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英语专业八级PART III: LANGUAGE USAGE教材

2021-10-14

LESSON 1

The passage contains TEN errors. Each indicated line contains a maximum of ONE error. In each case, only ONE word is involved. You should proofread the passage and correct it in the following way:

 

For a wrong word,                   underline the wrong word and write the correct one in the blank

provided at the end of the line.

For a missing word,            mark the position of the missing word with a ""sign and write the

word you believe to be missing in the blank provided at the end of the line.

For an unnecessary word,           cross the unnecessary word with a slash "/" and put the word in the

blank provided at the end of the line.

EXAMPLE

When art museum wants a new exhibit,                                   1    an      

it never buys things in finished form and hangs                                 2    never   

them on the wall. When a natural history museum

wants an exhibition, it must often build it.                                     3    exhibit   

Proofread the given passage on ANSWER SHEET THREE as instructed.

 

From what has been said, it must be clear that no one can make                    

very positive statements about how language originated. There is no                

material in any languages today and in the earliest records of ancient                1            

languages shows us language in a new and emerging state. It is often                2            

said, of course, that the language originated in cries of anger, fear, pain              3            

and pleasure, and the necessary evidence is entirely lacking: there are no            4            

remote tribes, no ancient records, providing evidence of a language with             

a large proportion of such cries than we find in English. It is true that the             5            

absence of such evidence does not disprove the theory, but in other                 6            

grounds too the theory is not very attractive. People of all races and                 

languages make rather similar noises in return to pain or pleasure. The               7            

fact that such noises are similar on the lips of Frenchmen and Malaysians             

whose languages are utterly different, serves to emphasize on the                  8            

fundamental difference between these noises and language proper. We

may say that the cries of pain or chortles of amusement are largely reflex

actions, instinctive to large extent, whereas language proper does not               9            

consist of signs but of these that have to be learnt and that are wholly               10            

conventional.

 

LESSON 2

The passage contains TEN errors. Each indicated line contains a maximum of ONE error. In each case, only ONE word is involved. You should proofread the passage and correct it in the following way:

 

For a wrong word,                   underline the wrong word and write the correct one in the blank

provided at the end of the line.

For a missing word,            mark the position of the missing word with a ""sign and write the

word you believe to be missing in the blank provided at the end of the line.

For an unnecessary word,           cross the unnecessary word with a slash "/" and put the word in the

blank provided at the end of the line.

EXAMPLE

When art museum wants a new exhibit,                                   1    an      

it never buys things in finished form and hangs                                 2    never   

them on the wall. When a natural history museum

wants an exhibition, it must often build it.                                     3    exhibit   

Proofread the given passage on ANSWER SHEET THREE as instructed.

 

The desire to use language as a sign of national identity is a

very natural one,and in result language has played a prominent part                 1          

in national moves. Men have often felt the need to cultivate a given                 2          

language to show that they are distinctive from another race whose                 3          

hegemony they resent. At the time the United States split off from                  4          

Britain, for example, there were proposals that independence

should be linguistically accepted by the use of a different language                   5          

from those of Britain. There was even one proposal that Americans                  6          

should adopt Hebrew. Others favoured the adoption of Greek,

though, as one man put it, things would certainly be simpler for                     

Americans if they stuck on to English and made the British learn                    7          

Greek. At the end, as everyone knows, the two countries adopted                   8          

the practical and satisfactory solution of carrying with the same                    9          

language as before.

Since nearly two hundred years now, they have shown the                     10          

world that political independence and national identity can be

complete without sacrificing the enormous mutual advantages of a

common language.

 

LESSON 3

The passage contains TEN errors. Each indicated line contains a maximum of ONE error. In each case, only ONE word is involved. You should proofread the passage and correct it in the following way:

 

For a wrong word,                   underline the wrong word and write the correct one in the blank

provided at the end of the line.

For a missing word,            mark the position of the missing word with a ""sign and write the

word you believe to be missing in the blank provided at the end of the line.

For an unnecessary word,           cross the unnecessary word with a slash "/" and put the word in the

blank provided at the end of the line.

EXAMPLE

When art museum wants a new exhibit,                                   1    an      

it never buys things in finished form and hangs                                 2    never   

them on the wall. When a natural history museum

wants an exhibition, it must often build it.                                     3    exhibit   

Proofread the given passage on ANSWER SHEET THREE as instructed.

 

The previous section has shown how quickly a rhyme passes from                  

one schoolchild to the next and illustrates the further difference between            1           

school lore and nursery lore. In nursery lore a verse, learnt in early

childhood, is not usually passed on again when the little listener has                 2          

grown up, and has children of their own, or even grandchildren. The                 3            

period between learning a nursery rhyme and transmitting it may be

something from twenty to seventy years. With the playground lore,                 4           

therefore,a rhyme may be excitedly passed on within the very hour it is              5           

learnt; and, in the general, it passes between children of the same age, or            6           

nearly so, since it is uncommon for the difference in age between

playmates to be more than five years. If, therefore, a playground rhyme

can be shown to have been currently for a hundred years, or even just               7           

for fifty, it follows that it has been retransmitted over and over; very

possibly it has passed along a chain of two or three hundred young hearers           8           

and tellers, and the wonder is that it remains live after so much handling;            9           

to let alone that it bears resemblance to the original wording.                     10           

 

LESSON 4

The passage contains TEN errors. Each indicated line contains a maximum of ONE error. In each case, only ONE word is involved. You should proofread the passage and correct it in the following way:

 

For a wrong word,                   underline the wrong word and write the correct one in the blank

provided at the end of the line.

For a missing word,            mark the position of the missing word with a ""sign and write the

word you believe to be missing in the blank provided at the end of the line.

For an unnecessary word,           cross the unnecessary word with a slash "/" and put the word in the

blank provided at the end of the line.

EXAMPLE

When art museum wants a new exhibit,                                   1    an      

it never buys things in finished form and hangs                                 2    never   

them on the wall. When a natural history museum

wants an exhibition, it must often build it.                                     3    exhibit   

Proofread the given passage on ANSWER SHEET THREE as instructed.

 

So far as we can tell, all human languages are equally complete and

perfect as instruments of communication: that is, every language appears to be       1            

well equipped as any other to say the things their speakers want to say.              2           

 

There may or may not be appropriate to talk about primitive peoples or             3            

cultures, but that is another matter. Certainly, not all groups of people are

equally competent in nuclear physics or psychology or the cultivation of rice.

Whereas this is not the fault of their language. The Eskimos, it is said, can            4           

speak about snow with further more precision and subtlety than we can in           5           

English, but this is not because the Eskimo language (one of those

sometimes mis-called "primitive") is inherently more precise and subtle than

English. This example does not come to light a defect in English, a show of           6            

unexpected "primitiveness". The position is simply and obviously that the

Eskimos and the English live in similar environments. The English language           7            

will be just as rich in terms for different kinds of snow if the environments in         8            

which English was habitually used made such distinctions as important.             9            

 

Similarly, we have no reason to doubt that the Eskimo language could

be as precise and subtle on the subject of motor manufacture or cricket if

these topics formed the part of the Eskimos' life.                               10           

 

LESSON 5

The passage contains TEN errors. Each indicated line contains a maximum of ONE error. In each case, only ONE word is involved. You should proofread the passage and correct it in the following way:

 

For a wrong word,                   underline the wrong word and write the correct one in the blank

provided at the end of the line.

For a missing word,            mark the position of the missing word with a ""sign and write the

word you believe to be missing in the blank provided at the end of the line.

For an unnecessary word,           cross the unnecessary word with a slash "/" and put the word in the

blank provided at the end of the line.

EXAMPLE

When art museum wants a new exhibit,                                   1    an      

it never buys things in finished form and hangs                                 2    never   

them on the wall. When a natural history museum

wants an exhibition, it must often build it.                                     3    exhibit   

Proofread the given passage on ANSWER SHEET THREE as instructed.

 

From a very early age, perhaps the age of five or six, I knew that when I

grew I should be a writer. Between the ages of about seventeen and twenty-            1        

four I tried to abandon this idea, but I did so with the conscience that I was             2        

outraging my true nature and that soon or later I should have to settle down and        3        

write books.

 

I was the child of three, but there was a gap of five years on the either                 4        

side, and I barely saw my father before I was eight. For this and other reasons

I was somewhat lonely, and I soon developed disagreeing mannerisms which            5        

made me unpopular throughout my schooldays. I had the lonely child's habit

of making up stories and holding conversations with imaginative persons, and I          6        

think from the very start my literal ambitions were mixed up with the feeling of          7        

being isolated and undervalued. I knew that I had a facility with words and a

power of facing in unpleasant facts, and I felt that this created a sort of private          8        

world which I could get my own back for my failure in everyday life.                   9        

Therefore, the volume of serious-i. e. seriously intended-writing which I               10        

produced all through my childhood and boyhood would not amount to half a

dozen pages. I wrote my first poem at the age of five, my mother taking it

down to dictation.

LESSON 6

The passage contains TEN errors. Each indicated line contains a maximum of ONE error. In each case, only ONE word is involved. You should proofread the passage and correct it in the following way:

 

For a wrong word,                   underline the wrong word and write the correct one in the blank

provided at the end of the line.

For a missing word,            mark the position of the missing word with a ""sign and write the

word you believe to be missing in the blank provided at the end of the line.

For an unnecessary word,           cross the unnecessary word with a slash "/" and put the word in the

blank provided at the end of the line.

EXAMPLE

When art museum wants a new exhibit,                                   1    an      

it never buys things in finished form and hangs                                 2    never   

them on the wall. When a natural history museum

wants an exhibition, it must often build it.                                     3    exhibit   

Proofread the given passage on ANSWER SHEET THREE as instructed.

 

The central problem of translating has always been whether to

translate literally or freely. The argument has been going since at least              1        

the first century BC. Up to the beginning of the 19th century, many

writers favoured certain kind of "free" translation: the spirit, not the                2        

letter; the sense not the words; the message rather the form; the matter            3        

not the manner. This is the often revolutionary slogan of writers who               4        

wanted the truth to be read and understood. Then in the turn of the 19th           5        

century, when the study of cultural anthropology suggested that the

linguistic barriers were insuperable and that the language was entirely the           6        

product of culture, the view translation was impossible gained some                7        

currency, and with it that, if was attempted at all, it must be as literal as             8        

possible. This view culminated the statement of the extreme "literalists"             9        

Walter Benjamin and Vladimir Nabokov.

 

The argument was theoretical: the purpose of the translation, the

nature of the readership, the type of text, was not discussed. Too often,

writer, translator and reader were implicitly identified with each other.

Now, the context has changed, and the basic problem remains.                    10        

 

LESSON 7

The passage contains TEN errors. Each indicated line contains a maximum of ONE error. In each case, only ONE word is involved. You should proofread the passage and correct it in the following way:

 

For a wrong word,                   underline the wrong word and write the correct one in the blank

provided at the end of the line.

For a missing word,            mark the position of the missing word with a ""sign and write the

word you believe to be missing in the blank provided at the end of the line.

For an unnecessary word,           cross the unnecessary word with a slash "/" and put the word in the

blank provided at the end of the line.

EXAMPLE

When art museum wants a new exhibit,                                   1    an      

it never buys things in finished form and hangs                                 2    never   

them on the wall. When a natural history museum

wants an exhibition, it must often build it.                                     3    exhibit   

Proofread the given passage on ANSWER SHEET THREE as instructed.

 

Psycholinguistics is the name given to the study of the psychological

processes involved in language. Psycholinguists study understanding,

production, and remembering language, and hence are concerned with             1          

listening, reading, speaking, writing, and memory for language.

 

One reason why we take the language for granted is that it usually happens          2          

so effortlessly, and, most of time, so accurately. Indeed, when you listen to           3          

someone speaking, or looking at this page, you normally cannot help but            4          

understand it. It is only in exceptional circumstances we might become aware        5          

of the complexity involved: if we are searching for a word but cannot

remember it; if a relative or colleague has had a stroke which has influenced         6          

their language; if we observe a child acquire language; if we try to learn a           7          

second language ourselves as an adult; or if we are visually impaired or

hearing-impaired or if we meet anyone else who is. As we shall see, all these         8          

examples of what might be called "language in exceptional circumstances"

reveal a great deal about the processes evolved in speaking, listening, writing,        9          

and reading. But given that language processes were normally so automatic,         10          

we also need to carry out careful experiments to get at what is happening.

LESSON 8

The passage contains TEN errors. Each indicated line contains a maximum of ONE error. In each case, only ONE word is involved. You should proofread the passage and correct it in the following way:

 

For a wrong word,                   underline the wrong word and write the correct one in the blank

provided at the end of the line.

For a missing word,            mark the position of the missing word with a ""sign and write the

word you believe to be missing in the blank provided at the end of the line.

For an unnecessary word,           cross the unnecessary word with a slash "/" and put the word in the

blank provided at the end of the line.

EXAMPLE

When art museum wants a new exhibit,                                   1    an      

it never buys things in finished form and hangs                                 2    never   

them on the wall. When a natural history museum

wants an exhibition, it must often build it.                                     3    exhibit   

Proofread the given passage on ANSWER SHEET THREE as instructed.

 

There is a widespread consensus among scholars that second language

acquisition (SLA) emerged as a distinct field of research from the late 1950s

to early 1960s.

There is a high level of agreement that the following questions have            1          

possessed the most attention of researchers in this area:                         2          

● Is it possible to acquire an additional language in the same sense one         3          

acquires a first language?

● What is the explanation for the fact adults have more difficulty in             4          

acquiring additional languages than children have?

● What motivates people to acquire additional languages?

● What is the role of the language teaching in the acquisition of an             5          

additional language?

●What sociocultural factors, if any, are relevant in studying the

learning of additional languages?

From a check of the literature of the field it is clear that all the approaches       6          

adopted to study the phenomena of SLA so far have one thing in common:The

perspective adopted to view the acquiring of an additional language is that of

an individual attempts to do so. Whether one labels it "learning" or"                7          

acquiring" an additional language, it is an individual accomplishment or what         8          

is under focus is the cognitive, psychological, and institutional status of an

individual. That is, the spotlight is on what mental capabilities are involving,          9          

what psychological factors play a role in the learning or acquisition, and

whether the target language is learnt in the classroom or acquired through social

touch with native speakers.                                                 10          

 

 

LESSON 9

The passage contains TEN errors. Each indicated line contains a maximum of ONE error. In each case, only ONE word is involved. You should proofread the passage and correct it in the following way:

 

For a wrong word,                   underline the wrong word and write the correct one in the blank

provided at the end of the line.

For a missing word,            mark the position of the missing word with a ""sign and write the

word you believe to be missing in the blank provided at the end of the line.

For an unnecessary word,           cross the unnecessary word with a slash "/" and put the word in the

blank provided at the end of the line.

EXAMPLE

When art museum wants a new exhibit,                                   1    an      

it never buys things in finished form and hangs                                 2    never   

them on the wall. When a natural history museum

wants an exhibition, it must often build it.                                     3    exhibit   

Proofread the given passage on ANSWER SHEET THREE as instructed.

 

When I was in my early teens, I was taken to a spectacular show

on ice by the mother of a friend. Looked round at the luxury of the                  1         

rink, my friend's mother remarked on the "plush" seats we had been                

given. I did not know what she meant, and being proud of my                      2         

vocabulary, I tried to infer its meaning from the context. "Plush" was

clearly intended as a complimentary, a positive evaluation; that much I              3         

could tell it from the tone of voice and the context. So I started to use               4         

the word. Yes, I replied, they certainly are plush, and so are the ice

rink and the costumes of the skaters, aren't they? My friend's mother

was very polite to correct me, but I could tell from her expression that               5         

I had not got the word quite right.

 

Often we can indeed infer from the context what a word roughly

means, and that is in fact the way which we usually acquire both new               6         

words and new meanings for familiar words, specially in our own first               7         

language. But sometimes we need to ask, as I should have asked for                8         

plush, and this is particularly true in the aspect of a foreign language.               9         

If you are continually surrounded by speakers of the language you are

learning, you can ask them directly, but often this opportunity does not

exist for the learner of English. So dictionaries have been developed to

mend the gap.                                                           10         

 

LESSON 10

The passage contains TEN errors. Each indicated line contains a maximum of ONE error. In each case, only ONE word is involved. You should proofread the passage and correct it in the following way:

 

For a wrong word,                   underline the wrong word and write the correct one in the blank

provided at the end of the line.

For a missing word,            mark the position of the missing word with a ""sign and write the

word you believe to be missing in the blank provided at the end of the line.

For an unnecessary word,           cross the unnecessary word with a slash "/" and put the word in the

blank provided at the end of the line.

EXAMPLE

When art museum wants a new exhibit,                                   1    an      

it never buys things in finished form and hangs                                 2    never   

them on the wall. When a natural history museum

wants an exhibition, it must often build it.                                     3    exhibit   

Proofread the given passage on ANSWER SHEET THREE as instructed.

 

All social units develop a culture. Even in two-person relationships

a culture develops in time. In friendship and romantic relationships,                 1          

for example, partners develop their own history, shared

experiences, language patterns, habits, and customs give that                      2          

relationship a special character-a character that differs it                          3          

in various ways from other relationships. Examples might include

special dates, places, songs, or events that come to have a unique

and important symbolic meaning for the two individuals. Thus, any                   4         

social unit-whether a relationship, group, organization, or society

develops a culture with the passage of time. While the defining

characteristics of each culture are unique, all cultures share certain

same functions. The relationship between communication                         5         

and culture is a very complex intimate one.                                     6         

 

Cultures are created through communication, that is,

communication is the means of human interaction, through it                      7         

cultural characteristics are created and shared.

 

It is not so much that individuals set out to create a culture

when they interact in relationships, groups, organizations, or societies,

but rather than that cultures are a natural by-product of social interaction.            8         

In a sense, cultures are the "residue" of social communication. Without

communication and communication media, it would be impossible to

base and pass along cultural characteristics from one place and time to

another. One can say, furthermore, that culture is created, shaped,                  10         

transmitted, and learned through communication.

 

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