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大学英语四级阅读详解

2021-03-19

Questions 57 to 61 are based on the following passage

 

The ways in which societies address environmental issues are in the midst of a profound transformation. Both the extent of this transformation and its implications for the future of environmental governance are only beginning to be appreciated.

 

 

Of all the dimensions of environmental governance undergoing rapid change,most attention has been devoted to the growing urgency of the threats that need to be addressed. As argued by United Nations Secretary General Kofi Annan, these now warrant consideration jointly with the other great global issues of the 21st century:freedom from want, freedom from fear, and the freedom of future generations to sustain their lives on this planet."The first two of these issues reflect the longstanding concerns for poverty alleviation and physical security that framed the UN Charter. The last, as the secretary general notes, was "not clearly identified in the charter because in 1945, our founders could scarcely imagine that it would ever be threatened."Today, that threat is increasingly clear, and our most enlightened political leaders have begun to redefine the priority tasks of governance to include sustainability.

 

 

A second rapidly changing dimension of environmental governance is the scale over which it needs to operate. The trends toward"globalization" that have entrained(拖)so many aspects of our lives in the increasingly interconnected world of the 21st century have affected the environment as well. In response, more international environmental treaties were adopted and more international environmental institutions were founded in the last quarter of the 20th century than in the preceding hundred years. A few of these have worked relatively well. In general, however, our capacity for effective implementation lags far behind the recognized need.

 

 

Finally, the actors and institutions involved in environmental governance are changing. The political transformation of "a closed public policy process into a more open and participatory one" for Southeast Asia is under way for much of the rest of the world as well, shifting power away from central governments toward local communities and civil society organizations. Simultaneously, the globalization trends noted above have pushed in the other direction, moving power toward multinational corporations and international institutions.

 

 

In the midst of all these transformations, two things can nonetheless be said with confidence about environmental governance: Neither its complexity nor its importance has ever been greater.

 

57. Which of the following is TRUE according to the first paragraph?

A) Societies have always been serious with environmental issues.

B) The ways societies tackle with environment are changing.

C) The environment is in the midst of a profound transformation

D) The future of environmental governance is in doubt.

 

58. Which changing aspect of environmental governance has been given the most attention?

A) The scale over which it needs to operate.

B) The growing urgency of the threats

C)The actors and institutions involved.

D) Its complexity.

 

59. The issue of sustainability was neglected in the UN Charter because_____.

A) the threat was never clear enough

B) other issues were more important

C) the tasks of governance did not include sustainability

D) we paid too much attention to the other issues

 

60. According to the passage, local communities

A) pushing forward the transformation of environmental governance B) solving environmental issues as their first priority

C) becoming more active in environmental governance

D) moving power towards multinational corporations

 

61. The author writes this passage with a(n)___tune.

A)subjective

B) optimistic

C)pessimistic

D) objective

 

57.解析:答案为B。细节题。第一句中的address的意思是“处理”,社会处理环境问题的方式在发生剧变,故答案为B

 

58.解析:答案为B。细节题。根据第二段第一句,人们最关注的问题是越来越紧迫的威胁,故答案为BA(依据)是第三段中提到的第二个变化,排除;C(参与者)是第四段中提到的第三个变化,排除;D(复杂性)是最后一段总结所有变化的特点时得出的结论之一,故排除。

 

59.解析:答案为A。细节题。第二段倒数第二句明确指出,联合国宪章忽视可持续发展问题的原因是1945年,创始人很难想象人类生存会受到威胁,后面又说今天这种威胁已经日益清晰,由此可知,1945年,这种威胁还不清晰,故答案为A

 

60.解析:答案为C。细节题。第四段提到,环境管理的权利开始从中央向地方社区和民间组织转移,由此可知,当地的社区在环境治理上起着更积极的作用,故答案为C

 

61.解析:答案为D。观点题。作者客观地描述了社会在处理环境问题上的几个重要转变,有希望却也有不尽如人意的地方。最后一段说,环境管理是复杂的,却是重要的,可见,作者的态度很客观,故答案为D

 

全文翻译

 

社会处理环境问题的方式正在发生根本性的转变。(57)人们刚刚开始重视这种转变的程度和对于未来环境管理的意义。

 

 

环境管理的各个方面都在迅速转变,(58)人们最关注的问题仍然是那些日益紧迫的威胁。联合国秘书长安南提出,这些问题与21世纪的其他全球性话题——“摆脱贫困的自由、摆脱恐惧的自由、后代维持生存的自由”——样值得我们关注。前两个话题反映了我们长期以来对于联合国宪章中提出的减少贫困、维护人身安全的关注。按照联合国秘书长所说,最后一个话题,(59)“宪章里面没有进行明确阐释,因为在1945年那时候,宪章的创始人很难想象这种自由会受到威胁。”如今,这种威胁日益清晰,我们最开明的政治领导们开始重新定义管理的优先任务,好把可持续发展作为一个优先目标。

 

 

关于环境管理的第二个迅速变化是进行管理需要的依据。在联系日益紧密的21世纪,全球化趋势导致了我们生活方方面面的改变,也同样影响着我们的环境。因而,在20世纪的后25年间,我们确立了比前一个世纪更多的国际环境条约,并建立了更多的国际环境机构。其中一些效果很好,总的说来,我们有效实施的能力仍然落后于公认的需求。

 

 

最后,环境管理的参与者和机构也在改变。东南亚国家的政策性转变“封闭政策转变成更加开效的全民参与的政策,(60)在其他地区也开始施行、将权力从政府部门转移到当地的社区和公民性的社会组织。同时、全球化趋势已经在另一个方向上推进,权力被转向跨国公司和国际性组织。

 

 

在所有这些转变中,关于环境管理却有两点是确定无疑的:环境管理的复亲性和重要性都是空前的。

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