Topic 4: Some people believe that culture will be ruined if it is used to earn tourism revenue, but others consider that tourism is the only way of protecting a culture. Discuss both sides and give your own opinion.
除了自然景观(landscape)之外，文化和历史是吸引旅游者去一个国家或者一个旅游景点 (tourism site)观光的最主要原因(motivator);旅游业和文化遗产相结合(integrate tourism and cultural heritage)为文化保护提供了经济支持(economic incentives);
在文化领域提供一些旅游选择(introduce the tourism options available with the cultural sectors)， 如博物馆、历史景点、活动和奠食等(including museums, historical sites, events and cuisine), 游客会深人了解当地传统和习俗(get an insight into local customs and traditions),感受当地传统和艺术(experience local traditions, arts and heritage),从而更加尊重当地社区和周围的环境 (respect the host community and its environment),促进不同国家之间关于自然和文化资源保护的交流与对话(the dialogue over conservation of natural and cultural resources )0 一
保护的一般是食物、时尚、节日等(preserve food, fashion, festivals and so forth)—些文化的表面特征(superficial elements of a culture), 将文化定格成表演者(freeze culture as performers), 导致了文化、宗教、传统仪式、物质文化和语言的损失(the loss of culture, religion, rituals, material culture and language);将文化商业化(commercialise the culture),破坏了文化神圣和独特的本质(erode the sacred and unique nature);虽然很多活动是娱乐活动(entertain, rather than educate tourists),但有些是对当地人的一种羞辱(humiliate the local people);
垃圾、涂鸦、破坏和噪音不断增加(increasing litter, graffiti, vandalism and noise)，游客在没有被允许的情况下进入建筑物、神殿、神圣的土地(enter buildings, shrines or sacred lands without permission).这都与当地文化相冲突，是一种文化侮辱(an insult to the local culture )
There is little room for doubt that tourism is one of the fastest-growing industries in the world. However, its impact on culture remains a source of constant debate. This essay will elaborate on both positive and negative effects of tourism from a cultural perspective.
Providing economic incentives for cultural preservation is unarguably one of the main contributions of tourism. To many tourists, culture and history are what they first consider when choosing a destination. Their mindset has been recognised by many tourism sites and money has been subsequently directed toward cultural protection, including the maintenance of key historical sites. Tourism is therefore one of the primary forces contributing to the preservation of a culture.
In addition to raising financing, tourism can make an indigenous culture known to the world and rally support worldwide to protect it. When a historic site or a site that shows a country's cultural heritage is made accessible to the public, visitors from all over the world will soon flock there. They will share their experience in the local culture with their friends and families once they return home, assisting this site to gain international fame. Both financial and technological support will flood in for the conservation of natural and cultural resources.
On the negative side, tourism develops sometimes at the expense of part of culture. Food, festivals, costumes and other stimulating elements of a culture are highlighted to entertain tourists, constituting an insult to the locals and causing damage to the unique nature of a culture. Moreover, cultural commercialization has made the sacred elements of a culture commonplace and tourists are encouraged to attach little importance to a unique tradition, which cannot be found elsewhere.
In the light of these facts, one can conclude that tourism is neither a boon nor a bane to cultural preservation. While its endeavour lo protect an indigenous culture should be recognized, it has put the integrity of a culture at risk.
1. unarguably= unquestionably =indisputably=undeniably:无可置提地，无可否认地
6. at the expense of=at the cost of:以牺牲…为前提
7. entertain=amuse=keep somebody amused:使愉快
9. commonplace=ordinary: 平凡的
10. in the light of=in view of=considering=taking into account:考虑到
13. put at risk=endanger=jeopardise:危及，使…危险