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考研英语长难句分析之倒装与并列结构-湛江雅托英语培训中心

2020-03-18

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倒装The Inversion

例装是一种语法手段,用以表示一定的句子结构或强调某一成分。倒装语序有两种:全部例装(将整调话置于主语之前)和部分例装(将谓语的一部分,通常是助动词或情态动词置于主语之前),迅速识别和准确理解倒装句童对完形填空、阅读理解和英译仅都具有重要作用。

 

1 Only gradually was the by-product of the institution noted , and only more gradually still was this effect considered as a directive factor in the conduct of the institution.

 

【注释】-Only+状语(或状语从句)“置于句首,句子(或主句)的主语与助动词或情态动词必须倒装。

 

[译文]人们只是逐渐地才注意到机构的这一副产品,而人们把这种作用视为机构运作的指导性因素的Uknst on

过程则更为缓慢。

 

2 Church as we use the word refers to all religious institutions, be they Christian,Islamic, Buddhist, Jewish, and so on.

 

[注释] be they Christian, Islamic, Buddhist, Jewish, and so on 是让步状语从句的省略倒装形式,相当于whether they may(might)be Christian,Islamic,Buddhist,Jewish,and so on.

例如:In the case of opera,the composers wrote their music following the original texts,be they in Italian,French or German.(就歌剧而言,作曲家遵循原文读自写音乐,不管它们可能是意大利语、法语或德语。)

 

[译文]我们所使用的“教会”一词指的是所有宗教机构,不管它们可能是基督教,伊斯兰教,佛教,犹太教等。

 

3 As for the influence of computerization, nowhere have we seen the results more clearly than in the U.S., which really have surprised us all.

 

[注释]nowhere是否定副词,如置于主语前,则主语和助动词(或情态动词)要倒装。

 

[译文]至于计算机化的影响,没有什么地方比美国能更清楚地看到其成果,这使我们大家确实感到惊讶。

 

4 Under no circumstances should we do anything that will benefit ourselves but harm the interests of the state.

 

[注释]具有否定意义的状语置于句首,句子的主语和谓语要部分倒装。常测试的具有否定意义的状语有:never,hardly,seldom,rarely,not until.,,scarcely,in no case(不管怎样也不),in no way(不管怎么也不),by no means(决不),on no account(不论什么原因也不),at no time(无论什一么时候也不)等,例如,D Seldom had I seen such a remarkable,creature,2)At no time was the president aware of what was happening.(总统任何时候都没有意识到那时正在发生的事情。)

 

[译文]无论在什么情况下,我们也不应该做任何有利于自己但损害国家利益的事情。

 

5 Scarcely had they settled themselves in their seats in the theatre when the curtain went up.

 

[注释] Scarcely(Hardly)...when...(-……就……)句型中,scarcely置于句首时,主句主语和谓语要部分倒装。

 

[译文]他们在戏院里刚落座,舞台上的幕布就升起来了。

 

6 There was no denying the fact that the organization had broken no rules, but neither had it acted responsibly.

 

[注释] neither是否定副词,置于句首时,主语和助动词应倒装。but是对等连词,连接的两个分句中谓语动词的时态应前后一致。

 

[译文]无可否认,该组织并没有违反规章,但是它也没有负起责任来认真工作。

 

7 Not until an infant hedgehog(刺猜)opens its eyes does it leave its nest to follow its mother about.

 

[注释]not until引导的短语或从句后,句子的主语和谓语要部分倒装。注意如果用强调句型时,则不必倒装。本题可以这样写:It is not until an infant hedgehog opens its eyes that it leaves nest to follow its mother about.

 

[译文]直到刚生下来的小刺猜睁开眼睛,它才离开窝,跟着它的母亲到处走。

 

8 Odd though it sounds , cosmic inflation is a scientifically plausible consequence of some respected ideas in elementary-particle physics, and many astrophysicists have been convinced for the better part off a decade that it is true.

 

[注释]从属连词asthough也可以用天让步状语从句中,这种从句必须以形容词(或形容词化的分词),名词或动词原形开头,主句必须位于从句之后,例如:1)Small as an atom is,an electron is much smaller than it.(虽然原子根小,但电子比原子小得多,)2)Fool as he looks like,he always seems to make the wisest proposals.(他看样子侵,可似乎总是能提出最聪明的建议。)(以名词fool开头,注意fool前没有冠词)3)Try as you may,you will never succeed.(你尽管可以试,但决不会成动.)4)It was very late,Exhausted though she was,there was no hope of her being able to fall asleep.(天很晚了,虽然她已筋瘦力尽,但她仍然不能人睡。)

 

[译文]宇宙膨胀说虽然听似奇特,但它是基本粒子物理学中一些公认的理论在科学上看来似乎可信的推论。许多天体物理学家七八年来一直确信这一论说是正确的。

 

9 On the other hand, he did not accept as well founded the charge made by some of his critics that, while he was a good observer, he had no power of reasoning.

 

[注释]accept A as B意为“把A认为是B”。本句中 accept的宾语是charge,与宾补as well founded倒装。倒装的原因是charge后有过去分词短语和that引导的同位语从句来修饰它。可见,charge的修饰成分太长,故把宾补提前。

 

[译文]另一方面,有些人批评他虽然善于观察,却不具备推理能力,而他认为这种指责也是缺乏根据的。

并列结构(The Parallel Structure)

当句中的信息是以并列列举的形式表示时,所列举的成分必须在语法上是并列的。例如:Not parallel: Mr. Henry is a lawyer, a politician, and he teaches. Parallel: Mr. Henry is a lawyer, a politician, and a teacher.

 

1 Countless divorced politicians would have been elected out of office years ago had they even thought of a divorce, let alone gotten one.

 

[注释]let alone(更不用说)后接同等成分,即并列结构。本句中thoughtgotten是并列结构,均为过去分词。

 

[译文]无数离婚的政治家如果过去即使想到要离婚,更不要说真的离婚了,他们本来就会落选。

 

2 As long as poor people,who in general are colored,are in conflict with richer people, who in general are lighter skinned, there's going to be a constant racial conflict in the world.

 

[注释]are lighter skinned与前面的are colored是并列结构。lighter skinned意为“肤色更浅的”,其中的lighter是副词比较级。be in conflict with与……冲突。

 

[译文]只要一般是有色人种的穷人与一般是白人的富人发生冲突,世界上就会不断发生种族冲突,

 

3 The ideal listener stays both inside and outside the music at the moment it is played and enjoys it almost as much as the composer at the moment he composes.

 

[注释]staysenjoys是并列结构(或称同等成分)。

 

[译文]理想的听者在音乐演奏时既置身于音乐之中,又徘徊于音乐之外,他所得到的乐趣与作曲家在作曲时所得到的乐趣相同。

 

4 The moon has a mass that is nearly one hundred times less than that of the earth; in consequence, the force of gravity at the moon's surface is only one-sixth of that at the earth's surface.

 

[注释]that指代前面的mass,构成并列成分,也称同等成分。

 

[译文]月球的质量不到地球质量的1%,因此,月球表面的重力只有地球表面重力的六分之一。

 

5 The way we react to other people, the educational training we receive and the knowledge we display are all part of our cultural heritage.

 

[注释]we react to other people是定语从句,修饰 way;we receive是定语从句,修饰 training;we display是定语从句,修饰knowledge

 

[译文]我们对其他人的反应方式、我们所接受的教育培训和我们展示的知识都是我们文化遗产的一部分。

 

6 My approach is not to learn everything about something, but rather to learn something about everything.

 

[注释]but是并列连词,连接两个作表语的动词不定式,rather(=more willingly)宁愿,修饰to learn.

 

[译文]我的看法是,不学习某门学科的全部知识,而更愿学习各门学科中的某些知识。

 

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