Lesson 4



   Read the following text carefully and then translate the underlined segments into Chinese. Your translation should be written clearly on ANSWER SHEET 2. (10 points)



It is not easy to talk about the role of the mass media in this overwhelmingly significant phase in European history. History and news become confused, and one’s impressions tend to be a mixture of skepticism and optimism. (46)Television is one of the means by which these feelings are created and conveyedand perhaps never before has it served so much to connect different peoples and nations as in the recent events in Europe. The Europe that is now forming cannot be anything other than its peoples, their cultures and national identities. With this in mind we can begin to analyze the European television scene. (47) In Europe, as elsewhere, multi-media groups have been increasingly successful; groups which bring together television, radio, newspapers, magazines and publishing houses that work in relation to one another.One Italian example would be the Berlusconi group, while abroad Maxwell and Murdoch come to mind.



Clearly, only the biggest and most flexible television companies are going to be able to compete in such a rich and hotly-contested market. (48) This alone demonstrates that the television business is not an easy world to survive in, a fact underlined by statistics that show that out of eighty European television networks, no less than 50% took a loss in 1989.



    Moreover, the integration of the European community will oblige television companies to cooperate more closely in terms of both production and distribution.



    (49) Creating a “European identity” that respects the different cultures and traditions which go to make up the connecting fabric of the Old Continent is no easy task and demands a strategic choicethat of producing programs in Europe for Europe. This entails reducing our dependence on the North American market, whose programs relate to experiences and cultural traditions which are different from our own.



In order to achieve these objectives, we must concentrate more on co-productions, the exchange of news, documentary services and training. This also involves the agreements between European countries for thecreation of a European bank for Television Production which, on the model of the European Investments Bank, will handle the finances necessary for production costs. (50)In dealing with a challenge on such a scale, it is no exaggeration to say, “United we stand, divided we fall”and if I had to choose a slogan it would be “Unity in our diversity.” A unity of objectives that nonetheless respect the varied peculiarities of each country.




本句以破折号为界,可看作是and连接的并列句,and前面的分句主干为Television is one of the means...,后接by which引导的定语从句;and后面的分句主干为perhaps never before has it served so much...,to connect different peoples and nations为不定式结构作目的状语,as引导比较状语,补全为as (it has served to connect different peoples and nations) in the recent events in Europe.

(2)and后面的分句中,never before出现在句首引起部分倒装,翻译时应将句子还原为正常语序。
(3)serve so much to do可译为“在……方面发挥如此大的作用”。



本句主干为multi-media groups have been increasingly successful,分号后面为主语multi-media groups的同位语,里面有个which引导的定语从句,又嵌套了定语从句that work in relation to one another修饰 houses。In Europe作地点状语,as elsewhere作比较状语。

(1)定语从句that work in relation to one another由于较短可译为前置定语。
(2)multi-media groups译为“多媒体集团”。

(3)bring together意为“将……组合在一起”


本句主干为This alone demonstrates that...,the television business is not an easy world to survive in作demonstrates的宾语,a fact underlined by statistics...为同位语结构,that show...为定语从句修饰statistics,that out of eighty...为宾语从句,作show的宾语。


(1)同位语结构中的underlined为过去分词表被动,可译为主动形式“统计数据也证实了这个事实”,后加冒号,修饰 statistics的定语从句可放在冒号后面单独翻译。
(3)no less than意为“不少于,多达”。



本句主干为 Creating a "European identity"... is no easy task and demands a strategic choice。 that respects the different cultures and traditions...为定语从句修饰 European identity,里面又嵌套定语从句which go to make up the connecting fabric of the Old Continent 修饰 different cultures and traditions


(2)结合上下文知道European identity是不同于北美的、带有欧洲特色的标志,因此译为“特色、品牌”比较合适。
(3)fabric本义为“纤维,织物,构造”,这里比喻不同的文化传统将欧洲大陆联系起来,像织物一样紧密,因此make up...fabric(组成……的纤维)可以意译为“编织”。




本句结构较简单,in dealing with a challenge on such a scale为介词结构作状语,it is no exaggeration to say...为主干部分,it是形式主语,真正主语是to say"United we stand,divided we fall",过去分词united和divided分别在两个分句中作条件状语。


(1)it is no exaggeration to say…意为“说……也不为夸张”。
(2)本句关键是引号中两个并列分句的翻译。United we stand,divided we fall改自肯尼迪总统的一句话“United,there is little we cannot do,divided,there is little we can do”,译文最好能够对仗,体现出文学色彩。