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新托福听力场景汇总(二)

2019-08-14

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新托福听力场景汇总之LECTURE

1.    生物学

antibody抗体toxin毒素immunity免疫immunology免疫学vaccine疫苗fungus真菌bacteria细菌fermentation发酵inflection传染 / 感染microorganism / microbe微生物virus病毒disfection消毒sterilization灭菌biology生物学marine biology海洋生物学entomology昆虫学ornithology鸟类学microbiology微生物学genetics遗传学speciology物种学parasitology寄生虫学paleontology古生物学paleontologist古生物学家dinosaur恐龙die out / extinction灭绝mammal哺乳动物carnivore食肉动物rodent啮齿类动物underwater水下的marine 海洋的scuba 水下呼吸器diving潜水 / 跳水one-celled organism单细胞有机体tissue(动植物细胞的)组织protective camouflage保护色predator捕猎者oceanic snail蜗牛animal adaptation动物适应性survival of the fittest适者生存origin of species物种起源wild environment野生环境insecticide杀虫剂prenatal care       产后护理habitat栖息地tentacle触须prey捕食navigate导航tiny receptor接收器nerve / specimen物种amphibian两栖类动物decline in the number数量减少gene基因genetic基因的,遗传的endangered species濒危动物survival活着的transition转变/过渡microbe微生物yeast酵母(菌)bacteria   细菌single-cell单细胞reptile爬行类动物hatch孵化incubation孵化nestoffspring子孙chew up咀嚼unfertilized eggs未受精卵nutrient营养品nourishment营养品 / 食物feed喂养cannibalism同类相食respiration呼吸ingestion摄食digestion消化digestive enzyme消化酶cell细胞nucleus细胞核cytoplasm细胞质plasma lemma / cell membrane细胞膜cell wall细胞壁protein蛋白质amino acid核酸plankton浮游生物heredity遗传mutation of species物种变异chromosome染色体genetic engineering遗传工程solitary独居social群居bio-diversity生物多样性metamorphosis变态/变形mutation变种variation变异

2.    动物学

zoology动物学Darwinism达尔文学说natural selection自然选择phylumclassordersuborder亚目familygenusspecies     invertebrate无脊椎动物vertebrate脊椎动物aquatic life 水生动物reptile爬行动物amphibian/amphibious animal两栖动物protozoa原生动物rodent啮齿动物ruminant反刍动物parasitic animal寄生动物primate灵长动物plankton浮游生物mollusk软体动物coelenterate腔肠动物(如水母、海蜇、珊瑚等)herbivore食草动物mammal哺乳动物homotherm恒温动物cold-blooded animal冷血动物poikilotherm变温动物scavenger食腐动物carnivorous食肉的herbivorous食草的omnivorous杂食的bird鸟类camouflage伪装hibernate冬眠;蛰伏regeneration再生predatory / carnivore食肉的predator捕食者prey捕食hordes/swarms(昆虫等)群flock(牛、羊等)群community动物的群落或人的部落population种群herd兽群hygiene卫生sanitation公共卫生;卫生设施monogamous一夫一妻的/一雌一雄的polygamous一夫多妻的/一雄多雌的polyandrous一妻多夫的/一雌多雄的nomadic游牧的;流浪的trapper诱捕动物者niche小生态环境vestige      退化器fertilizer使受精metabolism新陈代谢breed(名词)品种;(动词)繁殖multiply / reproduce繁殖spawn(鱼、虾、蛙等)孵anatomy解剖学appetite食欲creature生物scalesfeathers羽毛armorspinal cord脊椎digestive system消化系统excretory system排泄系统reproductive system生殖系统circulatory system循环系统respiratory system呼吸系统hormonal system内分泌系统digestive duct消化管esophagus食管stomachsmall intestine小肠large intestine大肠anus肛门digestive gland消化腺salivary gland     唾液腺livergallbladderpancreassquirrel松鼠martenbat蝙蝠squeak(老鼠等)吱吱otter水獭antelope羚羊gorilla大猩猩chimpanzee黑猩猩baboon狒狒hyena鬣狗moose驼鹿beaver海狸elk麋鹿reindeer驯鹿giraffe长颈鹿rhinoceros犀牛hippo河马sloth树懒slothful懒惰的frog青蛙tadpole蝌蚪salamander蝾螈scorpion蝎子turtlelizard蜥蜴chameleon变色龙caymen / crocodile鳄鱼centipede蜈蚣robin知更鸟owl猫头鹰barnacle北极鹅penguin企鹅canary金丝雀chirp(鸟、虫的叫声)vulture秃鹫cranestork ptarmigan雷鸟migrate迁移plumage羽体camouflage伪装wing翅膀bill(鸟)嘴beak(鹰等的)嘴insect昆虫wasp黄蜂hornet大黄蜂spider蜘蛛pest害虫worm/蠕虫cicadamantis螳螂cockroach蟑螂earthworm蚯蚓antenna / tentacle触须larva幼虫

3.    海洋生物学

jellyfish水母nettlefish海蜇coral珊瑚dolphin海豚whale鲸鱼shrimp小虾prawn对虾lobster龙虾crab螃蟹mussel贻贝;蚌类clam蛤蜊oyster牡蛎sponge海绵starfish海星squid鱿鱼;乌贼burro / octopus章鱼sole鳎;鳎目鱼plaice鲽,红斑比目鱼

4.    植物学

botany植物学botanical / botanic植物学的horticulture       园艺学aquatic plant水生植物parasite plant   寄生植物rootcanopy   树冠层/顶棚foliage / leafleaflet小叶rosette(叶的)丛生stemstalkleafstalk叶柄shoot / sprout嫩芽/抽枝flower    bud花蕾petal  花瓣peel / skin果皮shell(硬)果壳husk(干)果壳/(玉米)苞叶trunk树干bark树皮branch树枝bough大或者粗的树枝twig小树枝jungle 丛林lawn草坪meadow草地/牧场prairie 大草原mosses苔藓shrub / bush灌木cluster一簇(灌木)fern蕨类植物horsetails木贼类植物club mosses       石松类植物herb   photosynthesis    光合作用chlorophyll   叶绿素symbiosis共生symbiotic       共生的wither / shrivel / fade凋谢blossompollen花粉pollinate传授花粉petal花瓣nectar花蜜tissue组织organ器官system系统seeds  种子everlasting永久的crossbreed杂交root pressure根压bore/cohesion-tension凝聚压力column花柱necrosis坏死barren贫瘠的;不生育的futile无用的carbohydrate (starch)  碳水化合物(淀粉)glucose葡萄糖starch淀粉fat脂肪protein蛋白质vitamin    维他命malnourished   营养不良的nutrition    营养perennial多年一生的annual一年一生的verdant  绿油油的,嫩绿的,翠绿的evergreen常青树conifer tree     针叶树larch落叶松pine松树spruce云杉juniper 刺柏;杜松sequoia红杉elm榆树walnut核桃树redwood  红木树plum blossom梅花orchid兰花chrysanthemum菊花water lily荷花/莲花rhododendron       杜鹃花rose   玫瑰carnation康乃馨lily    百合jasmine茉莉花helianthus / heliotrope / sunflower向日葵camellia茶花corn / maize / mealie玉米pumpkin南瓜tomato    番茄lettuce莴苣cabbage  卷心菜wheat 小麦rye 黑麦barley大麦oats燕麦

5.    气象学

meteorology气象meteorologist气象学家meteorological station气象站forecast / predict预报climate气候atmosphere大气层troposphere对流层stratosphere平流层mesosphere 中间层ionosphere电离层exosphere逸散层cold front      冷锋warm air mass热气团current(气)流moisture潮湿,水气spell某种天气持续一段时间vapor蒸汽evaporate  蒸发damp / moist / humid潮湿humidity  湿度moisture潮湿 / 水分saturate饱和dewfrost   fog / mist  smog 烟雾droplet   小水condense浓缩crystal       水晶体sheet(水、冰、雪的)一层downpour / torrential rain大雨tempest (storm) / torrential rain暴风雨drizzle细雨shower阵雨hail冰雹blizzard / snowstorm暴风雪avalanche / snow slide  雪崩precipitation(雨、露、雪等)降水thunder   breeze微风sandstorm  沙暴monsoon季风gale大风whirlwind   旋风typhoon台风hurricane飓风tornado / twister / cyclone龙卷风wind scale风级tsunami / seismic sea wave海啸tidal wave潮汐;浪潮upper atmosphere上层大气funnel漏斗云disaster / calamity / catastrophe灾难devastation破坏submerge   淹没drought 旱灾convection对流wind velocity风速wind direction 风向long-range forecast长期预报numerical weather prediction数值天气预报nephanalysis云层分析;卫星云图

6.    地质学

crust地壳mantle  地幔core地核continental crust       大陆地壳oceanic crust海洋地壳layer / stratum地层stratigraphy   地层学fault   断层fault plane断层面fault zone断层带rift / crack / split断裂disintegration / decomposition分解erosion腐蚀fossil化石igneous rock火成岩sedimentary rock沉积岩metamorphic rock   变质岩limestone  石灰岩granite花岗岩marble大理石lithosphere岩石圈magma / molten lava岩浆quartz石英mineral矿物ore矿石deposit矿床rubble 碎石debris残骸platinum白金/铂金silvercopper黄铜aluminumtinlead    zincnickelmercury/水银sodium       gem宝石diamond钻石emerald  绿宝石ruby红宝石glacier  冰川glacial冰川的glacial epoch / age / period冰川期glacial drift冰渍moraines冰碛iceberg冰山volcano    火山active volcano活火山extinct volcano死火山dormant volcano 休眠火山(sloping) shield volcano盾状火山(平缓)(steep-sided) cone volcano锥状火山(陡峭)eruption火山喷发crater火山口caldera      (开口较大的)火山口depression洼地,凹陷处;盆地lava火山岩浆volcanic dust火山尘volcanic ash火山灰geyser间歇喷泉hot spring   温泉earthquake / quake / tremor / seism地震seismic地震的seismology地震学magnitude震级seismic intensity scale震烈度seismic wave      地震波transverse wave横波longitudinal wave纵波epicenter震中epicentral distance震中距aftershock   余震cataclysm灾变tsunami / tidal / force海啸undersea landslide 海底山崩melt global warming    全球逐渐变暖aquifer  蓄水层swamp沼泽peat bog泥炭沼泽Great Canyon大峡谷Nile River尼罗河Colorado river       科罗拉多河crumples zones地质缓冲地带bedrock岩床bulge凸起物

7.    考古学

archaeology考古学paleontology古生物学anthropolog人类学archaeologist人类学家pale-anthropologist古人类学家ecological anthropologist生态人类学家psychological anthropologist心理人类学家originate起源于ancestor 祖先hominid  人(科)homogeneous同以种族(种类)的tribe 部落clan氏族excavation挖掘excavate / unearth挖掘ruins遗迹/废墟remains遗产/遗骸artifact手工艺品relic遗物/文物antique    古物/古董antiquity古代/古老Stone Age  石器时代Bronze Age   青铜器时代Iron Age铁器时代Paleolithic旧石器时代的Mesolithic    中石器时代的Neolithic新石器时代的morphology形态学skull颅骨cranial颅骨的fossil化石ancient civilization古代文明cave man山顶洞人cultural relics文物rock painting岩画

8.    地理学

hemisphere 半球meridian 子午线 / 经线parallel 平行圈latitude纬线longitude经线 / 经度elevation海拔altitude高度 / 海拔horizon地平线equator赤道temperature latitudes温带地区tropics 热带地区Arctic / the North Pole       北极Antarctic / Antarctica南极the Antarctic Continent  南极洲the Antarctic Circle南极圈the Arctic Circle北极圈aurora极光tropics of Cancer 北回归线tropics of Capricorn 南回归线international date line国际日期变更线time difference 时差time zone时区topography 地形 / 地形学plain平原plateau / highland 高地lowland 低地basin      盆地oasis绿洲enclave飞地peak山峰cordillera / ranges山脉carven / cave洞穴terrain地域subterranean地底下coastland  沿海地区coastline海岸线watershed分水岭upper reaches上游lower reaches下游tributary 支流deposit沉积spring / fountain泉水iceberg 冰山riverbed河床gulf / bay海湾waterfall 瀑布cascade小瀑布;喷流reef暗礁tide湖水torrent水的急流tropical rain forest热带雨林continental island       大陆岛volcanic island 火山岛coral island珊瑚岛islet小岛peninsular半岛archipelago群岛delta三角洲landlocked area内陆inland waterway   内陆河subcontinent    次大陆cliff山崖valley山谷hillside / mountain slope山坡continental shelf大陆架canyon / gorge峡谷channel / strait 海峡remote-sensing遥感的terrestrial  地球的/陆地的terrestrial heat / geothermal 地热terrestrial magnetism 地磁continental drift 大陆漂移学sea-floor spreading      海床扩展evaporation蒸发salinity含盐度ocean bottom      海床sediment沉积物tropical热带的temperate 温带的frigid  寒带的frost heaving冻胀现象tundra苔原,冻原fieldstone卵石the Mediterranean Sea地中海the primeval forest原始森林Scandinavia斯堪的纳维亚(半岛)(瑞典、挪威、丹麦、冰岛的泛称)fjord峡湾coral reef珊瑚礁Chalk白垩纪cataclysm大洪水ridge山脊;分水岭abyss    深渊territory 版图;领土地域Pyrenees比利牛斯山脉Carpathians喀尔巴阡山脉Vesuvius维苏威火山Pompeii庞贝precipice悬崖eon世;纪;代glacier冰河Pangaea盘古大陆dune   沙丘Lagoon  咸水湖

9.    天文学

astronomy天文学astronomical observatory天文台planetarium天文馆astrophysics    天文物理学astrology占星学pseudoscience伪科学cosmos / universe      宇宙cosmology宇宙infinite无限的cosmic宇宙的cosmic radiation宇宙辐射cosmic rays宇宙射线celestial天体的celestial body / heavenly body天体celestial map / sky atlas天体图celestial sphere天球dwarf / dwarf star矮星quasar类星体constellation      星座galaxy / Milky Way银河系star cluster星团asterism星群solar system太阳系solar corona日冕solar eclipse日食solar radiation   太阳辐射planet行星planetoid / asteroid 小行星revolve旋转twinkle闪烁naked eye肉眼Mercury       水星Venus金星Earth地球Mars火星Jupiter木星Saturn   土星Uranus天王星Neptune     海王星Pluto  冥王星orbit   轨道spin旋转satellite 卫星lunar月球的meteor流星meteor shower流星雨star恒星meteoroid流星体meteorite陨石comet       彗星space / outer space太空,外层空间spacecraft / spaceship宇宙飞船space shuttle航天飞机space telescope空间望远镜astronaut / spaceman  宇航员space suit 宇航服stellar     恒星的intergalactic星系间的interstellar  恒星间的interplanetary行星间的asteroid小行星nebula     星云space debris    太空垃圾ammoniaphotosphere光球;光球层chromospheres     色球;色球层日冕层sunspot太阳黑子(发生在光球层)flare耀斑(发生在色球层)solar prominence日珥(发生在色球层)convection zone对流层vacuum真空infrared ray红外线absolute magnitude绝对量级emission发射/散发high-resolution高清晰度interferometer       干扰仪,干涉仪illusive object       幻影体faint   微弱的image 影像gravitational force吸引力molten融化的leap year闰年rotation 自传revolution公转black hole  黑洞ultraviolet ray紫外线luminosity光度light year光年

10. 环保相关

ecology  生态学ecosystem生态系统balance of nature自然界生态平衡fauna动物群flora  植物群rain forest雨林food chain      食物链acid rain酸雨greenhouse温室效应infrared radiation红外线辐射ozone layer / ozonosphere臭氧层ultraviolet radiation紫外辐射pollution control污染控制air pollution  空气控制water pollution     水污染noxious / toxic 有毒的fumes    (有毒的)废气waste 废物solid waste固体废物sewage / wastewater污水sewage purification污水净化swage disposal污水处理decibel(噪音)分贝

11. 能源相关

fossil fuel矿物燃料process of photo synthesis光合作用solar energy太阳能nonrenewable不可再生的energy conservation保护能源resource资源energy source能源资源tidal energy     潮汐能fuel-efficient节能型的rush hour高峰期zero emission零辐射wildness野生/天然preservation保护atmosphere大气carbondioxide 二氧化物burning of coal and oil煤油燃烧global warming全球变暖greenhouse effect温室效应rise in sea level海平面上升long-term climatic change长期的气候变化environmental recycling center再循环利用中心litter/trash garbage垃圾pollutant污染物desertification沙漠化deforest  滥伐森林drought干旱water shortage    水源缺乏offshore spillage 近海岸溢出carbon dioxide release    二氧化碳排放industrial sewage工业污水recycling再循环purify      净化deteriorate恶化acid rain酸雨sewage disposal污水处理environment protection环境保护ozone layer臭氧层waste disposal废物处理emission(汽车废气的)排放soot烟尘El Niño厄尔尼诺现象

12. 新技术发明相关

13. 人类学

artist艺术家choreographer舞蹈编排家critic 批评家satirist讽刺作家inventor发明家biographer自传作家sculptor雕塑家feminist  女权主义者humanitarian人道主义者imagist  意象派诗人philanthropist   慈善家proprietor业主mortal    犯人precursor先驱figurehead 名誉领袖disciple  学徒apprentice学徒mechanic机械工minimalist简单抽象派艺术家avant-garde前卫派territory领域genre风格/体裁eccentric古怪的odd怪诞的/奇数的erratic奇怪的weird怪异的/不可思议的romantic浪漫的innocent天真的/无罪的lovelorn相思病苦的emotional情绪的/情感的sentimental感伤的/多愁善感的cheerless无精打采的/无生命力的patriarchal 家长的/族长的rigid僵化的spare简朴的clumsy笨拙的zigzag曲折的contemporary当代的acclaimed受欢迎的preeminent  杰出的versatile(人)多才多艺的/(物)多功能的household家庭的/家喻户晓的genuine真正的authentic逼真的/原汁原味的symbolic象征性的immortal不朽的/nostalgia怀旧主义/思乡emotive感人的prodigious巨大的classic       经典的posthumous死后的

14. 发展史

Ø         文学

pose散文diary日记autobiography  传记editorial 社论narrative prose叙述性descriptive prose       描写性essay随笔poetry    诗歌ballad民谣lullaby催眠曲fiction小说allegory寓言fairy tale童话legend传说proverb 谚语model人物原型leading character主人公main plot主要情节prelude序曲prologue序言epilogue 尾声literary criticism文学批评literary studies文学研究schools of literature文学流派comparative literature比较文学realism现实主义surrealism超现实主义futurism未来主义modernism现代主义aestheticism唯美主义

Ø         音乐

musical instrument乐器orchestra(管弦)乐队shook rattle摇拨浪鼓pound dru  击鼓foot beat跺脚note     音符score乐谱movement    乐章fanatical 狂热的hillbilly music乡村音乐folk music民间音乐pop music流行音乐classical music古典音乐Jazz爵士乐symphony交响乐rock and roll摇滚乐band music / wind music管乐string弦乐violin小提琴viola中提琴cello大提琴harp     竖琴horn号;喇叭clarinet       单簧管oboe双簧管keyboard instrument键盘乐器percussion震荡/打击乐器vocal music声乐concerto协奏曲sonata奏鸣曲serenade小夜曲solo独奏/独唱duet二重唱conducting指挥podium指挥台accompaniment伴奏quality音质volume音量chord和弦harmony和声rest       休止time节拍lullaby催眠曲prelude     序曲epilogue尾声

Ø         政治经济

subsistence存活,生活subsistence wage刚够养家糊口的工资subsistence level       收支平衡的生活水平kinship亲属关系,血缘关系commodity商品check支票;收据;账单bank loan银行贷款interest     利息withdraw从银行账户中提款honor (a cheque/bill/draft)承兑a run on a bank挤兑the Great Depression大萧条consumerism消费主义(认为高消费对个人和社会有利的看法);保护消费者权益主义affluence富裕,富足sophisticated世故的,老练的;复杂的,尖端的

Ø         建筑

architecture建筑学architect建筑学家construct结构wing  辐楼/侧楼design设计elevator电梯skyscraper摩天大楼design element设计元素log structure原木结构cabin小木屋beamprototype原型building technique建筑工艺new material新材料metal-frame金属结构repair person修理工planetarium天文馆aquarium水族馆archives档案馆office building  写字楼cathedral大教堂mosque清真寺the statue of liberty自由女神像the triumphal arch凯旋门sphinx狮身人面像pyramid 金字塔castle城堡

Ø         美术

fine arts美术oil painting油画water color水彩画tempera   蛋彩画sketch速写/素描pastel  彩色蜡笔画poster海报/招贴画charcoal drawing木炭画mural painting / fresco壁画engraving版画lithograph石板画landscape painting风景画still life静物画portrait肖像画caricature漫画pigment颜色,色素canvas油画布brush     画笔drawing board画板perspective透视画法original      原作copy临本reproduction / replica复制品genuine真的fake假的gallery美术馆autograph真迹panorama      全景画calligraphy书法paste裱糊impressionistic style印象派风格framing装框sculpture  雕塑sculptor 雕塑家figurine小雕像bust    半身雕塑像statue塑像unique唯一的/独特的animator漫画家saxophonist     萨克斯风管吹奏者indigo靛蓝purple紫色

 

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