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硕士研究生英语长难句解析与佳句赏析【1】

2019-10-07

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Specialisation can be seen as a response to the problem of an increasing accumulation of scientific knowledge. By splitting up the subject matter into smaller units,one man could continue to handle the information and use it as the basis for further research. But specialisation was only one of a series of related developments in science affecting the process of communication. Another was the growing professionalisation of scientific activity. 

 

No clear-cut distinction can be drawn between professionals and amateurs in science: exceptions can be found to any rule. Nevertheless, the word amateur does carry a connotation that the person concerned is not fully integrated into the scientific community and, in particular, may not fully share its values. The growth of specialisation in the nineteenth century, with its consequent requirement of a longer, more complex training, implied greater problems for amateur participation in science. ② The trend was naturally most obvious in those areas of science based especially on a mathematical or laboratory training, and can be illustrated in terms of the development of geology in the United Kingdom.

 

③A comparison of British geological publications over the last century and a half reveals not simply an increasing emphasis on the primacy of research, but also a changing definition of what constitutes an acceptable research paper. Thus, in the nineteenth century, local geological studies represented worthwhile research in their own right; but, in the twentieth century, local studies have increasingly become acceptable to professionals only if they incorporate, and reflect on, the wider geological picture.【佳句欣赏】 Amateurs, on the other hand, have continued to pursue local studies in the old way. ④The overall result has been to make entrance to professional geological journals harder for amateurs, a result that has been reinforced by the widespread introduction of refereeing, first by national journals in the nineteenth century and then by several local geological journals in the twentieth century. As a logical consequence of this development, separate journals have now appeared aimed mainly towards either professional or amateur readership. A rather similar process of differentiation has led to professional geologists coming together nationally within one or two specific societies, whereas the amateurs have tended either to remain in local societies or to come together nationally in a different way.

 

Although the process of professionalisation and specialisation was already well under way in British geology during the nineteenth century, its full consequences were thus delayed until the twentieth century. In science generally, however, the nineteenth century must be reckoned as the crucial period for this change in the structure of science.

 

 

文章长难句解析与佳句赏析

长难句分析:

① Nevertheless, the word “amateur” does carry a connotation that the person concerned is not fully integrated into the scientific community and, in particular, may not fully share its values.

句子主干是the word“amateur”does carry a connotation,后面是that引导的同位语从句,从句的主干是:the person is not fully integrated into and not fully share,其中包含了两个并列谓语。

翻译:但是“业余”这个词的确有含义:那就是所指的那个人没有完全融入某个科学家群体,特别是,他可能并不完全认同这个群体的价值观。

 

② The trend was naturally most obvious in those areas of science based especially on a mathematical or laboratory training, and can be illustrated in terms of the development of geology in the United Kingdom.

句子主干是The trend was obvious in...and can be illustrated in terms of...。science后接过去分词based on做定语。In terms of“以…观点/方式,就…而说”。

翻译:这一趋势在以数学训练或实验室训练为基础的科学领域里自然表现得最为突出,英国地质学的发展可以说明这一问题

 

③ A comparison of British geological publications over the last century and a half reveals not simply an increasing emphasis on the primacy of research, but also a changing definition of what constitutes an acceptable research paper.

句子主干是A comparison reveals not simply...but also...,并列连词not only…but also连接两个并列宾语emphasis和definition,宾语后都接有介词短语做定语。

翻译:把英国最近一个半世纪的地质学刊物作一比较,人们发现,不仅研究的重要性越来越受到强调,而且学术论文的出版标准也在不断地发生变化 

 

    ④ The overall result has been to make entrance to professional geological journals harder for amateurs, a result that has been reinforced by the widespread introduction of refereeing, first by national journals in the nineteenth century and then by several local geological journals in the twentieth century.

句子主干是The result has been to make entrance harder for amateurs, a result…。逗号后面部分a result相当于the result has been a resulta result后是that引导的定语从句,其中存在两套被动结构,一是a result has been reinforced by the introduction of refereeing,另一套是 first the introduction of refereeing first by …and then by…make sth. harder for sb.意为“使某事对于某人来说更难了”;referee原义为“当裁判,裁决”,句中意为“(出版)评审制度”。

翻译:结果是,业余人员更难在专业地质刊物上发表论文。这种结果因为评审制度的引入表现得更突出。开始是19世纪国家级杂志的引入,后来是20世纪数家地方地质杂志的引入

佳句赏析:

Thus, in the nineteenth century, local geological studies represented worthwhile research in their own right; but, in the twentieth century, local studies have increasingly become acceptable to professionals only if they incorporate, and reflect on, the wider geological picture.

该句由but连接两个分句,前后两个不同的时间状语表现了一种对比。结构严谨,对比鲜明,给人一目了然之感。

 

词汇注释

(1) specialisation(n.)专业化;specialize(v.)(in)专攻,专门研究,使专用于;specializeda.)专门的,专科的

(2) accumulation(n.)积累,积聚(物);accumulate(v.)

(3) split (v./n.) 裂开,劈开;分裂,分离;split up(使)分裂;(使)分离;分成(小组);[美俚]吵架;离婚

(4) professionalisation(n.)职业化;professionalizev.)(使)职业化/专业化;professionala.)专业的, 职业的(n.)自由职业者,专业人员

(5) clear-cut(a.)明确的,清晰的

(6) amateur(n.)业余爱好者;外行 (a.)业余的;非职业的;外行的amateurshipn.)业余者的资格或身份amateurisha.)业余的,非职业的,不熟练的amateurismn.(n.)业余性,非职业的作为

(7) connotation(n.)含义,内涵,隐含意义;言外之意

(8) integrate (v.)(into,with)(使)成为一体,(使)结合在一起,(使)合并;integrationn.)综合;integrativea.)综合的,一体化的

(9) participation(n.)参与,参加;participate (v.)(in)参加,参与;分享,分担;participatorn.)参与者,合作者;participatorya.)供人分享的

(10) primacyn.)首位,首要,首席

11)in one’s own right凭本身的权利(能力、实力,资格)

(12) reinforce(v.)加强,增援,增加,强化

(13) referee(v.)审阅,鉴定;裁判,仲裁(n.)仲裁人,调解人,[体]裁判员

14)reckon (v.) 认为,估计;指望,想要;测算,依靠 ~ as认为,视为,把…看作

 

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