介词(The Preposition)




1 According to their latest paper published in Nature, the biomass of large predators(animals that kill and eat other animals) in a new fishery is reduced on average by 80%within 15 years of the start of exploitation.






2 To help homeless people toward independence, the federal government must support job programs, raise the minimum wage, and fund more low-cost housing.


[注释]help的常用搭配关系如下 sth.:I helped(to)wash the car.(我帮忙洗车。) sb.(to)do sth.:She helped me(to)hang the curtains.(她帮我挂窗帘。) sb.with sth.:Can you help me with my homework?(你能否帮我做家庭作业?) sb.+副词:She helped the old woman across the street.(她扶那老妇人过街道。) sb.toward sth.帮助某人达到某个目标。本题即为此种用法。




3 I have excluded him because, while his accomplishments may contribute to the olution of moral problems, he has not been charged with the task of approaching any but he factual aspects of those problems.


[注释]but(=except)除了……以外。contribute to有助于;增加。be charged with负责处理




4 Observations were made of the children at the beginning and at the end of pre school and first grade.


[注释]make observation(s)of……进行观察。




5 The Supreme Court's decisions on physician-assisted suicide carry important implications for how medicine seeks to relieve dying patients of pain and suffering.


[注释]relieve sb.of sth.解除(某人的痛苦、负担等)。




6 Although I had been invited to the opening ceremony, I was unable to attend on rt notice.


[注释]on表原因,on such short notice意为由于通知得这样晚



7 If two theories are equal in their ability to account for a body of data, the theory that does so with the smaller number of assumptions is to be preferred.


[注释]be equal to...……相等;be equal in...……方面相等。




8 Unless you sign a contract with the insurance company for your goods, you are not entitled to a repayment for the goods damaged in delivery.






9 The roles expected of old people in such a setting give too few psychological atisfaction for normal happiness.


[注释]expect...of sb.向某人期待……。例如:You are expecting too much of me.类似用法动词有:require sth.of sb.向某人要某物;demand sth.of sb.向某人要求某物;ask sb.of sth.向人请求某物。




10 Over the years,a large number of overseas students have studied at that university with the result that it has acquired substantial experience in dealing with them.


[注释] with the result that意为其结果是,因此,是复合连词,引导结果状语从句。例如:I was bsorbed in reading the newspaper with the result that I didn't hear what they were talking bout.(我在专心读报,因此没有听到他们谈论的内容。)




11 It is believed that today's pop music can serve as a creative force by stimulating the thinking of its listeners.


[注释] by doing sth.中的by意为通过……方式、方法。如:He made a living by teaching.(他人教书为生。)注意in doing sth.在做某事过程中;on doing sth.一做完某事。




代词(The Pronoun)



1 His function is analogous to that of a judge, who must accept the obligation of revealing in as obvious a manner as possible the course of reasoning which led him to his decision.


[注释]that指代前面的his function




2 Most electronic devices of this kind,as are manufactured for such purposes,are tightly packed.






3 As for the winter, it is inconvenient to be cold, with most of what furnace fuel is allowed saved for dawn.


[注释]what引导的从句作of的宾语。“with+most of what从句+saved...”构成独立分词结构,作原因状语。what furnace fuel is allowed 相当于 the furnace fuel which is allowed



4 Nobody can help but be fascinated by the world into which he is taken by science fiction.

[注释] Nobody can help but=Anybody can't help but意为任何人不得不




5 Although it ruled that there is no constitutional right to physician-assisted suicide,the Court in effect supported the medical principle of "double effect", a centuries-old moral principle holding that an action having two effects-a good one that is intended and a harmful one that is foreseen-is permissible if the actor intends only the good effect.


[注释]本句是长句:although引导让步状语从句,后面是主句。主句中a centuries-old moral principle...是同位语,修饰前面的the medical principle of "double effect"holding that an action having two effects是现在分词短语,修饰 principlea good one...and a harmful one...two effects的同位语,并各接一个定语从句。is permissible的主语是an action having two effectsif引导的条件状语从句修饰is permissible




6 He claimed to be an expert in astronomy, but in actual fact he is quite ignorant on the subject. What little he knows about it is out of date and inaccurate.


[注释]What little是名词性词组,既引导主语从句,又在主语从句中作直接宾语




7 Alone in a deserted house, he was so busy with his research work that he felt anything but lonely.


[注释]anything but根本不。nothing but 只不过是:He is nothing but a liar.all but几乎:He is all but dead.