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硕士研究生英语考试阅读讲解【3】

2019-10-07

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Why do so many Americans distrust what they read in their newspapers? The American Society of Newspaper Editors is trying to answer this painful question. The organization is deep into a long self-analysis known as the journalism credibility project.

 

Sad to say, this project has turned out to be mostly low-level findings about factual errors and spelling and grammar mistakes, combined with lots of headscratching puzzlement about what in the world those readers really want.

 

But the sources of distrust go way deeper. Most journalists learn to see the world through a set of standard templates (patterns) into which they plug each day’s events. In other words, there is a conventional story line in the newsroom culture that provides a backbone and a ready-made narrative structure for otherwise confusions news.

 

There exists a social and cultural disconnect between journalists and their readers which helps explain why the “standard templates”of the newsroom seem alien many readers. In a recent survey, questionnaires were sent to reporters in five middle size cities around the country, plus one large metropolitan area. Then residents in these communities were phoned at random and asked the same questions.

 

Replies show that compared with other Americans, journalists are more likely to live in upscale neighborhoods, have maids, own Mercedeses, and trade stocks, and they’re less likely to go to church, do volunteer work, or put down roots in community.

 

Reporters tend to be part of a broadly defined social and cultural elite, so their work tends to reflect the conventional values of this elite. The astonishing distrust of the news media isn’t rooted in inaccuracy or poor reportorial skills but in the daily clash of world views between reporters and their readers.

 

This is an explosive situation for any industry, particularly a declining one. Here is a troubled business that keeps hiring employees whose attitudes vastly annoy the customers. Then it sponsors lots of symposiums and a credibility project dedicated to wondering why customers are annoyed and fleeing in large numbers. But it never seems to get around to noticing the cultural and class biases that so many former buyers are complaining about. If it did, it would open up its diversity program, now focused narrowly on race and gender, and look for reporters who differ broadly by outlook, values, education, and class.

 

29. What is the passage mainly about?

[A] needs of the readers all over the world.

[B] causes of the public disappointment about newspapers.

[C] origins of the declining newspaper industry.

[D] aims of a journalism credibility project.

30. The results of the journalism credibility project turned out to be ______.

[A] quite trustworthy                     [B] somewhat contradictory

[C] very illuminating                     [D] rather superficial

31. The basic problem of journalists as pointed out by the writer lies in their ______.

[A] working attitude                      [B] conventional lifestyle

[C] world outlook                        [D] educational background

32. Despite its efforts, the newspaper industry still cannot satisfy the readers owing to its_______.

[A] failure to realize its real problem

[B] tendency to hire annoying reporters

[C] likeliness to do inaccurate reporting

[D] prejudice in matters of race and gender

文章结构分析

这是一篇关于美国新闻媒体遭受不信任危机的文章。文章介绍了一个针对此不信任危机而开展的调查,并阐述造成这一危机的原因,也是调查失败的原因。文章前两段交待了背景,第三段首先给出主题,在下面的三段中,逐步深入地追寻其背后的深层次原因,最后两段进行总结。整篇文章的论证方法主要是说理。

第一段:第一句以疑问句的形式提出问题,并指出该调查的目的。

第二段:直接指出该调查的结果不令人满意。

第三段:第一句为主题句——对媒体不信任是由于深层次原因。本段中“in other words”说明本段的论证方法是典型的说理。

第四段:进一步举例说明上段提到的新闻“标准模式”与普通人的生活相距甚远。

第五段:进一步指出这种差距是由于新闻界人士的生活态度导致的。

第六段:对文章观点进行总结。

第七段:指出这一趋势的危害。

 

试题具体解析

29. What is the passage mainly about?

A]Needs of the readers all over the world.

B]Causes of the public disappointment about newspapers.

C]Origins of the declining newspaper industry.

D]Aims of a journalism credibility project. 29.文章主要谈论      内容。

A]世界各地读者的需要

 

B]造成公众对报纸失望的原因

 

C]造成报业衰败的根源

 

D]一个新闻可信度调查项目的目的

 

[答案] B

[解析] 本题考核的知识点是:文章主旨题

文章首段就是主题段。第一句提出本文的主旨问题“为什么那么多美国人不相信自己在报纸上看到的东西?”这就是整个文章要回答的问题,也是以疑问句形式出现的文章主题,是主旨问题的一个改写。因而B选项为答案。选项中的disappointment是原文中distrust的近义词。

A选项与文章谈的新闻遭受的信任危机无关,并非文章主要内容。文章只有最后第一段首句提到报业是一个日趋衰败的行业,但是未对衰败原因进行探究,所以C选项不对。D选项仅仅在第二段提及这一项目的内容和发现,属于细节内容,而非主题内容。

答题技巧:答主旨类型的题目关键是找到主题段(一般为首段)或其他各段的主题句(一般为首句)。一般而言,主题段包含文章主题思想。如无主题段,则找到各段的主题句加以归纳和总结,便可得出文章中心。

 

30. The results of the journalism credibility project turned out to be .

A]quite trustworthy

B]somewhat contradictory

C]very illuminating

D]rather superficial

30. 新闻可信度调查项目的结果是     

 

 

A]相当可信

B]有点矛盾

C]很有启发

D]相当肤浅

 

[答案] D

[解析] 本题考核的知识点是:事实细节题

第二段涉及该调查的结果。该段指出“这次新闻机构可信度的调查计划只得出一些极其肤浅的结论(low-level findings)诸如新闻报道中的事实错误,拼写或语法错误,和这些低层次发现交织在一起的还有许多令人挠头的困惑,譬如读者到底想读些什么。”因此 D选项是正确答案,答案中的superficial是原文low-level的近义词。其他三个选项文中均未提及,也无法推导出。

答题技巧:对于这类形容词的选项,考生首先可以判断这些词哪些是褒义,哪些是贬义,以便缩小范围。例如,本题中考生如果先确定作者对于该发现的态度为否定的话,就可以把答案首先确定到B、D两个选项内,接下来需要考虑的问题就是“矛盾”还是“肤浅”。

 

31.The basic problem of journalists as pointed out by the writer lies in their       .

A]working attitude

B]conventional lifestyle

C]world outlook

D]educational background

31.作者指出的记者们存在的基本问题是他们的       

 

A]工作态度

B]传统生活方式

C]世界观

D]教育背景

 

[答案] C

[解析] 本题考核的知识点是:事实细节题

第六段指出,“读者对新闻媒介令人震惊的不信任的根源不是……,而是记者与读者的世界观每天都发生着碰撞(the daily clash of world views”。因此,C选项为正确答案。

A选项文中未提及。B选项和D选项应该属于记者和读者不同的两个方面,但仅是表面现象,不是问题的根本说在。

 

32. Despite its efforts, the newspaper 32.尽管新闻界付出了努力,仍然不能满足

industry still cannot satisfy the         读者的需要是由于       

readers owing to its        .

A]failure to realize its real problem    [A]没有认识到真正的问题所在

B]tendency to hire annoying reporters    B]往往雇用令人厌烦的记者

C]likeliness to do inaccurate reporting  [C]可能进行失真的报道

D]prejudice in matters of race and gender[D]有种族和性别偏

 

[答案] A

[解析] 本题考核的知识点是:事实细节题

最后一段谈到新闻业为此做出的种种努力,如“出资组织研讨会和可信度调查项目、探究为什么顾客们恼火以及为什么会有那么多人逃避新闻”;接着用but话锋一转,指出他们没有做到的方面,即“但是它似乎从来就没有回过头去注意文化方面和阶级方面的偏见,而这正是很多以前的顾客抱怨的内容”。由此可以总结得出,他们的问题就是没有对症下药。因此A选项是正确答案。

B选项、C选项都是表面现象,和D选项均与该段最后一句“这个项目现在还只是单纯考虑招收不同种族和性别的员工”的事实不符。

全文翻译

为什么那么多美国人不相信自己在报纸上看到的东西?美国新闻编辑协会正试图回答这个痛苦问题。该组织正深深陷入一个长期的自我剖析过程中,即,一个称为新闻可信度的调查项目。

 

遗憾的是,这次新闻机构可信度调查计划结果只获得了一些肤浅的发现,诸如新闻报道中的事实错误,拼写或语法错误,和这些低层次发现交织在一起的还有许多令人挠头的困惑,譬如读者到底想读些什么

 

但这种对媒体的不信任有更深刻的根源。多数新闻记者都学着用一套标准的模式去看待世界,并把每天发生的事件套入这一模式即可。换言之,在媒体的新闻采编室文化中存在着一套约定俗成的写作模式,为纷繁复杂的新闻报道提供了一个主干框架和一个现成的故事叙述套路 

 

新闻记者和读者之间存在着社会和文化方面的脱节,这就是为什么新闻编辑室的“标准模式”与众多读者的意趣相差甚远。在最近一次调查中,问卷被送到了全国五座中等城市及一座大都市的记者手中,然后随机地给这些城市的居民打电话,问他们同样的问题。 

 

结果表明,与其他美国人相比,新闻记者更有可能居住在富人区,有女佣,有奔驰车,炒股,而不大可能去教堂,参加志愿服务,扎根某个社区

 

记者们往往属于广义的社会和文化精英的一个部分,因此他们的工作往往反映了这些精英的传统价值观。读者对新闻媒介令人震惊的不信任,其根源并非是报道失实或低下的报道技巧,而是记者与读者的世界观每天都发生着碰撞。

 

这对任何一个行业来说,都是一个句有破坏力的形势,对于一个正在衰落的行业来说尤其如此。这是一个有很多麻烦的行业,却不断地雇佣观点总使客户恼怒的雇员。然后它又出资组织研讨会和可信度调查项目,去探究为什么顾客们生气,而大量流失。但它似乎从来就没回过头来去注意那么多以前的顾客所抱怨的文化和阶级偏见。如果它能注意这个问题的话,它就应该进一步开放其多样化项目(这个项目现在还只单纯考虑招收不同种族和性别的员工),进一步寻找那些世界观、价值观、教育水平和社会阶层各不相同的记者

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