stimulated by

spurred by 在…的刺激下

Stimulated by the favorable policies, industry of animation and comics gradually prospered and made remarkable achievements.


Stimulated by factors such as increase in the investment, the industrial growth was accelerated.



trigger 名词动词均可,表示:引发,(不良的反应的)起因

the power outage was triggered by heavy rains.


The trigger for the strike was the closure of yet another factory.



spark off 引发(一般不好的结果)

Changes in ecosystems could lead to social, economic and political change, and could spark off wars.



occasion 引起

The failure of the crops occasioned the rise in price.



conduce to 有助于

Each producer, in paying his quota of the taxes levied generally for the construction of roads, pays for the use of those which conduce to his convenience.



incur 带来(成本、花费等)

A disunited nation has to incur unduly high costs of government.



ensue 接着发生(不及物动词)

ensure from 结果产生于

Consequently, there can be a lot of competition during the negotiations that ensue afterward.


The evils ensue from lack of a stable government.



by virtue of 由于(中性词)

By virtue of this superior quality, this product is often sold out of stock in many areas.



on the score of 因为

There is another possibility on the score of fresh evidence.



..., which leads to ...

with ..., ...

The reason why ... is that ...

This is because ...

The main/ primary reason is that ... .

That is why ... .

It is only because ... that ...

with 结构除了表示“随着”,也可以表达“因为”。后面记得不接常规完整句子,而是名词,或者一些分词的形式。

The reason why 后面接结果,is that 后面加原因,都是写完整的句子。

It is only because we have become used to these extraordinarily fragile structuresthat this demand seems so outrageous.仅仅是因为我们已经习惯了这些极其脆弱的结构,这种需求才显得如此离谱。

That is why this year is likely to be just the beginning of many discussions like the one at the Munich security conference.这就是为什么今年可能只是慕尼黑安全会议等许多讨论的开始。

I couldn’t sleep with the noise of the traffic.交通的嘈杂声使我睡不着觉。


..., leading to ...

..., thus doing ...

..., thereby doing ...


leading to 这个可以用任何其他表示"导致"的词汇去替换。

  后两个句子种的 doing,要根据句子本身表达的内容去写对应的动词。thereby 单独用的时候,一般在句中,做一个普通的副词。

Unions often rely on volunteers to administrate, thereby keeping costs at a minimum.工会往往依靠志愿者来管理,从而将费用保持在最低限度。

This is due to ignorant motorists who fail to stop and thereby put the lives of her and the children at risk.这是因为无知的驾车者没有停下来,因而危及她和孩子的生命。

A second object was described to be identical to the one seen by the second mission,leading to the same conclusion as to its risk.第二个物体被描述为与第二次任务所看到的物体相同,从而得出了与其风险相同的结论。


be a contributing factor

be a factor contributing to

be a contributory cause of

be contributing to

be a major contributor to

attribute ... to ...

... be attributed to

... be attributable to

contribute 和 attribute 某种程度来讲是一对反义词。前者是 A 促成了 B,后者是把 B 归因于 A。所以后者更多用被动来表达。

Supermarkets are the main contributors to this mountain of food.超级市场是造成这种食物大山的主要原因。

Human error may have been a contributing factor.人为错误可能是促成因素之一。

Smoking may be a contributory cause of the disease.吸烟可能是导致这种疾病的原因之一。

Juvenile delinquency can be attributed to parental permissiveness.青少年犯罪可归因于父母的纵容。

The health problems are attributable to a poor diet and lack of exercise.健康问题可归因于饮食不良和缺乏锻炼。


..., not least because ...

..., in large part because

..., if for no other (better) reason than

..., because at least...

..., if only because

第 1、2 个表达强调后面的原因是最重要的。后面 3 个都表达这个原因是相对次要的。

Despite well-intentioned policies and laws, the situation on the ground is often quite different, in large part because of the difficulty of enforcement, both within and across borders.尽管有良好的政策和法律,但当地的情况往往大不相同,这在很大程度上是由于在国内和跨国界执行的困难。

It is essential, if for no other reason than for a unity in teaching, that each member of the school community adopts a common outlook on life.如果没有其他原因,只有在教学上团结起来,学校社会的每一位成员都必须采取共同的人生观,这是至关重要的。

Monotony is a big problem for the moralist because at least half of human's bad habits result from his fear of it.对于道德家来说,单调是一个大问题,因为至少有一半的人的坏习惯是因为他对它的恐惧。

We are confident if only because we are making progress.如果仅仅因为我们正在取得进展,我们就有信心。


... so ... that ...

So ... that ...

Such ... that ...

... enough ... that ...

  这几个词组都是围绕常规的“如此...以至于...”句型的一些变形。so 后面加形容词,such 后面加名词,他们两个放句首,需要倒装。

  这个表达在因果关系种不是特别常见,因为不是每次的原因都可以变到 so/ such 后面去。

So scarce is the food that many people suffer from starvation.食物如此稀少,以致于许多人挨饿。

Such is the moment that all greats traverse.这样的时刻,所有伟大的人都会穿越。

Another excellent way to eliminate error messages is to make the application smartenough that it no longer needs to make unnecessary demands.另一种消除错误消息的好方法是使应用程序变得更聪明,使其不再需要提出不必要的要求。