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中石油托福英语语法【第三课时】

2019-08-23

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【第三课时】

 

1. The Cubists were concerned with how__________a given subject from different points of view

simultaneously.

(A) represented

(B) do the represent

(C) to represent

(D) representing

答案:C

测试点:不定式。

分析:how 后加从句或不定式,而 4 个答案中无相应从句,故选不定式 to represent

2. Sometimes__________to place physics and chemistry into separate categories.

(A) difficult

(B) is difficult

(C) it is difficult

(D) that it is difficult

答案:C

测试点:主谓结构。

分析:本句主、谓语俱缺,应在答案中选择完整的主谓或主系表结构,即(C)(A)主语、动词均缺;(B)缺主语;(D)多了 that,是从句。

3. Martha Graham, __________, has run her own dance company for half a century.

(A) is the great modern choreographer

(B) one of the great modern choreographers

(C) that the great modern choreographers

(D) the modern choreographers were great

答案:B

测试点:同位语。

分析:接在主语后面、两边由逗号隔开的成份,可能是主语的同位语,即一说明身份的名词性结构。答案中只有(B)是名词性的。(A)(D)都有系动词;(C)that 开头,是从句的一部分。

解题要点:同位语结构是中国学生不甚熟悉而 TOEFL 考题中常出现的结构。见到主语和谓语动词/系动词之间的,两边用逗号隔开的形式,应首先考虑同位语的可能性,选择名词性结构。

4. Long before children are able to speak or understand a language, __________communicate

through facial expressions and by making noises.

(A) however

(B) they

(C) furthermore

(D) who

答案:B

测试点:主语。

分析:communicate 是谓语动词,前面缺主语。应在答案中选择名词或代词作主语。(B)代词 they 可作主语。(A)(C)既非代词也非名词,不能作主语;(D)用在疑问句或从句中。

5. The seating of musicians in an orchestra is arranged __________to produce the desired blend of

sounds from the various musical sections .

(A) the conductor of

(B) from the conductor

(C) the conductor and

(D) by the conductor

答案:D

测试点:介词短语/被动语态。

分析:看到被动语态的 is arranged,应想到后面可能接 by…的结构。在 4 个答案中选择以 by 开头的介词短语,即(D)

6. The worldwide race to develop an affordable synthetic fuel has so far consumed billions of dollars

and __________ few results.

(A) yielded

(B) yielding

(C) yield ha

(D) has a yield of

答案:A

测试点:并列结构。

分析:and 前后两部分,应同形式、同性质。此处 and 连接两个谓语部分,前面是 consumed…,后面应也是一过去式的动词,即(A)yielded

7. Experiments in the photography of moving objects __________ in both the United States and

Europe well before 1900.

(A) have been conducting

(B) were conducting

(C) had been conducted

(D) being conducted

答案:C

测试点:时态。

分析:本句有主语而缺谓语动词,应选择时态正确的动词作谓语。句中 well before l900 说明时间是

“过去的过去”,时态应用过去完成时,故选(C)(A)是现在完成时;(B)是过去进行时;(D)不能作谓

语动词。

8. The University of Georgia, __________ in 1785, was the first state supported university in the

United States.

(A) chartered

(B) was chartered

(C) it was chartered

(D) to be chartered

答案:A

测试点:分词短语作后置定语。

分析:此句是 TOEFL 常考句式。分词短语作定语放在它所修饰的名词后面(A),相当于被动式的定语从句省掉关系代词 which/that 及系动词 be(B)若改为 which was chartered(C)which 代替 it(D)去掉 to be,亦可。

9. Thanks to modern irrigation, crops now grow abundantly in areas where once __________ cacti

and sagebrush could live.

(A) nor

(B) not the

(C) none other

(D) nothing but

答案:D

测试点:短语。

分析:Nothing but 是固定的短语。(A)nor 通常不单独使用,应与 neither 连用;(B)not 用于否定动词或形容词;(C)是错误说法。

10. __________, in the late 1800s, some libraries had to keep as many as twenty to thirty copies of

each of Mary Jane Holmess books on hand.

(A) Inventories showing

(B) That show inventories

(C) Inventories show that

(D) Showing the inventories

答案:C

测试点:复合句。

分析:本句中 some 后的部分为从句,前面缺少主句,及连接词。应在答案中选择完整的主谓结构,即(C)

11. The scholarly interest in perception stems largely from questions about the sources and validity of

what __________.

(A) it is known as human knowledge

(B) is known as human knowledge

(C) known human knowledge

(D) is human knowledge known

答案:B

测试点:what 引导的名词从句。

分析:介词 of 应后接名词性成份作介词宾语。What…结构的作用相当于一个名词,它要么是 what+不定式,要么是 what 从句,即名词性从句。答案中无不定式形式,只有(B)能与 what 组成完整的从句,故选 (B)(A)it what 重复。

12. Because of the Aleutsconstant exposure to cold weather, they have long recognized

__________ .

(A) and body needs to be fat

(B) body needs the fat

(C) how fat the body needs

(D) the bodys need for fat

答案:D

测试点:宾语。

分析:recognize 是及物动词,其后应接名词性的成份作宾语。(D)是名词词组,故选(D)(B)看似省掉

that 的宾语从句,但 fat 前的定冠词 the 是错误的。(C)如改为 how much fat 则在句子结构上亦是正确的。

13. Almost all economists agree __________ by trading with one another.

(A) nations that are gained

(B) nations they gain

(C) gaining nations

(D) that nations gain

答案:D

测试点:宾语从句。

分析:请注意动词 agree 的几种句型结构:(1)agree 十宾语从句; (2)agree withto 十名词结构。

14. The development of mechanical timepieces spurred the search for __________ with which to

regulate them.

(A) more accurate than sundials

(B) more accurate sundials

(C) sundials more accurately

(D) more accurately than sundials

答案:B

测试点:介词宾语。

分析:介词 for 后面应接名词性的成份作其宾语。4 个答案中只有(B)是以名词 sundials 作中心词的词组,可作介词宾语。

15. Anthropology is a science __________anthropologists use a rigorous set of methods and

techniques to document observations that can be checked by others.

(A) in that

(B) that in

(C) that

(D) in

答案:A

测试点:习语。

分析:空格后面的部分说明 Anthropology is a science 的原因,而并非修饰它。答案中只有(A)in that

“因为”,故选(A)(C)that 是错误的。从句子结构上分析这个 that 无法引导出定语从句,因句中既有主语(anthropologists)又有宾语(asetof); 从句意上分析,that 后面的部分并不是前面 Science 的同位语从句。

解题要点:当 4 个答案中有 in that 这个短语时,首先要考虑选择它。

  1. A liquid is similar to a gas because has molecules are not fixed to each other in any specific way.

             A                 B                           C                 D

答案:B

测试点:代词。

分析:在 because 从句中,主语 molecules 前应当是代词,不能用动词 has。正确的词是 its

 

 

 

  1. The Conestoga wagon, used for to carry heavy loads over long distances, originated around 1725

                               A              B                  C

in a region of Pennsylvania occupied by the Conestoga Indians.

                        D

答案:A

测试点:词形/介词宾语。

分析:介词 for 后面要接名词性的成份作宾语。如动名词,不能接动词不定式。此处 tocarry 应为

carrying

18.Providence, Rhode Island, is a busy manufacturing city and seaport, as well the state capital.

                            A               B                C           D

答案:C

测试点:习语。

分析:As well as 是固定短语,此处缺一 as

19.The young of most bird species are totally dependence on parental care after hatching.

                        A                B          C               D

答案:B

测试点:词性。

分析:dependence 是名词,此处要用形容词 dependent 作表语。be dependent on 是固定用法。

20.During most of this century, A. Philip Randolph struggled for Black rights in the United States and

     A                                                    B

becomes an important figure in the labor movement.

   C                 D

答案:C

测试点:并列结构/时态一致。

分析:看到连词 and,应想到它所连接的两部分关系对等、性质相同。句中 and 连接两个谓语部分,其时态应一致。becomes 应为 became,用过去式与 straggled 并列。

21.It has been calculated that the Earths circumference around the equator is over forty longer miles

       A                                         B                C           D

than the circumference around the two poles.

答案:D

测试点:词序。

分析:表示数量、程度的形容词(或副词)比较级的正确语序为:数词十量词+比较词+than,即 forty

miles longer(than)

22. A fish must constantly to gulp water in order to keep a current flowing through its delicate gills.

                       A                                B          C    D

答案:A

测试点:词形。

分析:看到 must callmay 这几个情态动词,要注意其后应接原形的动词。此处 to gulp 是不定式,应去掉 to

23. Maria Martinez, a Pueblo Indian, rediscovered the ancient art of Pueblo black pottery A and,

                                   A

 by teaching the process to family and friends, develop a lucrative business.

     B          C                        D

答案:D

测试点:并列结构/时态一致。

分析:主谓数的一致本句比第 20 题多了两个插入语,但仍可看出其基本结构也是 and 连接并列的谓语部分(A)(D)。主语是第三人称单数的 Maria Martincz,谓语动词不能用原形的 develop。故(D)错,应用 developed rediscovered 并列。

24. Muscular motion is caused by the stimulate of specific nerve cells in the brain and spinal cord.

              A                   B        C                   D

答案:B

测试点:词性。

分析:定冠词 the 后要接名词而 stimulate 是动词,应用名词 stimulation stimulus

解题要点:注意 theof 之间的划线词是否为名词。

25. The first libraries in the North American colonies was established in Massachusetts in the year 1638.

             A                        B           C                       D

答案:A

测试点:主谓数的一致。

分析:后文助动词 was 为单数,说明其主语也应是单数。应为 library。注意此处 library 的单、复数与前面的 first 无关。

26. When does a neutron from one atom collides with the nucleus of another atom, a chain reaction

          A               B                                C

can occur.

   D

答案:A

测试点:多词。

分析:此句的 when 引导时间状语从句,when 后应直接加主语,does 是多余的。

27. Alike other academic disciplines, sociology has several major sub-disciplines.

     A         B       C                         D

答案:A

测试点: like alike 的用法。

分析:这两个词常见相互错用。alike 是形容词或副词,而 like 可以是介词或动词。在句首位置、后接宾语的,应是介词 like

解题要点;见到划线的 alike,应首先考虑它是否用错。

28. An enormous variety of information may be obtained from a largest daily newspaper.

                   A                        B         C            D

答案:C

测试点:词形。

分析:冠词 a 后的形容词不能用最高级。此处的 largest 应为 large

29. Before the invention of the clock, people had to reliable on the celestial bodies to tell time.

     A                     B                 C                         D

答案:C

测试点:词性。

分析:Had to 后要接动词原形,而 reliable 是形容词。应为动词 rely

30. How many people remember listening to Orson Welles1938 radio broadcast. The War of the

                      A       B                              C

Worlds,Which convince thousands that space aliens had invaded the Earth?

                  D

答案:D

测试点:时态。

分析:从句主语 which 代指的是 1938 radio broadcast,谓语动词不能用现在时。convince 应为过去时的 convinced(A)(B)remember+动词-ing 形式,指“记得曾做过某事”,无误。

31. Pewter, a metal with an ancient heritage, is still practical medium for the nonprofessional

            A                B            C                        D

metalworker.

答案:C

测试点:冠词。

分析:可数名词前应有冠词或代词。(C)后的 medium 是可数名词,其前虽有形容词 practical,但缺少冠词。应为 still a practical…。

32. According to cognitive theories of emotion, anger occurs when individuals believe that A they

        A

have been harmed and that the harm was either avoidable and undeserved.

    B                   C           D

答案:D

测试点:eitheror bothand 的用法。

分析: 这两个连词词组在 TOEFL 考题中经常错误搭配。后文有 and 而无 or,以此为线索,分析此处either 错用,应当是 bothand 的结构。

33. Jackie Mcleans recordings have shown that he is one of the few jazz musicians who style A B of

                                                      A               B

playing has kept pace with the evolution of modern jazz.

  C                         D

答案:B

测试点:代词。

分析:名词前面应当用形容词性的代词修饰、限制。此处,名词 style 前应当用所有格的 whose,而不用主格的 who

34. How Native Americans developed corn is a puzzling, for no wild corn has ever been discovered,

     A                                   B                     C

and it grows only where people plant and tend it.

                 D

答案:B

测试点:词性。

分析:看到句中的系动词 its 应想到其后的 a…是表语,此表语由 a+名词构成。puzzling 是形容词,应用名词 puzzle

35. A principle of manager is to ensure that every action or decision achieves a carefully planned goal.

                 A                         B       C                      D

答案:A

测试点:近义词。

分析:manager 用以指“人”,前面应有冠词。a the。此处应用指“事”的名词 management

36. A good exercise program helps teach people to avoid the habits that might shorten the lives.

                            A             B                  C         D

答案:D

测试点:冠词/代词。

分析:复数名词在泛指时前面不加任何冠词。lives 是复数名词,其意义又并非特指哪些人的生命,故the 为多余。或者亦可以用 their 代替 the,与前面的 people 相呼应。

37. Classicism as a doctrine seeks what is universally truth and good.

                  A     B                   C   D

答案:C

测试点:词性/并列结构。

分析:连词 and 两边的成份应同词性、同性质。这里 and 一边是形容词 good,另一边 truth 却是名词。应为形容词 true

38. Researchers at the University of Colorado are investigating a series of indicators that A B could

        A                                 B                                 C

help themselves to predict earthquakes.

        D

答案:D

测试点:反身代词。

分析:只有当主语和宾语为同一人物或事物时,宾语成分才可用反身代词。此句为复合句,定语从句的主语为 indicators,而 themselves 指的是主句的主语 Researchers,故应为 them。解题要点; 反身代词为 TOEFL 考题中常考的题型。见到划线的-self -selves 结尾的词,应注意它在句意上主语(动作施行者)是否一致。

 

39.Fungi are important in the process of decay, which returns ingredients to the soil, enhances soil

        A                  B                                            C

fertility, and decompose animal debris.

               D

答案:D

测试点:并列结构。

分析:与第 37 题类似,本题中的 and 连接了并列的谓语部分。and 前用了 returns enhances,它后面也应与之一致,用第三人称单数的 decomposes。另请注意 fungi fungus 的复数形式,(A)正确。

40. A common use with gold in the nineteenth century was as a standard for the value of money.

        A        B                                    C            D

答案:B

测试点:介词。

分析:根据句意,(B)with 应为 of. use of gold 指黄金的用途。注意 TOEFL 的改错题中介词时常用错,

需根据句意确定介词,是否正确。

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