Questions 1 to 5 are based on the following passage:
A scientist who wants to predict the way in which consumers (消费者) will spend their money must study consumer behavior. He must obtain data both on the resources of consumers and on the motives that tend to encourage or discourage money spending.
If an economist were asked which of three groups borrow most -people with rising incomes, Stable incomes, or decreasing incomes -he would probably answer, those with decreasing incomes. Actually years 1947- 1950, the answer was: people with rising incomes.
People with decreasing incomes were next and people with stable incomes borrowed the least. This shows us that traditional assumptions(假设) about earning and spending are not always reliable. Another traditional assumption is that if people who have money expect prices to go up they will hasten to buy. If they expect prices to go down, they will postpone buying. But research surveys have shown that this is not always true. The expectations of price increases may not stimulate buying.
One typical attitude was expresser by the wife of a mechanic in an interview at a time of rising prices. In a few months, she said, we'll have pay more for meat and milk; we'll have less to spend on other things. Her family had been planning to buy a new car but they postponed this purchase. Furthermore, the rise in prices that has already taken place may be disliked and buyer's resistance may be produced. This is shown by the following typical comment: I just don't pay these prices; they are too high.
The investigations mentioned above were carried out in America; condition most helpful to spending appears to be price stability. If prices have been stable and people consider that they are reasonable, they are likely to buy. Thus, it appears that the common business policy of maintaining stable prices is based on a correct understanding of consumer psychology(心理学).
1. According to the passage, if one wants to predict the way spend their money, he should _______
A. rely on traditional assumptions about earning and spending
B. try to encourage or discourage consumers to spend money
C. carry out investigations on consumer behavior and get data on consumers incomes and money spending motives
D. do researches in consumer psychology in a laboratory.
2. According to paragraph 2, one traditional assumption is that people with ________ incomes borrow most.
3.According to paragraph 2, research surveys have proved that _________
A. price increases always stimulate people to hasten to buy things
B. rising prices may make people put off their purchase of certain things
C. women are more sensitive to the rising in prices than men
D. the expectations of price increases often make buyers feel angry.
4. From the results of the surveys, the writer of this article _________
A. concludes that the saving and spending patterns in Great Britain are better than those in America
B. concludes that the consumers always expect prices to remain stable
C. concludes that maintaining stable prices is a correct business policy
D. does not draw any conclusion
5. Which of the following statements is always TRUE according to the surveys mentioned in the passage?
A. Consumers will put off buying things if they expect prices to decrease.
B. Consumers will spend their money quickly if they expect prices to increase
C. The price condition has an influence on consumer behavior
D. Traditional assumptions about earning and spending are reliable.
Questions 6 to 10 are based on the following passage:
The young people who talk of the village as being dead are talking nothing but nonsense, as in their hearts they must surely know.
No, the village is not dead. There is more life in it now than there ever was. But it seems that Village life is dead. Gone for ever. It began to decline (衰落) about a hundred years ago, when many girls left home to go into service in town many miles away, and men also left home in increasing number in search of a work, and home was where work was.
There are still a number of people alive today who can remember. What village life meant the early years of the present century? It meant knowing and being known by everybody else in the village. It meant finding your entertainment in the village of within walking distance of it. It meant housewives tied to the home all day and every day. It meant going to bed early to save lamp -oil and coal.
Then came the First World War and the Second World War. After each war, new ideas, new attitudes, new trades and occupations were revealed to villagers. The long - established order of society was no longer taken for granted. Electricity and the motorcar were steadily operating to make village life and town life almost alike. Now with the highly developed science and technology and high - level social welfare for all, there is no point whatever in talking any longer about village life. It is just life, and that a better life.
Finally, if we have any doubts about the future, or about the many changes, which we have seen in our lives, we have only to look in at the school playground any mid - morning; or see the children as they walk homeward in little groups. Obviously these children are better fed, better clothed, better educated, healthier, prettier and happier than any generation of children that ever before walked the village street.
6. By saying that village is not dead, but village life is dead, the writer suggests that _________
A. those young people who talk of the village as being dead are wrong
B the two statements are against each other
C. village life today is rather uninteresting
D. village life today is no longer like what is used to be.
7. It was _________ that village life began to take a sharp turn.
A. about a century ago
B. during the two world wars
C. with electricity and motorcars introduced into the village
D. only recently
8. As is suggested in paragraph 2, villagers in the past _________
A. lived a simpler life than villagers today
B. knew fewer people than villagers today.
C. found it difficult to enjoy themselves
D. liked to wash themselves with cold water.
9. The expression .... There is no point whatever in talking about in paragraph 3 means that _________
A. there is no end to the talking about....
B. It is harmful to talk about….
C. It is not meaningless to talk about....
D. there is no reason for talking about
10. From the passage we can see that the writer's attitude toward village life is __________
A. positive B. negative C. neutral D. unclear
The market investigation is indispensable to sales promotion. They are closely related as the lips and teeth, so to speak. What you produce is for sale on the market. It would be impossible to succeed in selling a product without first investigating the market.
In the international market, goods on sale coming from different countries and suppliers are always facing keen competition. Under such circumstances, they will try everything possible to familiarize themselves with the market conditions. In making investigations, we ought to get information about what similar items the competitors are offering on the market, what prices they are quoting (报价), what features their products have, who are their regular customers, etc. Then, how can we obtain such information?
There are many channels that we can make use of in doing this sort of work. The commercial counselor's offices of our embassies stationed abroad can help us in making market investigations. Nowadays, our import and export corporations send their trade groups abroad every now and then. One of their purposes is to make market surveys on the spot.
Certainly, face-to-face talks with foreign businessmen are also important channels to get market information. The Chinese Export Commodities Fairs and some other fairs of similar nature as well as visits of foreign businessmen provide us with such opportunities. Of course, there are some other ways of making market investigations.
11. In making market investigation , one should_________.
A. get enough information concerned
B. advertise his products
C. produce high quality goods
D. none of the above
12. The word indispensable in the first line means_________.
A. impossible B. essential C. advisable D. available
13 Which of the following statements is not true?
A. The relationship between market investigation and sales promotion is just as that of the lips and teeth.
B. It is impossible to succeed in selling a product without market investigation.
C. There are various ways of making market investigation.
D. Production goes before market investigation.
14. Making market investigation is very important because_________.
A. in market, goods on sale are numerous B. every producer is facing keen competition
C. it can greatly promote sales D. all of the above
15. All the following are channels to get market information except _________.
A. to have commercial counselor's office of our embassies stationed abroad
B. to promote the quality of our own products
C. to send trade groups abroad every now and then
D. to have face-to-face talks with foreign businessmen
1、C 第一段讲道一个科学家想要预测消费者如何花钱就必须研究消费者行为。他应该获取两方面的数据，一者是消费者收入，一者是消费动机。从答案看，C答案的意思符合原文。注意：原文中的resources of consumers是消费者的财力的意思。2、
2、C 第2段说道经济学家会回答收入逐渐减少的人们会借最多的钱，但在下文中又说传统的假设并不总是可信的。而经济学家在没有调查时往往是根据传统假设来回答的。所以选C stable稳定的
3、B 在这一段中被访者说原本要买车，但是考虑到逐渐上升的物价会使他们在肉类和牛奶上花费更多，就延迟了该项消费。所以比较答案可以发现B的意思于原文相符。文中的postpone和答案中的put off意思相同都是延迟，推迟之意。
4、C 答案在最后一段中，作者写道：Thus, it appears that the common business policy of maintaining stable prices is based on a correct understanding of consumer psychology(心理学).意思是：因此，保持物价稳定的商业政策看来是建立在对消费者心理正确理解的基础上的。可见作者的结论就是保持物价稳定的商业政策是正确的。所以选C
7、A 答案在文中第二段It began to decline (衰落) about a hundred years ago, when many girls left home to go into service in town many miles away, and men also left home in increasing number in search of a work, and home was where work was.意思是它（乡村生活）的衰落大约开始于一百年前。那个时候，许多女孩离开家乡去往很远的城镇，从事服务业。越来越多的男人们也离开家乡去寻找工作，并把家安在工作之处。题目问：什么时候，乡村生活开始发生巨大的变化？take a sharp turn 是发生巨大变化的意思。
8、A 答案就在第三段中，原文描述了过去乡村生活的一些方面：It meant knowing and being known by everybody else in the village. It meant finding your entertainment in the village of within walking distance of it. It meant housewives tied to the home all day and every day. It meant going to bed early to save lamp -oil and coal.意思是：它意味着熟识乡村中的所有的人，也被其他人所熟识；它意味着在乡村中走一会儿就能找到你的娱乐项目；它意味着家庭主妇整天并且每天都呆在家里；它意味着早早上床以节省用灯--油和煤。所以可以看出答案是A，BCD均可以据原文排除。
9、C 这里考察的是原文中there is no point…的意思。它的意思是……没有意义……。答案A. there is no end to the talking about....是讨论某事没完没了；B. It is harmful to talk about….是谈论某事有害；D. there is no reason for是没有理由.... 所以只能选C. It is not meaningless to talk about....谈论某事毫无意义。
10、C 从全文及最后一段来看，作者对现在的乡村里的生活状况持肯定态度。但是他对于（过去的）乡村生活并没有持否定或肯定的态度，他客观地描述它的样式和变迁，所以应该是持中立的态度，所以选C neutral 中立的；A. positive 肯定的 B. negative 否定的 D. unclear 不清楚的
11、A 答案在第二段中，In making investigations, we ought to get information about...意思是在进行市场调研时，我们应该获取关于……的信息。所以答案选A，意思是获得足够的相关信息
12、B 本题是考察词义，indispensable词义是不可缺少的；绝对必要的。答案中A. impossible是不可能；B. essential 是基本的，必要的，实质的；C. advisable是可取的；D. available 可利用的，因此选B
13、D 答案在第一段中，It would be impossible to succeed in selling a product without first investigating the market.意思是如果首先没有进行市场调研几乎就不能成功的销售产品。答案D说生产先于市场调研，显然是与原文相悖的。