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中石油托福英语语法【第一课时】

2019-08-23

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【第一课时】

 

1. The flexibility of film allows the artist __________ unbridled imagination to the animation of cartoon

characters.

(A) to bring

(B) bringing

(C) is brought

(D) brings

答案:A

测试点:不定式。

分析:allow+sb.十不定式为固定结构。4 个答案中只有(A)to bring 是不定式。

2. Traditionally, __________in New England on Thanksgiving Day.

(A) when served is sweet cider

(B) when sweet cider is served

(C) is served sweet cider

(D) sweet cider is served

答案:D

测试点:主谓结构。

分析:原句主、谓俱缺,应选一完整的主语+谓语的结构,即(D)(A)(C)不通,(B)则是从句,不适合此句。

3. Typical of the grassland dwellers of the continent __________, or pronghorn.

(A) it is the American antelope

(B) the American antelope is

(C) is the American antelope

(D) the American antelope

答案:C

测试点:倒装句。

分析:Typical of 放在句首的句子,要用倒装句。Typical of…短语是表语,应在答案中选择“系动词+

主语”的结构,即(C)

解题要点:遇倒装句在 4 个答案中寻找以系动词 (be)开始的结构。

4. Lillian D. Wald, public health nurse and __________, was born in Cincinnati Ohio, in 1867.

(A) reforming society

(B) social reformer

(C) who reformed society

(D) her social reform

答案:B

测试点:并列结构。

分析:本句 and 前后都应是说明身份的名词性成份,故应选 (B) social reformer nurse 并列。(A)为动词性的分词词组;(C)是从句;(D)虽是名词性的,但不说明身份。

5. Copper sulfate, spread in judicious amounts, kills algae __________ harming fish or aquatic invert-

ebrates.

(A) does not

(B) but does no

(C) except

(D) without

答案:D

测试点:介词。

分析:空格后的 harming 是动名词,前面应加介词,故选(D)(A)是谓语动词的否定式,而 farming

是谓语动词:(B)可以说 does no harm (to),但不能说 does no harming(C)虽为介词,但意思不对。

6. Of the millions who saw Haleys comet in 1986, how many people __________long enough to see

it return in the twenty-first century.

(A) will they live

(B) they will be living

(C) will live

(D) living

答案:C

测试点:谓语。

分析:这句话有主语但缺少谓语动词,所以选择能作谓语的(C)(A)(B)结构是错误的,而且都重复了主语 they(D)不是谓语动词形式。

7. __________that fear, happiness, sadness, and surprise are universally reflected in facial

expressions.

(A) Anthropologists have discovered

(B) Anthropologists discovering

(C) The discovery by anthropologists

(D) Discovered by anthropologists

答案:A

测试点:复合句。

分析:空格后紧接 that 时,前一定是主句。故要在 4 个答案中选主谓语完整的结构即(A)。其余 3 个答案都无谓语动词。

解题要点:连接词 that TOEFL 结构题中是至关重要的提示符号。它表明此句是复合句,故 that 前后均应是主谓完整的句子,即主句和从句。

8.In 1964__________of Henry Ossawa Tanners paintings was shown at the Smithsonian Institution.

(A) was a major collection

(B) that a major collection

(C) a collection was major

(D) a major collection

答案:D

测试点:主语。

分析:此句缺少主语。答案中只有(D)是名词结构,能够充当主语。

9. __________irritating effect on humans, the use of phenol as a general antiseptic has been largely

discontinued.

(A) Its

(B) Where its

(C) Since its

(D) Because of its

答案:D

测试点:介词短语。

分析:逗号后为一完整的句子,则逗号前只有两种可能;短语或从句。4 个答案中无一有谓语动词,故正确答案只可能是短语。因此,选择(D)Because of 为介词短语。(C)since 作介词时是“自从”的意思,如表示“因为”则是连词。

10.In order to remain in existence,__________must, in the long run, produce something consumers

consider useful or desirable.

(A) a profit-making organization

(B) a profit-making organization which

(C) therefore a profit-making organization

(D) whichever a profit-making organization

答案:A

测试点:主语。

分析:助动词 must 前一定是主语。应选择名词性结构作主语,即(A)

11.The greater the population there is in a locality,__________for water, transportation, and disposal

of refuse.

(A) the greater the need there is

(B) greater need

(C) is there great need

(D) the great need

答案:A

测试点:并列的比较级句型。

分析:(the 十比较级…the+比较级)看到句首 The greater,就要开始从答案中寻找相同句型的比较级结

构。(A)同样以 the greater 开头,其后结构亦相同,故选(A)(B)the(C)(D)均未用比较级。

解题要点:"the 十比较级…the+比较级”结构是 TOEFL 常考题型,其前后两个比较级句型应结构对

等。

12. A historical novel may do more than mirror history; __________future events.

(A) even influencing

(B) it may even influence

(C) may even influence

(D) that it may even influence

答案:B

测试点:分号结构。

分析:分号的作用相当于句号,分号前后都应是完整的句子,故选 (B)(A)不是句子;(C)无主语;(D)

是从句。

13. __________a child, sculptor Anne Whitney showed an eager intellect and artistic talent that her

parents recognized and encouraged.

(A) Has been

(B) It was while

(C) She was

(D) As

答案:D

测试点:介词。

分析:As a child 是一介词短语,作状语,后面是完整的句子。

14. It is widely believed that the pull of gravity on a falling raindrop changes__________round shape

into a teardrop shape.

(A) of the drop

(B) the drops

(C) drop of

(D) drops their

答案:B

测试点:定语。

分析:Round shape 前缺限制它的定语,故选名词所有格(B)the drop's。另,注意 change 为及物动

词,后面直接加宾语,无须再加任何介词,故排除(A)

15.__________modern offices becoming more mechanized, designers are attempting to personalize

them with warmer, less severe interiors.

(A) If

(B) But

(C) With

(D) Once

答案:C

测试点:介词。

分析:modern offices becoming more mechanized 是动名词,做介词 with 的宾语。(A)(B)为连词,

后接从句;(D)为连词时意为“一旦”,作副词时则是“曾经”,“一度”的意思。

16. Not woman held a presidential cabinet position in the United States until 1933, when Frances

    A                                B                      C

Perkins became secretary of labor.

        D

答案:A

测试点:否定词。

分析:nonot 以及 none 这三个否定词的用法,常在题中故意混淆。副词 not 不能修饰名词 woman

此外应用形容词 no

解题要点:no not 出现在 TOEFL 改错题中,应首先考虑其是否正确。

17. The human body relies on certainty nutrients for its survival.

              A    B       C                   D

答案:C

测试点:词性。

分析:此处修饰名词 nutrients 要用形容词 certain,不用名词 certainty.

18. Too much electric current may flow into a circuit as a result either of a fault in the circuit and of an

      A                    B                                 C              D

outside event such as lightning.

答案:D

测试点:连词短语

分析:eitheror…的用法。看到 either 这个词,要注意寻找其后是否有相应的 orand 应为 or

解题要点;eitherorneithernor, bothand 等连词习语为 TOEFL 常考题型,注意其前后搭配。

19. The Appalachian Trail, extending approximately 2,020 miles from Maine to Georgia, is the longer

                        A                       B                            C

continuous marked footpath in the world.

    D

答案:C

测试点:最高级。

分析:形容词或副词前有 the,后有 in the world 等表示范围—类的短语,应当用最高级形式。此处

longer 应为 longest

解题要点;当 TOEFL 改错题中出现划线的形容词或副词的比较级或最高级形式时,应注意其用法是否正确。

20. For years, elephants were hunted for food and ivory, and as a result theirs numbers have been

                          A                                 B     C

greatly reduced.

  D

答案:B

测试点:词性。

分析:numbers 为名词,前面要用形容词性的代词 theirtheirs 为名词性质。

21. Barges which carrier most of the heavy freight on rivers and canals are usually propelled by towing.

                A               B        C                                    D

答案:A

测试点:词性。

分析:carrier 是名词,而此处需要谓语动词。应为 carries

解题要点:名词后缀-er,-or,-tion,-sion 等形式出现在 TOEFL 改错题中,应引起特别注意。

22. Although afflicted by serious eyesight problems, Alicia Alonso was one the principal stars of the

      A                         B                             C

American Ballet Theater and later formed her own dance company.

                                     D

答案:C

测试点:习语。

分析:One of the+复数名词/名词词级是固定说法,此处缺 of.

23. The ritual combat of animals are triggered by precise signals.

        A                  B          C        D

答案:B

测试点:主谓数的一致。

分析:主语是单数的 combat,系动词要用心

解题要点:介词短语 of animals 是名词 combat 的定语,这类以 of 引接的定语后置结构要特别注意主谓的数是否一致。

24. It is more difficult to write simply, directly, and effective than to employ flowery but vague

          A                                B           C                D

expressions that only obscure ones meaning.

 

答案:B

测试点:并列结构/词性。

分析:and 的前后部分应同词性、同性质,此处应用副词 effectively and 前的 simply directly 并列,不用形容词 effective

25. Different species of octopuses may measure anywhere from two inches to over thirty feet in long.

             A                            B                    C              D

答案:D

测试点:词性

分析:表示“在长度方面”固定的说法是 in length,不用 long。从词性考虑,介词诅后要加名词

(1ength),不能加形容词(1ong)

解题要点;TOEFL 考题中表示长(1onglength),(highheight),(deepdepth)等词的名词及其形

容词形式常常混淆。

26. According to some theories derived from psychoanalysis, life is supposedly easier and mo re

     A                      B                                    C

pleasant when inhibitions overcoming.

                        D

答案:D

测试点:词形。

分析:inhibitions 前有连接词 when,说明其后应为主谓完整的从句。overcoming 不是谓语动词的形

式,应为 are overcome

27. When rainbows appear, they are always in the part of the sky opposite directly the Sun.

                   A                      B     C          D

答案:D

测试点:词序。

分析:介词和它的宾语之间不要加入副词。此处副词 directly 应在介词 opposite 之前。

28. Benjamin Franklin drew a political cartoon that is credited raising 10,000 volunteers for the

                   A      B                      C                     D

American Revolutionary War.

答案:C

测试点:习语。

分析:Be credited with 是固定短语,表示“被认为取得某种成就”。

29. The begins of the modern chemistry laboratory go back to the workrooms of medieval lchemists.

        A                  B                C            D

答案:A

测试点:词性。

分析:此处要求名词作主语,而 begins 则是动词形式。应为 beginnings.

30. In many pieces of music there is a dominant theme on which the restful of the composition is

                        A         B                       C

centered.

  D

答案:C

测试点:习语/词性。

分析:The rest of 是固定短语。从词性的角度来分析,冠词 the 后面应接名词。

31. Luminescence refers to the emission of light by means another than heat.

                                    A     B       C        D

答案:C

测试点:other another 的用法。

分析:遇有划线的 another other 要加以注意,这两个词常被相互错用。此处应为 otherOther than是固定说法,表示“除了,不同于”。

32.In a representative democracy, the people election delegates to an assembly.

          A           B                C                   D

答案:C 测试点:词性。

分析:此处需一动词作谓语,而 election 是名词。解题要点;参见本套考题的第(21)题。

33.George Washington Carver found hundred of uses for the peanut, the sweet potato, and the

                                A

soybean and thus stimulated the cultivation of these crops.

                  B             C            D

答案:A

测试点:习语。

分析:表示不确定数目的短语,如 hundreds ofthousands ofmillions of 等,均用复数。

34. A citadel, a fortress designed for the defense of a city, usually standed on top of a hill.

                      A             B       C          D

答案:D

测试点:不规则动词的词形变化。

分析:这类考题数量虽不多,但考的是最基本的知识,不应做错。stand 的过去式是 stoodstanded 是个错字。解题要点;stand-stood·stood begin-began-begun 等不规则动词变化形式要记牢。

35. Conservative philosophers argue that the very structure of society is threatening by civil

                           A                                 B

disobedience, while humanists stress the primacy of the individual conscience.

              C            D

答案:B

测试点:被动语态。

分析:系动词 (be)和介词 by 同时出现是被动语态的信号,它们之间的动词要用过去分词。此处

threatening 应为 threatened.

36. Since 1971 the regional corporations set up in Alaska by Congress managing everything from

    A             B                                        C

fishing to banking.

          D

答案:C

测试点:词形。

分析:此处需要谓语动词形式 have managed。句中 set up 为过去分词短语,修饰前面的名词主语

corporations。另外注意 (D)banking 为名词,意为“银行业”。

37. A rocket burns propellant rapidly and most rockets carry a supply that last just a few seconds.

            A                                 B     C       D

答案:D

测试点:主谓数的一致。

分析:that 为从句主语,后接动词作其谓语。而 that 代指单数的 a supply 故其谓语也应用单数形式的lasts

38. Textile art is known for both its tactile and vision qualities.

     A              B                  C    D

答案:C

测试点:词性/并列结构。

分析:连词 and 要求它两边是同词性、同性质的成份。此处 and 一边是形容词 tactile,另一边应当也是形容词 visional,不用名词 vision

39. The metal aluminum has been first isolated early in the nineteenth century.

      A                B     C          D

答案:B

测试点:时态。

分析:若句中有表示具体时间的状语,如 in the nineteenth century 等,则不能用现在完成时,而要用一般过去时。此处 has been was

40. Gulls can often be see swooping over large bodies of water.

          A        B          C         D

答案:B

测试点:词形/被动语态。

分析:系动词 be 后不能加动词原形,此处应以 be+过去分词表示被动。see 应为 seen

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