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考研英语翻译技巧-增词法与尖刺法-湛江雅托英语培训中心

2020-04-25

4.增词法

 

英译汉时,根据意义上、结构上和修辞上的需要可以加一些词,使译文既忠实于原文又通顺、流畅。这种详的方法叫做增词法。

 

1 From agreement on this general goal, we have, unfortunately, in the past proceeded o disagreement on specific goals, and from there to total inaction.

[译文]遗憾的是,过去我们在这个总的目标方面意见是一致的,但涉及到各个具体目标时,意见就不一致,因而也就根本没有采取什么行动。

[注释]agreement on this general goal是指“在总的目标上一致”,译文中加了“意见”两字,使句意思更清晰明了。下半句中在“任何行动”前加“采取”两字,使译文更符合汉语的表达习惯。本句的主导词是proceed from...to...意为“继续进行;着手;出发”,在整句翻译时,没有译出,但译文已经忠实地表达原文的含义。

 

2 This will be particularly true since energy pinch will make it difficult to continue agriculture in the high-energy American fashion that makes it possible to combine few farmers with high yields.

[译文]这种困境将是确定无疑的,因为能源的匿乏使农业无法以高能量消耗这种美国耕作方式继续下去了,而这种耕作方式投入少数农民就可以获得高产。

[注释]根据上下文,上面讲到世界食品供应将日趋紧张,而且随着人口的增加,甚至像美国这样的国家也会感到人口增加对食品生产的压力。可见,本句中this是指上述的困境,故译为“这种困境”。加了“团两字使译文前后连贯、融成一体。此外,in the high-energy American fashion 如译为“以高能量的美国方式”,会使人感到莫名其妙、不知所云,现子译文中加了“消耗”和“耕作”两词,使fashion一词的含义具体注意了句中agriculturefarmers两词遥相呼应,使译文既贴切、又流

是据意义上、句法上和修辞上的需要而增加动词、形容词、副词、名词、量词等,以便使译文

 

5.减词法

 

减词法是指原文中有些词在译文中不译出来,但译文给读者的感受和原文相同。

 

1 But one basic difference of opinion concerns the question of whether or not the city as such is to be preserved.

[译文]但是,主要的意见分歧是,像目前这样的城市是否要保存下去。

[注释]原文句子中有question一词,但汉语译文既有“是否”两字,即为“问题”,故不必把question再译出来。此外,译文已表达了原文的含义,可见,如把concerns再译为“涉及到”,则译文读起来晦涩累赘,不如不译。

[注意]减词的原则是,不能影响原文意思的完整,并应符合汉语表达的规范。只要符合这一原则,凡违背汉语表达习惯的词均应减去,使译文简洁明了。

One basic difference of opinion concerns the question of whether or not+从句...【主要的意见分歧是,......是否......

主要的意见分歧是,罪犯是否长期关押在监狱里。【One basic difference of opinion concerns the question of whether or not the criminals are in prison for long time.

 

2 Behaviorists,in contrast,say that differences in scores are due to the fact that blacks are often deprived of many of the educational and other environmental advantages that whites enjoy .

[译文]相反,行为主义者认为,成绩的差异是由于黑人往往被剥夺了白人在教育及其他环境方面所享有的许多有利条件。

Be due to the fact that+从句...【是由于......】;many(形容词) people=many(名词) of people

[注释]原文中fact引导的从句是同位语从句,修饰名词fact,在译成汉语时,fact不必译出,因为后面的从句已经揭示了fact的具体含义。

考研试题:In spite of the fact that his initial experiments had failed,Prof.White persisted in his research.(尽管怀特教授最初的实验失败了,但他仍坚持研究。)

In spite of the fact that +从句...+句子...【尽管......,但......=Although+从句...+主句...Although his initial experiments had failed,Prof.White persisted in his research.=Despite+名词......despite his initial experiments that had failed,Prof.White persisted in his research.

persist in...【坚持.......

[注意]英译汉时,有些起语法功能的词常常可以不译,这些词包括:

1)作形式主语或形式宾语的it;2)某些物主代词:3)强调句型中的it和表示时间或表示地点的非人称it;4)不影响主句与从句逻辑关系的连接词。请看下面示例:

1)Nobody knows for sure,but most experts think it will soon be difficult to obtain sufficient electricity from these sources.(谁也无法确知,但大多数专家认为,不需太久就难以靠这些资源提供充足的电力了。)

it will soon be difficult to do sth(不需太久就难以做某事);obtain A from B(靠B获得A

2) Moreover, inaccurate or indefinite words may make it difficult for the listener to understand the message which is being transmitted to him.(此外,措辞不准确与不确切还会使听话人难以理解传递给他的信息。)

A may make it difficult for sb to do sthA可能使某人难以做某事】

 

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