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考研英语翻译Lesson 3解释与分析

2021-03-05

Lesson 3

Directions:
Read the following text carefully and then translate the underlined segments into Chinese. Your translation should be written clearly on ANSWER SHEET 2. (10 points)


The relation of language and mind has interested philosophers for many centuries. 61) The Greeks assumed that the structure of language had some connection with the process of thought, which took root in Europe long before people realized how diverse languages could be.

 


Only recently did linguists begin the serious study of languages that were very different from their own. Two anthropologist-linguists, Franz Boas and Edward Sapir, were pioneers in describing many native languages of North and South America during the first half of the twentieth century. 62) We are obliged to them because some of these languages have since vanished, as the peoples who spoke them died out or became assimilated and lost their native languages. Other linguists in the earlier part of this century, however, who were less eager to deal with bizarre data from “exotic” language, were not always so grateful. 63) The newly described languages were often so strikingly different from the well studied languages of Europe and Southeast Asia that some scholars even accused Boas and Sapir of fabricating their data. Native American languages are indeed different, so much so in fact that Navajo could be used by the US military as a code during World War II to send secret messages.

 


Sapir’s pupil, Benjamin Lee Whorf, continued the study of American Indian languages. 64) Being interested in the relationship of language and thought, Whorf developed the idea that the structure of language determines the structure of habitual thought in a society. He reasoned that because it is easier to formulate certain concepts and not others in a given language, the speakers of that language think along one track and not along another. 65) Whorf came to believe in a sort of linguistic determinism which, in its strongest form, states that language imprisons the mind, and that the grammatical patterns in a language can produce far-reaching consequences for the culture of a society. Later, this idea became to be known as the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis, but this term is somewhat inappropriate. Although both Sapir and Whorf emphasized the diversity of languages, Sapir himself never explicitly supported the notion of linguistic determinism.

 

翻译试题解析

 

  • 试题总体分析

文章从语言与思维的关系入手,谈论了语言学中萨皮尔—沃尔夫假说的形成。博厄斯和萨皮尔在二十世纪后半叶首先开始研究其他语言,尤其是美洲印第安语言。其学生沃尔夫继续研究,并形成了语言决定论。后人将他俩人的观点合称为萨皮尔—沃尔夫假说。

首先,2004 年度的翻译部分难度适中,主要考查了多重复合句的翻译,其中涉及定语从句、宾语从句和同位语从句,这就要求考生必须熟练掌握英语句子结构,能够逐层分析结构复杂的句子,理顺各部分在句子中所作的成份。其次,2004 年度考题与往年不同的是,还考查了一些固定短语,这也要求考生平时加强基本功的训练。

 

  • 试题具体解析

(41) The Greeks assumed that the structure of language had some connection with the process of thought, which took root in Europe long before people realized how diverse languages could be.

[解析]  本题考核的知识点是:多重复合句的译法该句子是复杂的复合句,其结构可以分三层。第一层是含非限定性定语从句的复合句,

主干是 The Greeks assumed sth., which took root…。其中 Which引导定语从句,代表前面的观点 sth.,因此直接译成“这种观点”;第二层是含宾语从句的主句+含时间状语从句的非限定性定语从句,主句中that引导宾语从句做宾语,定语从句中long before引导时间状语从句做状语。第三层是含宾语从句的时间状语从句,其中how diverse languages could be做realized的宾语。

词汇:assume 意为“假定,设想,猜测,认为”,在句子中译为“认为”更符合汉语习

惯;some 译为“某种”,表示不确定;take root 的意思是“扎根,生根”;long before,意为“早在……之前就……”;diverse的意思是“不同的,变化多的”,在句子中通过词类转换,译成“语言的千差万别”。译文:希腊人认为语言的结构和思维过程有某种联系,这种观点早在人们意识到语言的

千差万别之前就已经在欧洲扎下了根。

(42) We are obliged to them because some of these languages have since vanished, as the peoples who spoke them died out or became assimilated and lost their native languages.

[解析] 本题考核的知识点是:短语be obliged to、多重复合句的译法

该句也是复杂的复合句,其结构分三层。第一层是含原因状语从句的复合句,主干是

We are obliged to them because …,because 引导原因状语从句。第二层是 because 原因状语从句中套as原因状语从句,从句的主干是these languages have since vanished, as…。第三层是as原因状语从句中套定语从句,主干是peoples (who spoke them )died out or became assimilated and lost…。其中定语从句who spoke them限定先行词people,做主语;谓语是or连接的两个并列部分,其中第二部分又是and连接的两个动作。全句翻译的时候非常重要的一点就是排序,原因状语放在主句前后均可,状语从句内部最好先翻译 as引导的从句。同时也要注意一些细节,如since,or。

词汇:be obliged to 通常的意思是“不得不”,这里是一个不太常见的意思“感谢”,

可以从上下文中推出;since 意为“从此之后”;vanish 的意思是“消失”;assimilate的意思是“同化,吸收”。

译文:我们得感谢他们,因为在此之后,随着说这些语言的人消亡或者被同化而失去母

语,这些语言中有一些就此消失了。

(43) The newly described languages were often so strikingly different from the well studied languages of Europe and Southeast Asia that some scholars even accused Boas and Sapir of fabricating their data.

[解析] 本题考核的知识点是:so…that 结构、短语 accuse sb. of sth.、过去分词做定语的译法句子的主干是languages were often so …that …,其中 that引导结构状语从句。有两个过去分词作定语:newly described和well studied,因为较短,可直接译为定语。主句谓语部分were often so strikingly different from有两种处理方法:一种是保留原文词性,译为“如此显著地不同于”;第二种是改变词性,将different变为名词,strikingly 变为形容词,全句结构为“……和……的区别如此显著,以至于……”。后者更加符合汉语的习惯。

词汇:strikingly意为“显著地”;accuse意为“指责;指控”,本句选择前一个词义

“指责”;fabricate的意思是“捏造”,考生即使不知道这个词义,也可以根据上下文推出。译文:新近被描绘的语言与过去已经得到充分研究的欧洲及东南亚语言之间的区别如此

显著,以至于一些学者甚至指责博厄斯和萨皮尔捏造数据。

  1. Being interested in the relationship of language and thought, Whorf developed the idea that the structure of language determines the structure of habitual thought in a society.

[解析] 本题考核的知识点是:非谓语结构作状语和同位语从句的译法

句子的主干是Whorf developed the idea that …,that引导同位语从句。主句中又有Being interested in the relationship of language and thought这个现在分词结构作原因状语,翻译时可以把句子主语提前,译为主谓句,但需要加一个连词,表明和主句的因果关系,这里可以加“因为……所以”,“以至”或“结果”。that引导的同位语从句的处理方法可以是“这样的”,或用“那就是”、“即”等表达后,重新组织句子。

词汇:developed 与 idea 搭配,不宜译作“发展”,可译为“得出”;determine意为 “决定”;habitual的意思是“习惯的”。

译文:沃尔夫对语言和思维的关系很感兴趣,结果他得出这样的观点:语言的结构决定

一个社会习惯思维的结构。

  1. Whorf came to believe in a sort of linguistic determinism which, in its strongest form, states that language imprisons the mind, and that the grammatical patterns in a language can produce far-reaching consequences for the culture of a society.

[解析] 本题考核的知识点是:定语从句、宾语从句的译法

该句子分两个层次。第一层是含定语从句的主句,其主干是Whorf came to believe in a sort of linguistic determinism which …,which 引导定语从句修饰 linguistic determinism。第二层是含有两个并列的宾语从句的定语从句,主干是 which states that …and that…,两个that引导宾语从句。

词汇:come to 表达一种转变,可译为“逐渐、进而”;determinism 意为“决定论” 或“决定主义”;in its strongest form 按汉语习惯可译作“其极端的形式”;imprison 的本义是“监禁”,这里可以引申为“限制、禁锢”等;far-reaching与 consequences 连用,可译为“深远的影响”。

译文:沃尔夫逐渐相信某种语言决定论,该理论最极端的形式声称,语言限制思想,并

且,语言的语法结构可对一个社会的文化产生深远的影响。

 

三、参考译文

几百年来,哲学家一直对语言与思维的关系很感兴趣。(41)希腊人认为语言的结构和思维过程有某种联系,这种观点早在人们意识到语言的千差万别之前就已经在欧洲扎下了根。直到最近,语言学家才开始研究与自己母语不同的语言。两位人类学语言学家,佛瑞兹 •博厄斯和爱德华•萨皮尔是两位先驱,他们在20世纪前半叶描述了南美洲和北美洲很多土著语言。(42)我们得感谢他们,因为在此之后,随着说这些语言的人消亡或者被同化而失去母语,这些语言中有一些就此消失了。然而,他们同时代那些对“异国”语言的奇怪数据无甚兴趣的语言学家,却并不总是心怀感激。(43)新近被描绘的语言与过去已经得到充分研究的欧洲及东南亚语言之间的区别如此显著,以至于一些学者甚至指责博厄斯和萨皮尔捏造数据。印第安语言的确非常不同,以至于二战期间,美国军队发送秘密情报的时候,使用纳瓦霍语作为密码。

萨皮尔的学生本杰明•李•沃尔夫继续研究美洲印第安语言。(44)沃尔夫对语言和思维的关系很感兴趣,结果他得出这样的观点:语言的结构决定一个社会习惯思维的结构。他推理说,在一个特定的语言中,形成某些概念相对比较容易,但形成另一些概念就不同了,说这种语言的人沿着一个轨迹思维,而不是另外一个轨迹。(45)沃尔夫逐渐相信某种语言决定论,该理论最极端的形式声称,语言限制思想,并且,语言的语法结构可对一个社会的文化产生深远的影响。后来,这种观点被称为萨皮尔—沃尔夫假说,但是这个说法并不恰当。尽管萨皮尔和沃尔夫都强调语言的多样性,但是萨皮尔从来没有公开支持语言决定论这种概念。

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