Topic2: When international media (including movies, fashion shows, advertisements and other TV programs) convey the same messages to the global audience, people argue that the expansion of international media has negative impacts on cultural diversity. What is your opinion?
国际媒体(global media)—般掌握在少数几个有实力的机构手中(in the hands of a few, large, powerful organizations);有了媒体的宣传(propaganda)后,西方文化成了主流(domineering force),大规模的、有吸引力的广告(mass seductive advertising )唤起了落后地区人们对物质新的向往(create fresh desires),经济联系增强(strong economic ties),西方产品取代了本地产品，使人们更加向往西方的文化;
文化开始融合在一起(mingle),人们被新的价值观所围绕(bombarded with new values)，对自己的文化失去信心和自豪感(confidence and pride),拒绝接受自己的文化传统(rejection of their cultural heritage)转而接受西方的文化习惯(adoption of Western cultural practices);西方媒体削弱了民族的特征(ethnic identity)和社会的凝聚力(social cohesion);因为担心失去观众 (a loss of viewers),当地的电视台也开始播放西方的电视节目(television shows),
国际媒体的普遍会降低世界文化的品质和多样性(degrade the quality and diversity of world culture);文化被商业化(commercialized), —些文化产品(cultural goods),如音乐、服装，都变成了商品(commodities in the marketplace)。因此，即便一些文化在世界其他地方传播，它原来的性质(authenticity)已经丧失。
国家之间的频繁交往会促进文化之间的交流。因此，相互了解和相互认同的可能性 (likelihood of mutual understanding and mutual acceptance)就会增加，这是顺应全球化的趋势;
未必一定放弃传统观念(not necessarily lead to the abolition of traditional values),事实上媒体可以起到宣传和稳固传统文化的作用;
主流媒体一般都会反应文化多元性(The dominant media reflect cultural diversity); —些外国节目其实促进了文化多元性(Most foreign programming is promoting cultural diversity.),适应了当地的条件(adapt to local conditions)，注意到了当地文化的敏感性(aware of cultural sensitivity).自我调节来适应市场(exercise self-censorship to suit the market)。
As international media companies expand across the world, the growing popularity and uniformity of some media programs (such as TV shows, movies, fashion shows) is causing worldwide concern. Many people have strong views toward this trend. In my opinion, international media is closely linked to cultural globalization and cultural homogeneity.
The dominance of international media is a sign of Western cultural imperialism and has the potential to thwart cultural diversity. It is not a secret that international media is owned and operated by a handful of giant corporations, such as Time Warner. They control large sectors of the media market and place national media companies at risk. The contraction in the number of media owners will cause a proportional reduction, in the variety of programs broadcasted. For example, painting, music and movies accessible in the media have a small number of genres, imposing restraints on one's knowledge of artworks of different cultural backgrounds.
In addition to seizing control over those creative industries, global entertainment companies affect cultural diversity by reshaping the perceptions, beliefs and norms of ordinary citizens in different countries. Most of the cultural values and ideals promoted by the leading mainstream media are of American origin. American culture values individuality, maximization of one's benefits and material wealth, rather than communal life and family solidarity, the values and norms previously treasured in" many Asian countries. Unfortunately, many Asian people now imitate American people, causing the alteration of their perceptions of family. This radical change can be attributed to those movies and TV programs that portray the success of American individuals or corporations.
The loss of media diversity is also responsible for people's narrow sense of ways of life. The ruling class of many countries speaks English, favors Western food, wears Western-style jackets and even prefers Western weddings. Young people are captivated by American basketball and some even daubing the names of NBA stars on their school sweatsuits. All these transformations in life are the result of the audience's exposure to Hollywood movies, TV shows and sports reports. The loss of media diversity will lead to degradation of culture and to a minimization of cultural diversity. It is a worrying trend, as people need cultural diversity to preserve and pass on their valuable heritage to future generations, including lifestyle.
As shown above, international media, controlled by a handful of transnational media corporations, is exporting Western culture worldwide and putting many indigenous cultures at the risk of extinction. The uniformity of media programs has led to that of artworks, norms and ways of life wherever international media goes.
4. a handful of=a small number of:少数的
5. contraction-reduction ：减少
10. be captivated by=be obsessed with=be passionate about=be addicted to=be keen on=be enthusiastic about:被…所吸引
11. pass on=give=impart=convey:传递，灌输