句

 

I have no idea how I can make myself understood.

 

我不知道怎样让别人理解我的意思。

 

They have little idea where whey are going when they first set pen to paper.

 

他们在提笔之初怎么写并没有什么想法。

 

They are investigating the question whether the man is trustworthy.

 

他们正在调查此人是否值得信赖这一问题。

 

 

3同位语从句与被修饰名词的分隔

 

有时,同位语从句与被修饰的名词之间会出现其它成分,将同位语从句和被修饰词分隔。

 

In the end the fact remains that pharmaceutical companies have right to make a profit and will continue to find new ways to increase sales.

 

最后,事实仍然是:医药公司完全有理由赚取利润,而且将继续找到新的方法增加销售量。

 

He was arguing in favor the position taken by Karl Popper in The Logic of Scientific Discovery that the nature of scientific method is hypothetico-deductive and not, as is generally believed inductive

 

他是在为卡尔.波普尔《科学发现的逻辑》中所采取的立场辩护,后者认为科学方法的本质是“假设-演绎”,而不是通常所认为的“归纳”。

 

 

4两个以上的同位语从句同时修饰一个名词。

 

There is evidence that these materials work, and that schools can achieve something.

 

有证据表明,这些材料行之有效,而且学校能够取得某些效果。

 

In the 1950s and 1960s, there emerged an awareness in Western societies that resources for the provision of fossil fuel energy were finite and exhaustible and that the capacity of nature or the environment to sustain economic development and population was also finite.

 

20世纪50年代和60年代,西方社会开始意识到提供矿物质燃料能量的资源是有限的且有可能枯竭,而大自然或环境承受经济发展和人口的能力也是有限的。

 

5补语从句

 

补语从句在句中作补语,对前面内容予以补充。

 

结合例句,体会补语从句的具体用法。 

 

1Sb.is+形容词+补语从句

 

I am certain that this trend will continue into the future.

 

我确信,这一趋势会持续发展下去。

 

They were aware that productivity increases were sought by management in conducting these experiments.

 

他们知道管理者进行这些实验室为了追求生产率的提高。

 

Sometimes Im not sure if its the pendant that actually brings me good luck, or just my thinking that dose it.

 

有时我不能肯定是这个挂件给我带来了好运,还是我的想法使然。

 

2Sb.is+动词的被动形式+补语从句

 

The taeacher-subject was told that whenever the pupil gave the wrong answer to a question, a shock was to be administered, beginning at the lowest level and increasing in severity with each successive wrong answer.

 

扮演教师的测试对象被告知,只要学生给出错误的答案,他们就按开关电击学生,其强度从最低级开始,并随着学生依次给出的错误答案而增加。

 

Students are reminded that if they park a motor vehicle on University premises without a valid permit, they will be fined $20.

 

学生得到提醒,如果他们没有有效的证件就把机动车停在大学校园,将罚款20英镑。

 

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