Questions 57 to 61 are based on the following passage
The ways in which societies address environmental issues are in the midst of a profound transformation. Both the extent of this transformation and its implications for the future of environmental governance are only beginning to be appreciated.
Of all the dimensions of environmental governance undergoing rapid change,most attention has been devoted to the growing urgency of the threats that need to be addressed. As argued by United Nations Secretary General Kofi Annan, these now warrant consideration jointly with the other great global issues of the 21st century:freedom from want, freedom from fear, and the freedom of future generations to sustain their lives on this planet."The first two of these issues reflect the longstanding concerns for poverty alleviation and physical security that framed the UN Charter. The last, as the secretary general notes, was "not clearly identified in the charter because in 1945, our founders could scarcely imagine that it would ever be threatened."Today, that threat is increasingly clear, and our most enlightened political leaders have begun to redefine the priority tasks of governance to include sustainability.
A second rapidly changing dimension of environmental governance is the scale over which it needs to operate. The trends toward"globalization" that have entrained(拖）so many aspects of our lives in the increasingly interconnected world of the 21st century have affected the environment as well. In response, more international environmental treaties were adopted and more international environmental institutions were founded in the last quarter of the 20th century than in the preceding hundred years. A few of these have worked relatively well. In general, however, our capacity for effective implementation lags far behind the recognized need.
Finally, the actors and institutions involved in environmental governance are changing. The political transformation of "a closed public policy process into a more open and participatory one" for Southeast Asia is under way for much of the rest of the world as well, shifting power away from central governments toward local communities and civil society organizations. Simultaneously, the globalization trends noted above have pushed in the other direction, moving power toward multinational corporations and international institutions.
In the midst of all these transformations, two things can nonetheless be said with confidence about environmental governance: Neither its complexity nor its importance has ever been greater.
57. Which of the following is TRUE according to the first paragraph?
A) Societies have always been serious with environmental issues.
B) The ways societies tackle with environment are changing.
C) The environment is in the midst of a profound transformation
D) The future of environmental governance is in doubt.
58. Which changing aspect of environmental governance has been given the most attention?
A) The scale over which it needs to operate.
B) The growing urgency of the threats
C)The actors and institutions involved.
D) Its complexity.
59. The issue of sustainability was neglected in the UN Charter because_____.
A) the threat was never clear enough
B) other issues were more important
C) the tasks of governance did not include sustainability
D) we paid too much attention to the other issues
60. According to the passage, local communities
A) pushing forward the transformation of environmental governance B) solving environmental issues as their first priority
C) becoming more active in environmental governance
D) moving power towards multinational corporations
61. The author writes this passage with a(n)___tune.