As Philadelphia grew from a small town into a city in the first half of the eighteenth
century, it became an increasingly important marketing centre for a vast and growing agricultural hinterland. Market days saw the crowded city even more crowded, as line fanners from within a radius of 24 or more kilometers brought their sheep, cows, pigs, vegetables, cider, and other products for direct sale to the townspeople. The High Street Market was continuously enlarged throughout the period until 1736, when it reached from Front Street to Third. By 1745 New Market was opened on Second Street between Pine and Cedar. The next year the Callow hill Market began operation.
Along with market days, the institution of twice-yearly fairs persisted in Philadelphia even after similar trading days had been discontinued in other colonial cities. The fairs provided a means of bringing handmade goods from outlying places to
would-be buyers in the city. Linens and stockings from Germantown, for example,
were popular items.
Auctions were another popular form of occasional trade. Because of the competition, retail merchants opposed these as well as the fairs. Although
governmental attempts to eradicate fairs and auctions were less than successful, the ordinary course of economic development was on the merchants' side, as increasing business specialization became the order of the day. Export merchants became differentiated from their importing counterparts, and specialty shops began to appear in addition to general stores selling a variety of goods.
One of the reasons Philadelphia's merchants generally prospered was because the
surrounding area was undergoing tremendous economic and demographic growth.
They did their business, after all, in the capital city of the province. Not only did they
cater to the governor and his circle, but citizens from all over the colony came to the capital for legislative sessions of the assembly and council and the meetings of the
courts of justice.
1. What does the passage mainly discuss?
(A) Philadelphia's agriculture importance
(B) Philadelphia's development as a marketing center
(C) The sale of imported goods in Philadelphia
(D) The administration of the city of Philadelphia
2. It can be inferred from the passage that new markets opened in Philadelphia because
(A) they provided more modem facilities than older markets
(B) the High Street Market was forced to close
(C) existing markets were unable to serve the growing population
(D) farmers wanted markets that were closer to the farms.
3. The word "hinterland " in line 3 is closest in meaning to
4. The word "it" in line 6 refers to
(A) the crowded city
(B) a radius
(C) the High Street Market
(D) the period
5. The word "persisted" in line 9 is closest in meaning to
6. According to the passage, fairs in Philadelphia were held
(A) on the same day as market says
(B) as often as possible
(C) a couple of times a year
(D) whenever the government allowed it
7. It can be inferred that the author mentions "Linens and stockings" in line 12 to show that they were items that
(A) retail merchants were not willing to sell
(B) were not available in the stores in Philadelphia
(C) were more popular in Germantown man in Philadelphia
(D) could easily be transported
8. The word "eradicate" in line 16 is closest in meaning to
9. What does the author mean by stating in line 17 that "economic development was on the merchants' side "?
(A) Merchants had a strong impact on economic expansion.
(B) Economic forces allowed merchants to prosper.
(C) Merchants had to work together to achieve economic independence
(D) Specialty shops near large markets were more likely to be economically
10. The word "undergoing" in line 22 is closest in meaning to
Avicolturists, people who raise birds for commercial sale, have not yet learned
how to simulate the natural incubation of parrot eggs in the wild. They continue
to look for better ways to increase egg production and to improve chick survival rates.
line When parrots incubate their eggs in the wild, the temperature and humidity of the
(5) nest are controlled naturally. Heat is transferred from the bird's skin to the top portion
of the eggshell, leaving the sides and bottom of the egg at a cooler temperature. This
temperature gradient may be vital to successful hatching. Nest construction can
contribute to this temperature gradient Nests of loosely arranged sticks, rocks, or dirt
are cooler in temperature at the bottom where the egg contacts the nesting material.
(10) Such nests also act as humidity regulators by allowing rain to drain into the bottom
sections of the nest so that the eggs are not in direct contact with the water. As the
water that collects in the bottom of the nest evaporates, the water vapor rises and is
heated by the incubating bird, which adds significant humidity to the incubation
(15) In artificial incubation programs, aviculturists remove eggs from the nests of parrots
and incubate them under laboratory conditions. Most commercial incubators heat the
eggs fairly evenly from top to bottom, thus ignoring the bird's method of natural
incubation, and perhaps reducing the viability and survivability of the hatching chicks.
When incubators are not used, aviculturists sometimes suspend wooden boxes outdoors
(20) to use as nests in which to place eggs. In areas where weather can become cold after
eggs are laid, it is very important to maintain a deep foundation of nesting material to
act as insulator against the cold bottom of the box. If eggs rest against the wooden
bottom in extremely cold weather conditions, they can become chilled to a point where
the embryo can no longer survive. Similarly, these boxes should be protected from
(25) direct sunlight to avoid high temperatures that are also fatal to the growing embryo.
Nesting material should be added in sufficient amounts to avoid both extreme
temperature situations mentioned above and assure that the eggs have a soft, secure
place to rest.
11. What is the main idea of the passage?
(A) Nesting material varies according to the
(B) Humidity is an important factor in
incubating parrots' eggs.
(C) Aviculturists have constructed the ideal
nest box for parrots.
(D) Wild parrots' nests provide information
useful for artificial incubation.
12. The word "They" in line 2 refers to
13. According to paragraph 2, when the
temperature of the sides and bottom of the egg
are cooler than the top, then
(A) there may be a good chance for
(B) the embryo will not develop normally
(C) the incubating parent moves the egg to
a new position.
(D) the incubation process is slowed down
14. According to paragraph 2, sticks, rocks, or dirt are used to
(A) soften the bottom of the nest for the newly
(B) hold the nest together
(C) help lower the temperature at the bottom of
(D) make the nest bigger
15. According to paragraph 2, the construction of the nest allows water to
(A) provide a beneficial source of humidity
in the nest
(B) loosen the materials at the bottom of the
(C) keep the nest in a clean condition
(D) touch the bottom of the eggs
16. All of the following are part of a parrot's
incubation method EXCEPT
(A) heating the water vapor as it rises from the
bottom of the nest
(B) arranging nesting material at the bottom of
(C) transferring heat from the parent to the top
of the eggshell
(D) maintaining a constant temperature on the
17. The word "suspend" in line 19 is closest in
18. The word "fatal" in line 25 is closest in
19. The word "secure" in line 27 is closest in
20. According to paragraph 3, a deep foundation of nesting material provides
(A) a constant source of humidity
(B) a strong nest box
(C) more room for newly hatched chicks
(D) protection against cold weather
21. Which of the following is a problem with
(A) They lack the natural temperature changes
of the outdoors.
(B) They are unable to heat the eggs evenly
(C) They do not transfer heat to the egg in the
same way the parent bird does.
(D) They are expensive to operate.
22. Which of the following terms is defined in thepassage?
(A) Aviculturists (line I)
(B) Gradient (line 8)
(C) Incubation (line 15)
(D) Embryo (line 24)
The mineral particles found in soil range in size from microscopic clay particles
to large boulders. The most abundant particles—sand, silt, and clay—are the focus
of examination in studies of soil texture. Texture is the term used to describe the
line composite sizes of particles in a soil sample, typically several representative handfuls.
(5) To measure soil texture, the sand, silt, and clay particles are sorted out by size and
weight. The weights of each size are then expressed as a percentage of the sample
In the field, soil texture can be estimated by extracting a handful of sod and
squeezing the damp soil into three basic shapes; (1) cast, a lump formed by squeezing
(10) a sample in a clenched fist; (2) thread, a pencil shape formed by rolling soil between
the palms; and (3) ribbon, a flatfish shape formed by squeezing a small sample between
the thumb and index finger. The behavioral characteristics of the soil when molded into
each of these shapes, if they can be formed at all, provides the basis for a general
textural classification. The behavior of the soil in the hand test is determined by the
(15) amount of clay in the sample. Clay particles are highly cohesive, and when dampened,
behave as a plastic. Therefore the higher the clay content in a sample, the more refined
and durable the shapes into which it can be molded.
Another method of determining soil texture involves the use of devices called
sediment sieves, screens built with a specified mesh size. When the soil is filtered
(20) through a group of sieves, each with a different mesh size, the particles become
grouped in corresponding size categories. Each category can be weighed to make a
textural determination. Although sieves work well for silt, sand, and larger particles,
they are not appropriate for clay particles. Clay is far too small to sieve accurately;
therefore, in soils with a high proportion of clay, the fine particles are measured on the
(25) basis of their settling velocity when suspended in water .Since clays settle so slowly,
they are easily segregated from sand and silt. The water can be drawn off and
evaporated, leaving a residue of clay, which can be weighed.
23. What does the passage mainly discuss?
(A) Characteristics of high quality soil
(B) Particles typically found in most soils
(C) How a high clay content affects the
texture of soil
(D) Ways to determine the texture of soil
24. The author mentions "several representative
handrals" in line 4 in order to show
(A) the range of soil samples
(B) the process by which soil is weighed
(C) the requirements for an adequate soil
(D) how small soil particles are
25. The phrase "sorted out" in line 5 is closest in
26. It can be inferred mat the names of the three
basic shapes mentioned in paragraph 2 reflect
(A) the way the soil is extracted
(B) the results of squeezing the soil
(C) the need to check more than one
(D) the difficulty of forming different
27. The word "dampened" in line 15 is closest in
28. Which of the following can be inferred from
the passage about a soil sample with little or
no clay in it?
(A) It is not very heavy.
(B) It may not hold its shape when molded.
(C) Its shape is durable
(D) Its texture cannot be classified
29. The word "they" in line 23 refers to
(C) larger particles
(D) clay particles
30. It can be inferred from the passage that the
sediment sieve has an advantage over the hand
test in determining soil texture because
(A) using the sieve takes less time
(B) the sieve can measure clay
(C) less training is required to use the sieve
(D) the sieve allows for a more exact
31. During the procedure described in paragraph
3, when clay particles are placed into water
(A) stick to the sides of the water container
(B) take some time to sink to the bottom
(C) separate into different sizes
(D) dissolve quickly
32. The word "fine" in line 24 is closest in
33. All of the following words are defined in the
(A) texture (line 3)
(B) ribbon (line 11)
(C) sediment sieves (line 19)
(D) evaporated (line 27)
A number of factors related to the voice reveal the personality of the speaker.
The first is the broad area of communication, which includes imparting information
by use of language, communicating with a group or an individual, and specialized
line communication through performance. A person conveys thoughts and ideas through
(5) choice of words, by a tone of voice that is pleasant or unpleasant, gentle or harsh, by
the rhythm that is inherent within the language itself, and by speech rhythms that are
flowing and regular or uneven and hesitant, and finally, by the pitch and melody of the
utterance. When speaking before a group, a person's tone may indicate unsureness or
fright, confidence or calm. At interpersonal levels, the tone may reflect ideas and
(10) feelings over and above the words chosen, or may belie them. Here the conversant's
tone can consciously or unconsciously reflect intuitive sympathy or antipathy, lack of
concern or interest, fatigue, anxiety, enthusiasm or excitement, all of which are .usually
discernible by the acute listener. Public performance is a manner of communication
that is highly specialized with its own techniques for obtaining effects by voice and /or
(15) gesture. The motivation derived from the text, and in the case of singing, the music, in
combination with the performer's skills, personality, and ability to create empathy will
determine the success of artistic, political, or pedagogic communication.
Second, the voice gives psychological clues to a person's self-image, perception of
others, and emotional health. Self-image can be indicated by a tone of voice that is
(20) confident, pretentious, shy, aggressive, outgoing, or exuberant, to name only a few
personality traits. Also the sound may give a clue to the facade or mask of that person,
for example, a shy person hiding behind an overconfident front. How a speaker
perceives the listener's receptiveness, interest, or sympathy in any given conversation
can drastically alter the tone of presentation, by encouraging or discouraging the
(25) speaker. Emotional health is evidenced in the voice by free and melodic sounds of the
happy, by constricted and harsh sound of the angry, and by dull and lethargic qualities
of the depressed
34. What does the passage mainly discuss?
(A) The function of the voice in performance
(B) The connection between voice and
(C) Communication styles
(D) The production of speech
35. What does the author mean by staring that, "At interpersonal levels, tone may reflect ideas and feelings over and above the words chosen"
(A) Feelings are expressed with different words
than ideas are.
(B) The tone of voice can cany information
beyond the meaning of words.
(C) A high tone of voice reflects an emotional
(D) Feelings are more difficult to express than
36. The word "Here" in line 10 refers to
(A) interpersonal interactions
(B) the tone
(C) ideas and feelings
(D) words chosen
37. The word "derived" in line 15 is closest in
38. Why does the author mention "artistic,
political, or pedagogic communication" in line
(A) As examples of public performance
(B) As examples of basic styles of
(C) To contrast them to singing
(D) To introduce the idea of self-image
39. According to the passage, an exuberant tone of voice, may be an indication of a person's
(A) general physical health
(C) ability to communicate
(D) vocal quality
40. According to the passage, an overconfident
front may hide
41. The word "drastically" in line 24 is closest in
42. The word "evidenced" in line 25 is closest in
43. According to the passage, what does a
constricted and harsh voice indicate?
As the twentieth century began, the importance of formal education in the United
States increased The frontier had mostly disappeared and by 1910 most Americans
lived in towns and cities. Industrialization and the bureaucratization of economic
line life combined with a new emphasis upon credentials and expertise to make schooling
(5) increasingly important for economic and social mobility. Increasingly, too, schools
were viewed as the most important means of integrating immigrants into American
The arrival of a great wave of southern and eastern European immigrants at the turn
of the century coincided with and contributed to an enormous expansion of formal
(10) schooling. By 1920 schooling to age fourteen or beyond was compulsory in most
states, and the school year was greatly lengthened. Kindergartens, vacation schools,
extracurricular activities, and vocational education and counseling extended the
influence of public schools over the lives of students, many of whom in the larger
industrial cities were the children of immigrants. Classes for adult immigrants were
(15) sponsored by public schools, corporations, unions, churches, settlement houses, and
Reformers early in the twentieth century suggested that education programs should
suit the needs of specific populations. Immigrant women were one such population.
Schools tried to educate young women so they could occupy productive places in the
(20) urban industrial economy, and one place many educators considered appropriate for
women was the home.
Although looking after the house and family was familiar to immigrant women,
American education gave homemaking a new definition. In preindustrial economies,
homemaking had meant the production as well as the consumption of goods, and it
(25) commonly included income-producing activities both inside and outside the home,
in the highly industrialized early-twentieth-century United States, however,
overproduction rather than scarcity was becoming a problem. Thus, the ideal American
homemaker was viewed as a consumer rather than a producer. Schools trained women
to be consumer homemakers cooking, shopping, decorating, and caring for children
(30) "efficiently" in their own homes, or if economic necessity demanded, as employees
in the homes of others. Subsequent reforms have made these notions seem quite
44. It can be inferred from paragraph 1 that one
important factor in the increasing importance
of education in the United States was
(A) the growing number of schools in frontier
(B) an increase in the number of trained
(C) the expanding economic problems of
(D) the increased urbanization of the entire
45. The word "means" in line 6 is closest in
46. The phrase "coincided with" in line 9 is
closest in meaning to
(A) was influenced by
(B) happened at the same time as
(C) began to grow rapidly
(D) ensured the success of
47. According to the passage, one important
change in United States education by the
1920's was that
(A) most places required children to attend
(B) the amount of time spent on formal
education was limited
(C) new regulations were imposed on
(D) adults and children studied in the same
48. Vacation schools and extracurricular activities
are mentioned in lines 11-12 to illustrate
(A) alternatives to formal education
provided by public schools
(B) the importance of educational changes
(C) activities that competed to attract new
immigrants to their programs.
(D) the increased impact of public schools on
49. According to the passage, early-twentiethcentury
education reformers believed that
(A) different groups needed different kinds of
(B) special programs should be set up in
frontier communities to modernize them
(C) corporations and other organizations
damaged educational progress
(D) more women should be involved in
education and industry
50. The word "it" in line 24 refers to
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