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考研英语长难句分析之介词与代词-湛江雅托英语培训中心

2020-03-17

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介词(The Preposition)

 

中国学生在使用英语进行书面或口头表达时,往往会犯遗漏介词或误用介词的错误。近年来,硕士研究生英语人学考试经常测试考生正确使用介词的能力。

 

1 According to their latest paper published in Nature, the biomass of large predators(animals that kill and eat other animals) in a new fishery is reduced on average by 80%within 15 years of the start of exploitation.

 

[注释]“increase/reduce sth.by+百分数表示增加/减少的净百分数。

 

[译文]根据他们发表在《自然》杂志上的最新论文,一个新的渔场中大型食肉鱼类的生存数量在开始开发的15年内平均减少了80%

 

2 To help homeless people toward independence, the federal government must support job programs, raise the minimum wage, and fund more low-cost housing.

 

[注释]help的常用搭配关系如下:1.help(to)do sth.:I helped(to)wash the car.(我帮忙洗车。)2.help sb.(to)do sth.:She helped me(to)hang the curtains.(她帮我挂窗帘。)

3.help sb.with sth.:Can you help me with my homework?(你能否帮我做家庭作业?)4.help sb.+副词:She helped the old woman across the street.(她扶那老妇人过街道。)5.help sb.toward sth.帮助某人达到某个目标。本题即为此种用法。

 

[译文]为了帮助无家可归的人能自立,联邦政府必须支持职业培训计划、提高最低工资并拨款建造更多低成本的住房。

 

3 I have excluded him because, while his accomplishments may contribute to the olution of moral problems, he has not been charged with the task of approaching any but he factual aspects of those problems.

 

[注释]but(=except)除了……以外。contribute to有助于;增加。be charged with负责处理

 

[译文]我之所以将他排除在外,是因为尽管他的成果可能会有助于解决道德问题,但他负责的任务只不过是研究这些问题的事实方面。(=我之所以将他排除在外,是因为尽管他的成果可能会有助于解决道德可题,但他除了负责处理那些问题的事实方面以外从来没有承担处理任何其他问题的任务。)

 

4 Observations were made of the children at the beginning and at the end of pre school and first grade.

 

[注释]make observation(s)of……进行观察。

 

[译文]在学前教育和一年级开始与结束时对儿童进行了观察。

 

5 The Supreme Court's decisions on physician-assisted suicide carry important implications for how medicine seeks to relieve dying patients of pain and suffering.

 

[注释]relieve sb.of sth.解除(某人的痛苦、负担等)。

 

[译文]高等法院就医助自杀的裁决对医学如何设法解除垂危病人的痛苦具有重要意义。

 

6 Although I had been invited to the opening ceremony, I was unable to attend on rt notice.

 

[注释]on表原因,on such short notice意为由于通知得这样晚

虽然我被邀请出席开幕式,但因为通知得太晚无法出席。

 

7 If two theories are equal in their ability to account for a body of data, the theory that does so with the smaller number of assumptions is to be preferred.

 

[注释]be equal to...……相等;be equal in...……方面相等。

 

[译文]假如两种理论都能解释大量数据,那么内含较少假设的理论更受青眯。

 

8 Unless you sign a contract with the insurance company for your goods, you are not entitled to a repayment for the goods damaged in delivery.

 

[注释]entitle...to...使……有权利得到……

 

[译文]除非你与保险公司为你的货物签订了合同,否则你无权因运送中货物的损坏而得到赔偿。

 

9 The roles expected of old people in such a setting give too few psychological atisfaction for normal happiness.

 

[注释]expect...of sb.向某人期待……。例如:You are expecting too much of me.类似用法动词有:require sth.of sb.向某人要某物;demand sth.of sb.向某人要求某物;ask sb.of sth.向人请求某物。

 

[译文]在这种情况下,期望老人所承担的角色几乎没有提供享受正常幸福所应有的心理满足。

 

10 Over the years,a large number of overseas students have studied at that university with the result that it has acquired substantial experience in dealing with them.

 

[注释] with the result that意为其结果是,因此,是复合连词,引导结果状语从句。例如:I was bsorbed in reading the newspaper with the result that I didn't hear what they were talking bout.(我在专心读报,因此没有听到他们谈论的内容。)

 

[译文]多年来大量海外学生在那所大学里学习过,因此这所大学积累了处理海外学生的丰富经验。

 

11 It is believed that today's pop music can serve as a creative force by stimulating the thinking of its listeners.

 

[注释] by doing sth.中的by意为通过……方式、方法。如:He made a living by teaching.(他人教书为生。)注意in doing sth.在做某事过程中;on doing sth.一做完某事。

 

[译文]人们认为,今天的通俗音乐通过刺激听众的思维而能作为一种创造性的力量。

 

代词(The Pronoun)

代词是代替名词以及起名词作用的短语、分句和句子的词。英语中代词使用得很广泛,因此正确使用代同的能力反映了英语学习者的语言水平。

 

1 His function is analogous to that of a judge, who must accept the obligation of revealing in as obvious a manner as possible the course of reasoning which led him to his decision.

 

[注释]that指代前面的his function

 

[译文]他的职责与法官相似,必须承担这样的责任,用尽可能明了的方式来展示自己做出决定的推理过程。

 

2 Most electronic devices of this kind,as are manufactured for such purposes,are tightly packed.

 

[注释]as是关系代词,引导定语从句。as作关系代词表示与先行词在类别上相似的事物,本句中指代levices;这就与which不同,后者表示与先行词相同的事物。

 

[译文]为这样的目的制造的许多这类电子装置包装得很严实。

 

3 As for the winter, it is inconvenient to be cold, with most of what furnace fuel is allowed saved for dawn.

 

[注释]what引导的从句作of的宾语。“with+most of what从句+saved...”构成独立分词结构,作原因状语。what furnace fuel is allowed 相当于 the furnace fuel which is allowed

 

[译文]到了冬天,大部分配给的锅炉燃料要节省下来用于黎明时候,因此冷得难受。

4 Nobody can help but be fascinated by the world into which he is taken by science fiction.

[注释] Nobody can help but=Anybody can't help but意为任何人不得不

 

[]谁都不能不被科学幻想小说把人带入的科幻世界所迷住。

 

5 Although it ruled that there is no constitutional right to physician-assisted suicide,the Court in effect supported the medical principle of "double effect", a centuries-old moral principle holding that an action having two effects-a good one that is intended and a harmful one that is foreseen-is permissible if the actor intends only the good effect.

 

[注释]本句是长句:although引导让步状语从句,后面是主句。主句中a centuries-old moral principle...是同位语,修饰前面的the medical principle of "double effect"holding that an action having two effects是现在分词短语,修饰 principlea good one...and a harmful one...two effects的同位语,并各接一个定语从句。is permissible的主语是an action having two effectsif引导的条件状语从句修饰is permissible

 

[译文]尽管法院裁定,宪法没有赋予医生协助病人自杀的权利,法院实际上支持了医学界双重效应的原则;这是一条有几百年历史的道德原则。根据这条原则,一个行动若有两种效应——一种是想要的好的效应,另一种是已经预见到的有害效应——如果行为者只是想要好的效应,那么这一行动是可以允许的。

 

6 He claimed to be an expert in astronomy, but in actual fact he is quite ignorant on the subject. What little he knows about it is out of date and inaccurate.

 

[注释]What little是名词性词组,既引导主语从句,又在主语从句中作直接宾语

 

[译文]他声称他是天文学专家,而实际上他对天文学一无所知。他所掌握的有关天文学的那点知识也是陈旧的、不准确的。

 

7 Alone in a deserted house, he was so busy with his research work that he felt anything but lonely.

 

[注释]anything but根本不。nothing but 只不过是:He is nothing but a liar.all but几乎:He is all but dead.

 

[译文]他虽单独一人在一间空房子里,但忙于研究工作,因而并不感到孤独。

 

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