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中石油托福英语语法【第二课时】

2019-08-23

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【第二课时】

 

1. The difference between libel and slander is that libel is printed while__________.

(A) spoken is slander

(B) is spoken slander

(C) slander is spoken

(D) is slander spoken

答案:C

测试点:词序/主谓结构。

分析:连词 while 后连接句子,两边是对比关系,同句式、同结构。本句 while 前的 libel is printed 为“主系表”结构,应在答案中寻找相同的结构,即(C)

2. Great numbers of tiny shelled animalson the ocean floor.

(A) Live

(B) Living

(C) They will live

(D) If they lived

答案:A

测试点:谓语。

分析:空格前是名词性成份,作句子主语,应在答案中选择谓语动词,即(A)(B)不能单独作谓语;(C)重复了主语,(D)是从句。

3. The knee is the joint __________the thigh bone meets the large bone of the lower leg.

(A) when

(B) where

(C) why

(D) which

答案:B

测试点:从句连接词。

分析:空格前的 joint 表示地点,定语从句的连接词应当用指示地点的 where(A)指时间;(C)指原因;(D)指事物;且与从句中的主语 the thigh bone 重复。

4. Closed plane figures like the square or the equilateral triangle can be grouped into a class

__________polygons.

(A) called

(B) to call

(C) is called

(D) call as

答案:A

测试点:分词短语作后置定语。

分析:横线前的 class 是名词,其后的部分应是它的定语。这个定语要么是从句,要么是短语。4 个答案中无完整的从句,只有(A)是过去分词,可与横线后的 polygons 组成短语,故选(A)(C)如加上关系代词 which that 则亦为正确。(B)to call 应为被动语态(to be called),这种结构通常省掉 to be,成为(A)的形式。

解题要点:分词短语作后置定语是 TOEFL 考题中反复出现的题型。它实际上等于系词(be)结构的定语从句省去 whichthat+be 部分,只保留分词及其后成份。

5. Acids are chemical compounds that, in water solution, have __________, a corrosive action on

metals, and the ability to turn certain blue vegetable dyes red.

(A) tastes sharp

(B) sharp-tasting

(C) a sharp taste

(D) tasting sharp

答案:C

测试点:宾语。

分析:动词 have 要求名词性的成份作它的宾语,应在答案中选择名词或名词词组,即(C)(A)是系表结构;(B)是形容词;(D)是分词短语。

6. __________the history of the tough, strong-willed Nebraska farmer.

(A) Not only is much of the history of Nebraska

(B) Although it is much of the history of Nebraska that is

(C) It is much the history of Nebraskas being

(D) Much of the history of Nebraska is

答案:D

测试点: 主谓结构。

分析:空格后只剩下名词性的成份,说明句子缺少主语和谓语动词,应在答案中寻找主语+动词的形

式,即(D)much 为名词。

7. Billie Holidays reputation as a great jazz-blues singer rests on her ability __________emotional

depth to her songs.

(A) be giving

(B) are given

(C) being given

(D) to give

答案:D

测试点:不定式/习语。

分析:空格及其后部分是名词 ability 的定语,应在答案中选择可做后置定语的不定式形式,即(D)

(A)(B)是谓语动词形式,不能作定语。(C)分词虽可作定语,但用了被动态,与句意不合。

解题要点: be able to do sth.一样,ability to do sth 也是固定结构。请务必记住这两个句式。

8. __________1895 did Cornell University begin to offer a degree in ornithology.

(A) Not until

(B) Not since

(C) Until

(D) In

答案:A

测试点:倒装句。

分析:看到 did 出现在主语前,知道句子用了倒装,时间状语…1895 提前。应在答案中选择用于倒装句的短语,即 Not until…。(B) Not since 用于完成时态,而本句为过去时;(C)(D)不适于倒装句。

解题要点;Not until 十倒装句是 TOEFL 常考题型。

9. Uniform acceleration occurs __________the rate of change remains the same over successive and

equal intervals of time.

(A) according

(B) if

(C) with

(D) under

答案:B

测试点:连词。

分析:空格前是一完整的主谓结构的句子,空格后的句子是它的状语从句,所缺为引导状语从句的连

词。4 个答案中只有(B)if 是连词。(C)(D)是介词,(A)是副词,均不可连接从句。

10. Peoples expectations for a higher standard of living increase __________.

(A) conditions in their community improve

(B) since conditions in their improving community

(C) conditions improve in their community

(D) as conditions in their community improve

答案:D

测试点:状语从句。

分析:空格前是一完整的主谓结构的句子,后面缺少的应是作状语的短语或从句。4 个答案中无相应的短语,只有(D)是完整的从句,故选(D)(A)(C)均无连接词,(B)不是完整的句子。

11. Essentially, a theory is an abstract, symbolic representation of __________reality.

(A) what it is conceived

(B) that is conceived

(C) what is conceived to be

(D) that is being conceived of

答案:C

测试点:名词从句。

分析:介词 of 后只能接名词宾语或名词性宾语从句。what 引导的从句为名词从句,而 that 引导的从句则不可,接在介词后面,故在(A)(C)中选择。但(A)what it 重复,故选(C)。且 be conceived to be是固定结构。

12. All of the plants now raised on farms have been developed from plants __________wild.

(A) once they grew

(B) they grew once

(C) that once grew

(D) once grew

答案:C

测试点:定语从句。

分析:plants 后的成份应是其定语从句,应在答案中选择完整、适当的从句,即(C)。此从句中 that

主语,不可省略,故(D)错。(A)与句意不合;(B)不通。

13. __________relatively costly, the diesel engine is highly efficient and needs servicing infrequently.

(A) Even

(B) It is

(C) Even though

(D) There is

答案:C

测试点:连词。

分析:逗号前后两部分意思相反,需表转折关系的连词,即(C)。解题要点;连词 even though 如引导主系表结构的从句,则常常省去主语和系词 be,此句即省掉了 the diesel engine is.在结构题中的四个答案中如有 even though,应当首考虑这个选择。

14. __________images out of clay, stone, and metal.

(A) The shaping of sculpture

(B) Sculpting the shapes

(C) To shape sculpture

(D) Sculptors shape

答案:D

测试点:主谓结构。

分析:本句主、谓语俱缺,应在答案中选择主谓结构的形式,即(D)

15. __________dates from the end of the eighteenth century.

(A) The modern circus

(B) That the modern circus

(C) While the modern circus

(D) The modern circus that

答案:A

测试点:主语。

分析:dates 是谓语动词,前面缺少主语。应在答案中选择名词或名词组作主语,即(A)

16. The boiled point of any liquid is determined by the pressure of the surrounding gases.

        A               B       C              D

答案:A

测试点:词形。

分析:“沸点”的固定说法是 boiling point,不用 boiled。现在分词和过去分词有时会被故意用错,应记住现在分词有“正在进行”的意义,而过去分词则给人“已经完成”的感觉。试比较 boiled water(

开过的水)

17. The Ranger spacecraft it provided more than 17,000 pictures of the moon.

                 A                B             C      D

答案:A

测试点:多词。

分析:名词 space craft 做主语,it 多余。

18. Many people who live in New York City thinks that life in a large city offers special advantages.

            A                        B       C              D

答案:B

测试点:主谓数的一致。

分析:主语是复数的 Many people,因此谓语动词也要用复数形式 think.

19. The scientific revolution of the early 1900s affected education by change the nature of

         A                                B                 C

technology.

   D

答案:C

测试点:词形。

分析:介词 by 后面不能加动词原形,应改用其动名词形式 changing

20. Meadowlarks are about the same size than robins, but they have heavier bodies, shorter tails, and

                    A               B                     C

longer bills.

      D

答案:B

测试点:习语。

分析:看到 the same…应注意其后是否有 assameas…结构是 TOEFL 考题中常出现的一种同级比较结构。

21. On May 20,1932, Amelia Earhart became the first woman fly solo across the Atlantic Ocean.

    A                           B              C          D

答案:C

测试点:后置定语。

分析:the first woman 后面是定语而不是谓语,不能用动词原形 fly,而应用 flying,或 to fly。解题要点: the firstto do…是 TOEFL 常考习语。

22. Translated into terms of psychological theory, association has been thought of as the basis of to

        A                                                          B

learn, conditioning, and creative thinking.

 C                    D

答案:C

测试点:词形/并列结构.

分析:介词 of 后不能加不定式(to learn),而应加动名词。此外,后文 and 要求两边同词性、同性质,因此,应当用 learning conditioning thinking 并列。

23. The Statue of Liberty was originally proposed in 1865 to commemoration the alliance of France

                          A       B                   C             D

with the American colonies during the American Revolution.

答案:C

测试点:词性

分析:(C)前面的 to 是动词不定式的符号,而 commemoration 是名词,此处应用动词 commemorate

解题要点:名词后缀-tion 形式出现在 TOEFL 改错题中,应首先考虑其词性的对错。

24. Reptiles are widely distributed all over the world, but are much abundant in warm regions and are

                  A                                B

virtually absent beyond the treeline in the Arctic.

  C            D

答案:B

测试点:more much 常被错用。

分析:记住 more 十形容词原级构成比较级。根据句意,此处应以 more abundant 与后文 absent

较。

25. Alike light waves, microwaves may be reflected and concentrated.

    A        B               C                   D

答案:A

测试点:like alike 的用法。

分析:这两个词经常相互用错。alike 的词性是形容词或副词,而 like 可以是介词。此处需用介词 like

解题要点: like alike 出现在 TOEFL 考题中,应当予以首先考虑。

26. Industrial buyers are responsible for supplying the goods and services that an organization

             A         B           C

required for its operations.

  D

答案:D

测试点:时态一致。

分析:以不划线的 are 做线索,看出本句的基本时态是现在时,讲述的是一般性的事实。故此处不应用过去时,required 应为 require.

27. The most easiest process for mining gold is panning, which involves using a circular dish with a

           A                                           B                C

small pocket at the bottom.

              D

答案:A

测试点:最高级。

分析:遇到含有形容词最高级的题时,既要注意 the -est most 是否缺失,也要注意-est most 是否重复使用。此处 most 多余。

28. Farm animals have been regardless by nearly all societies as a valuable economic resource.

         A                 B                            C              D

答案:B

测试点:词性/被动语态。

分析:看到系动词 be by 同时出现,应注意二者之间划线的词是否过去分词。此处 regardless(形容词)应为 regarded.

29. Although it is any longer the big business that it was in the forties, radio continues to be a medium

                 A                        B                      C

of essential communication, especially at the local level.

                                        D

答案:A

测试点:习语/no any 的用法。

分析:no longer 是固定说法,用在肯定句中。any longer 则用在否定句和疑问句中。(A)前是肯定的 it

is,故此处用 no longer

  1. The field of dynamics in physics is concerned with a particles motion in relation to the forces

                                  A                      B       C

acting it.

  D

答案:D

测试点:缺词。

分析:act 为及物动词时意为“扮演(角色)”,而此处意为“起作”,应为不及物动词,不能直接加宾

语。应为 acting onupon it

31. In the United States, both the federal and state governments have laws designed to guard

                     A                                          B

consumers against deceptive advertise.

           C              D

答案:D

测试点:词性。

分析:形容词 deceptive 后应接名词,而 advertise 是动词。此处应用 advertisement.

32. Gore Vidal has steadily pursue a literary career remarkable for its productivity, versatility, and

                         A            B      C

unpredictability.

    D

答案:A

测试点:词形。

分析:has have 后的动词应是过去分词形式,不能用原形。此处要用 pursued

解题要点: 特别要注意完成式 hashave+ed 与后接过去分词之间加入副词的情况。

33. When overall exports exceed imports, a country said to have a trade surplus.

             A               B         C               D

答案:C

测试点: 习语/被动语态。

分析:看到 said to+动词,应想到用的是 be said 十不定式的结构,表示“被说成是……”。此处缺系

动词 is

34. Instructors at the school of American Ballet first examine a young applicants instep to see

            A                               B                            C

whether it is pliant and shows promising of a good arch.

                            D

答案:D

测试点:词性。

分析:动词 shows 后需要名词作宾语,而 promising 是形容词或分词。此处应当用名词 promise

35. Anthropologists agree that our primitive ancestors who inhabited the tropics probably have natural

                  A                 B                                 C

protection against the sun.

           D

答案:C

测试点:时态。

分析:that 从句的主语是 our primitive ancestors (我们远古的祖先),其谓语动词只能用过去时态,不能用现在时。此处 have 应为 had

36. Behavior modification techniques work best with problems that manifest itself in overt actions.

                         A           B                          C           D

答案:C

测试点:代词数的一致。

分析:代词的人称和数要与它所指代的名词一致。此处指代的是复数名词 problems,代词也要用复数的 themselves

解题要点: 代词的单、复数形式也是 TOEFL 常考的要点,一定要找到它所指代的名词以确定它们的数是否一致。

37. Because they are generally taken simply to obtain a recognizable and relatively clear image, most

                    A                           B                   C

nonprofessional photographs demand few equipment.

                                D

答案:D

测试点:little few 的用法。

分析:这两个词常见相互错用。equipment 是个集合名词,不可数,只能用 little 修饰,不能用 few(few

修饰可数名词)

38. At birth, an infant exhibits a remarkable number of motor response.

   A                B        C                      D

答案:D

测试点:数的一致。

分析:A number of 后加复数名词。此处 response 应为 responses

39. Common to North America, those cinnamon fern is found in wet places.

      A                     B                 C       D

答案:B

测试点:数的一致。

分析:修饰词,限定词的数要与其中心词一致。fern 是单数,前面不能用复数代词 those.应为 the

40. The origins of the Democratic party is often traced to the coalition formed behind Thomas

                                  A          B               C

Jefferson in the 1790s to resist the policies of George Washingtons administration.

                                 D

答案:A

测试点: 主谓数的一致。

分析:主语是复数的 origins,系动词不能用单数的 is,要用 are

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