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新托福托福阅读长难句分析与讲解

2019-08-14

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【1】

In order for the structure to achieve the size and strength necessary to meet itspurpose, architecture employs methods of support that, because they are based on physical laws, have changed little since people first discovered them——evenwhile building materials have changed dramatically.(44)

  大家先自己理解,多想想,先别看解析,看不明白,再看下面的解析。

  (In order for the structure) (to achieve the size and strength necessary to meet its purpose), architecture employs methods of support that, (because they are based on physical laws), have changed little since people first discovered them—— (even while building materials have changed dramatically. )

  老邪分析:一个句子重点在于主干,看懂了主干,就看懂了句子的主要成分。以下主干为句子中红色部分,括号里均是修饰成分。

  修饰一:(In order for the structure),介词短语

  修饰二:(to achieve the size and strength necessary to meet its purpose),非谓语做形容词性修饰structure

  修饰三:(because they are based on physical laws),插入语,插入语记得先跳过去,断句别出问题,that和have changed是在一起的。

  (老师,啥叫插入语?嗯,好问题,改天我专门讲讲这些概念。上过课并认真听的同学,你懂的。)

  修饰四:(that have changed little sincepeople first discovered them.从句修饰support

  修饰五:(even while building materials have changed dramatically. ),从句

  括号外面的是主干:architectureemploys methods of support,注意support这里是名词。

  已经拆成这么短了,你再试试看,应该能看懂了吧?其实在理解句子的时候比较容易犯错在于断句和语序,语序和中文有差异,下次我讲修饰成分的时候一并讲。

  参考翻译:为了使结构达到必要的大小和强度去满足它的目的,建筑学上使用了一些支撑的方法,因为这些方法都是基于物理定律,所以尽管建筑材料已经发生了巨大变化,这些方法却自人们发现它们以来就没有什么变化。

【2】

  The ice shelf cores, with a total length of 215 meters (705 feet), were long enough to penetrate through glacial ice—which is formed from the compaction of snow and contains air bubbles—and to continue into the clear, bubble-free ice formed from seawater that freezes onto the bottom of the glacial ice. (53, OG)

  penetrate /'penɪtreɪt/ v. 进入或穿过某物;充满,遍布

  compact /kəm'pækt/ v. 将(某物)紧压在一起

  我是分界线,先自己分析哦。

  The ice shelf cores, (with a total length of 215 meters(705 feet)),were long enough (to penetrate through glacial ice)—(which is formed from the compaction of snow and contains air bubbles)—and (to continue into the clear, bubble-free ice) (formed from seawater)(tha tfreezes onto the bottom of the glacial ice. )

  分析:

  大家可以发现,我把句子拆短了之后,就容易理解多了。请大家仔细看我的分析。

  修饰一:(with a total length of 215 meters(705 feet)),介词短语,修饰the iceshelf cores,修饰成分一般放后面哦

  中文:总长为215米(705英尺)

  修饰二:(to penetrate through glacial ice),非谓语动词

  中文:穿透冰川冰

  修饰三:(which is formed from the compaction of snow and contains air bubbles),从句,修饰glacial ice,修饰成分一般放后面哦

  中文:由压缩的雪形成的并包含气泡

  修饰四:(to continue into the clear,bubble-free ice),非谓语动词

  中文:继续进入清澈的、没有气泡的冰

  修饰五:(formed from seawater) ,非谓语动词,修饰the clear, bubble-free ice

  中文:由海水形成

  修饰六:(that freezes onto the bottom ofthe glacial ice.) ,从句,修饰seawater

  中文:凝固在冰川冰底部

  主干:括号外面的,The iceshelf cores were long enough,主和谓语中间被解词短语with a total length of 215 meters (705 feet)隔开了,大家要注意

  参考翻译:

  总长为215米(705英尺)的冰架核已足以穿透(由压缩的雪形成的并包含气泡)的冰川冰,随后穿透清澈的、没有气泡的冰,这些冰是由凝固在冰川冰底部的海水形成的。

【3】

 

  For example, some early societies ceased to consider certain rites essential to their well-being and abandoned them, nevertheless, they retained as parts of their oral tradition the myths that had grown up around the rites and admired them for their artistic qualities rather than for their religious usefulness. (48,TPO1)

  cease /siːs/ v. 停止,中止

  well-being n. 幸福;(尤指) 健康

  retain /rɪ'teɪn/ v. 保持或保留;

  我是分解线,大家先自己分析哦

  For example, some early societies ceased to consider certain rites (essential to their well-being) and abandoned them, nevertheless, they retained (as parts of their oral tradition) the myths (that had grown up around the rites) and admired them (for their artistic qualities rather than for their religious usefulness.)

  分析:

  修饰一:(essential to their well-being),修饰rites,

  中文:对于他们的幸福健康是必要

  修饰二:(as parts of their oral tradition) ,介词短语,修饰myths,这里有一个短语retain…as,本来myths要放在retained之后,但是由于myths后面有从句,宾语较长,所以置后了,大家要注意这里语序的问题。

  中文:作为它们口头传统的部分

  修饰三:(that had grown up around therites) ,从句,修饰myths

  中文:从仪式里发展出来的

  修饰四:(for their artistic qualitiesrather than for their religious usefulness. ) ,介词短语,修饰them,这里有一个很重要短语rather than,表示而不是

  中文:因为他们的艺术性而不是宗教用途

  主干:they retained the myths

  参考翻译:

  例如,一些早期社会不再认为某些仪式对于他们的幸福健康是必要的,便取消了那些仪式,但是,他们保留了那些从仪式里发展出来的神话作为口头传统的一部分,并因为他们的艺术性而不是宗教用途而喜爱它们。

【4】

  Wild life zoologist Hulmut Buechner(1953), in reviewing the nature of biotic changes in Washington through recorded time, says that "since the early 1940s, the state has had more deer than at any other time in its history, the winter population fluctuating around approximately 320,000 deer ( mule and black-tailed deer), which will yield about 65,000 of either sex and any age annually for an indefinite period".(65, TPO4)

  biotic /baɪ'ɒtɪk/ adj. 关于生命的,生物的

  fluctuate /'flʌktʃʊeɪt/ v. 涨落,波动

  approximately /ə'prɑksɪmətli/ adv. 大约

  yield /jiːld/ v. 生产,产生;屈服,让步;

  我是分界线,大家先自己分析哦。

  Wild life zoologist Hulmut Buechner(1953), (in reviewing the nature of biotic changes in Washington through recorded time), says that ("since the early 1940s, ) the state has had more deer than at any other time in its history, (the winter population fluctuating around approximately 320,000 deer (mule and black-tailed deer), ) (which will yield about 65,000 of either sex and any age annually for an indefinite period".)

  分析:

  修饰一:(in reviewing the nature of biotic changes in Washington through recorded time),插入语,其中还有两个介词(in Washington) (through recorded time)

  中文:回顾在华盛顿有记录的时间内生物变化的特性

  修饰二:(since the early 1940s) ,介词短语

  中文:自从20世纪40年代早期

  修饰三:(the winter population fluctuatingaround approximately 320,000 deer (mule and black-tailed deer)) ,大家能看懂这个修饰即可。其实这里有一个独立主格结构,嗯,好吧,不知道也能看懂的。

  中文:冬季鹿群的数量在大约32万只鹿(杂交鹿和黑尾鹿)左右波动

  修饰四:(which will yield about 65,000 of either sex and any age annually for an indefinite period".),从句,修饰winter population,其中for an indefinite period表示不定期

  中文:这些鹿群每年将会不定期繁殖出各个年龄段的公鹿和母鹿各大约6.5万只

  主干:Wild lifezoologist Hulmut Buechner(1953) says that,后面接宾语从句

  参考翻译:

  野生动物学家Hulmut Buechner(1953)在回顾华盛顿有记录的时间内生物变化的特性之后说道:“从20世纪40年代早期,华盛顿州拥有鹿的数量比以历史任何时期都多,冬季鹿群的数量在大约32万只鹿(杂交鹿和黑尾鹿)左右波动,这些鹿群每年将会不定期繁殖出各个年龄段的公鹿和母鹿各大约6.5万只”

 

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