第六课时Work Environment 工作环境
Work environment 工作环境，亦作 working environment
European Community 欧洲共同体（欧盟 （European Union）的前身）
ECU 欧洲货币单位 （European Currency Unit 欧元（Euro-dollar 的前身）
Occupational disease 职业疾病
Industrial injury 工伤
Disablement benefit 伤残救济金
Take precaution 采取防范措施
Ensure worker comfort 保证工人的舒适度
Office appliances 办公设备
Fax machine 传真机
Out of date 过时
Service contract 服务合同
Spatial design 空间设计
File system 文件橱柜
Surplus office supplies 多余的办公用品
Ambient light 背景光照明，环境光照明
Task light 岗位操作照明
Work station 工作区
Defective illumination 不良照明
A filing cabinet 文件橱柜
Over-3-day injury 请假三天以上的工伤
Computer cable 电脑线
Telephone cord 电话线
Ream 令（量词，500 张为 1 令）
Xerox paper 复印纸
Tape down 用带子捆住，用胶布把…粘住
Rubber protector 橡胶防护罩，橡胶保护装置
Tack down 钉住，钉牢
Sore throat 喉咙痛
Safety inspection 安全检查
Individual creativity 个人的创造力
Smoke detector （预报火警的）烟雾探测器
A working fire extinguisher 功能良好的灭火器
Acquaint sb. with sth. 让某人了解/熟悉
Rules and regulations 规章制度
ILL-health and the work environment疾病和工作环境
Work is an important determinate of health. It can influence health positively or negatively.
We are now focusing on the adverse effects of work on health, although the positive effects of appropriate work on health and well-being are no less important.
Every year, about 10 million of the 150 million workers in the Eu ropean Community are affected by incidents,”accidents” or diseases at work.
每年，欧共体的 1.5 亿工人中大约有 1000 万工人由于工作中出现的时间、意外事故或工作引发的疾病而使健康受到影响。
Direct compensation costs are estimated at 20 billion ECU per year.
据估计，每年的直接赔偿金额为 200 亿欧洲货币单位。
According to UK official statistics, every year about 2000 lives are lost through occupational disease or injury,about 20,000 major industrial injuries occur (e.g. skull fracture, loss of sight) and there are about 200,000 injuries resulting in a work disability of 3 days or more.
根据英国官方的统计数据，每年大约有 2000 人因为职业疾病或伤害而丧命，每年大约发生 2 万起重大工伤事故（如脑部骨折、失明等），有 20 万工伤事故导致工人在 3 天或者更长时间内丧失劳动能力。
These figures are gross underestimates of the true incidence of occupational ill -health.
Thus for example the “true” figure of occupationa l cancer deaths alone in the U.K. may be to the order of 5,000per year.
例如在英国，仅仅因为职业引发的癌症死亡的“实际”人数每年就达到 5000 人。
While only about 300 workers receive disablement benefit for industrial dermatitis every year, there may be between 15,000 and 60,000 new cases of this condition every year.
然而，每年只有 300 名工人因职业引发的皮肤炎症得到伤残救济金，而实际上每年都有 1.5 万~6 万人得皮肤疾病。
Extrapolation from the UK Labour Force Survey suggests that in a year at least one million people believed they had ill health caused by work and a further million believed they had ill health made worse by work.
据英国劳工部调查统计推断，一年内至少有 100 万人认为他们患有职业引起的病害，另有上百万人认为他们的身体因为工作的原因而变得更加糟糕。
PART ONE Interview
(1) Why should companies create a pleasant working environment?
Companies should seek to create appealing working environment, so that employee will look forward to coming
work each day. And a business-casual professional environment enables employees to be more productive.
(2) How important is it to consider health and safety when planning workplace layout?
Accidents can happen in the workplace and cause injuries to the employees. So companies have health and
safety obligations and should take precautions to provide a safe work environment for their employees.
(3) Do you think cost is the most important thing to consider when buying office furniture? (Why/Why not?)
No. I think the most important thing to consider is to ensure work comfort, so as to minimize the drudgery of work and increase productivity.
(4) Is it a good idea to rent office equipment instead of buying them? (Why? /Why not?)
Yes. The speed of technological change is faster than ever, office equipment like copier, fax machines become out of date soon. So I think it’s better to rent office equipment rather than buying them. What’s more, you get the service contract when you rent equipment.
What’s important when…?
Designing the layout of an office
Appropriate use of space
Amount of light
First of all, we have to consider spatial design when setting up office. We should establish primary and secondary work areas for paper work, computer activities and accessible file systems, and allocate space for storage of surpl us office supplies. Make the best use of space and respect the privacy of our staff members.
Lighting is also critical. We should consider how much lighting and what type of lighting is needed to work more efficiently and effectively. Besides natural light, we also need to provide ambient light overhead and task light on work stations, as you see, defective illumination reduces work efficiency.
On top of that, when we’re structuring the layout of our office, it’s also important to consider health and safety ,calculate future growth and space needs, and apply ergonomics to adapt work or working conditions to suit our staff.
Health and Safety Precautions
Two accidents happened in your office in the past year that resulted in bodily in juries to some staff members. Your line manager is revising health and safety precautions to eliminate the causes of office injuries. You have been asked to make suggestions. Discuss the situation together, and decide:
l what unsafe conditions there are in the office
l what precautions should be taken
A: You see, there were two over 3-day injuries in our office last year: Tom got his fingers broken when he slammed his fingers in the file drawer and Jane bumped her head over the edge of a filing cabinet and got a few stitches. It’s really time we reconsidered our safety precautions.
B: Yes. We need to make a checklist of unsafe conditions in the office. They might cause further injuries in our office. For example, our computer cables and telephone cords sprawl on the floor, and if anyone trips over them, they are likely to sprain ankles and backs on even worse, break their legs.
A: And the wiring all clutter up on desks, that might spill cups of hot coffee or tea, someone might get burned.
B: It’s dangerous to stack reams of Xerox paper onto the filing cabinet, in case they fall, people nearby will be hurt. I have also noticed that some of our electrical cords are already frayed or cracked, it’s most dangerous.
A: Safety is our first priority. We should take measures immediately to eliminate these hazards. The first thing to do is to replace all frayed electrical cords, all electrical cords, all electrical and telephone cords running into walk areas must be taped down or inserted through rubber protectors to prevent tripping hazards.
B: Yes, wiring on the desks should be arranged neatly. And we should allocate special space for Xerox paper instead of stacking them high on the filing cabinet. For reaching high shelves, there should be a stable step stool with a handrail to grasp.
A: Carpets in the office should be tacked down and slip-resistant, particularly in wet weather, to prevent any slipping or tripping accidents.
B: You see we have to walk through a dark area before we reach the switch, so we should reinstall the switch to prevent tripping accident and we should make sure that our work areas are well lighted.
A: We also need to improve the ventilation in our office to help prevent headaches, smells, sore throats, stuffiness and dustiness. And at least one smoke detector should be properly installed in the office.
B: You’re right. A working fire extinguisher should be available to handle small fires, and all staff members should know how to use it. Finally, we must entrust a manager with safety responsibilities and conduct safety inspections regularly.
（1） What are the advantages of a pleasant working environment?
People will become more productive and efficient in pleasant work environment, and good working conditions will help to bring out individual creativity.
（2） What are the advantages and disadvantages of moving to new offices?
The advantages include better working conditions, more spacious and pleasant environment. The disadvantages are: you’re not used to the new environment and the newly furnished office might be toxic (有毒)and harmful to health.
（3） Do you think employees work more efficiently in spacious office? (Why?)
Of course. I think a spacious office is conducive(有利于) to having fun in the work while the employees become more productive and maintain quality and effectiveness of work.
（4） What should companies do to increase employees’ work safety awareness?
Companies should offer training programmes and acquaint their employees with work safety rules and regulations.All employees must be given safety information and accident prevention instructions.
（5） In what ways will offices change in the future?
In the future, I think all office equipment will be digitalized and work efficiency will be further improved. Or perhaps staff members can make better use of the Internet and work at home. I think home offices will be popular.