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考研英语翻译Lesson1解释与分析

2021-03-05

Lesson 1

Directions: 
Read the following text carefully and then translate the underlined segments into Chinese. Your translation should be written clearly on ANSWER SHEET 2. (10 points)

Almost all our major problems involve human behavior, and they cannot be solved by physical and biological technology alone. What is needed is a technology of behavior, but we have been slow to develop the science from which such a technology might be drawn.(41)One difficulty is that almost all of what is called behavioral science continues to trace behavior to states of mind, feelings, traits of character, human nature, and so on. Physics and biology once followed similar practices and advanced only when they discarded them. (42)The behavioral sciences have been slow to change partly because the explanatory items often seem to be directly observed and partly because other kinds of explanations have been hard to find. The environment is obviously important, but its role has remained obscure. It does not push or pull, it selects, and this function is difficult to discover and analyze.(43)The role of natural selection in evolution was formulated only a little more than a hundred years ago, and the selective role of the environment in shaping and maintaining the behavior of the individual is only beginning to be recognized and studied. As the interaction between organism and environment has come to be understood, however, effects once assigned to states of mind, feelings, and traits are beginning to be traced to accessible conditions, and a technology of behavior may therefore become available. It will not solve our problems, however, until it replaces traditional prescientific views, and these are strongly entrenched. Freedom and dignity illustrate the difficulty. (44)They are the possessions of the autonomous(self-governing)man of traditional theory, and they are essential to practices in which a person is held responsible for his conduct and given credit for his achievements. A scientific analysis shifts both the responsibility and the achievement to the environment. It also raises questions concerning “values”. Who will use a technology and to what ends? (45)Until these issues are resolved, a technology of behavior will continue to be rejected, and with it possibly the only way to solve our problems.

翻译试题解析

一、试题总体分析

本文主要讲的是行为科学的建立。人类的行为问题只能由行为科学去解决,然而行为科学发展缓慢,部分原因是传统意义上的行为科学多数情况下还是从心态等方面而不是从环境中寻找行为的根源,环境的重要作用刚刚被承认并开始成为研究对象,而传统理解又根深蒂固,只有当这些问题得以解决之后,行为科学才能得以发展。

与往年相同,本年度的翻译试题首先要求考生进行语法分析,梳理句子结构。2002年试题的句子结构并不十分复杂,但是翻译时需要小心谨慎,因为里面有一些词汇的意思不是考生在词汇表中记忆的词义,而需要根据上下文,做出相应的调整,才能确定在本上下文中搭配恰当的词义,如果仅停留在英汉词义对译的层面上,译出的句子肯定比较生硬蹩脚,有时甚至不知所云。通过对考生试卷的抽查,发现部分考生对词汇的掌握仅停留在英汉词义对译的层次;语法分析能力差,句子结构梳理不清;有些英文句子理解到了,但由于中文表达能力非常有限,结果翻译出来的句子逻辑混乱,自然得分很低。因此,考生如果要想翻译得高分,应培养好扎实的语言(中、英文)基本功。

 

二、试题具体解析

41One difficulty is that almost all of what is called behavioral science continues to trace behavior to states of mind, feelings, traits of character, human nature, and so on.

   [解析]  本题考核的知识点是:词义选择、固定搭配trace  to 、表语从句

这是一个简单句,主干为:One difficulty is that …that引导的表语从句中主语all由一个of引导名词性从句 what is called behavioral science 修饰;谓语是continues;最后的states of mind, feelings...and so on 都是做trace…to…中介词to的宾语。

词汇:what is called behavioral science在句中不能译为“被称为行为的科学”;continue to原意为“继续…”,但是此处译成“继续”不特别贴切,在这里的意思其实是“仍然,依然”,动词应译成副词;trace 做动词,trace sth.(back)to sth.的意思是find the origin of sth.“找到…的根源”为固定搭配。state of mind 意为“心态”;trait意为“特征”;human nature 意为“人性”。

译文:难题之一在于所谓的行为科学几乎全都依然从心态、情感、性格特征、人性等方面去寻找行为的根源。

42The behavioral sciences have been slow to change partly because the explanatory items often seem to be directly observed and partly because other kinds of explanations have been hard to find.

[解析] 本题考核的知识点是:形容词带不定式、对仗结构、被动语态的译法

这是一个主从复合句,句子主干为The behavioral sciences have been slow to … partly because… and partly because …slow to change是形容词带不定式,译成“发展缓慢”。主句是由两个partly because形成对仗结构,都引导原因状语从句,可译作“部分原因是……”,“部分由于……”。两个状语从句都是被动语态,但都可译成主动语态。两个从句内容相互对照,可以对照理解:other kinds of explanations(其他的解释)是相对于前一从句中的the explanatory items(用来解释的依据)说的;directly observed (直接观察到)和hard to find(难以找到)意思上也基本相对。

词汇:the explanatory items直译是“解释性的项目”,但在这是指“解释行为的项目”,应该根据上下文需要补上“行为”这一层意思。

译文:行为科学之所以发展缓慢,部分原因是用来解释行为的依据似乎往往是直接观察到的,部分原因是其他的解释方式一直难以找到。

43The role of natural selection in evolution was formulated only a little more than a hundred years ago, and the selective role of the environment in shaping and maintaining the behavior of the individual is only beginning to be recognized and studied.

[解析] 本题考核的知识点是:词义的引申、被动语态的译法

这个句子是由and 连接的两个简单句构成的。前一个句子为被动语态,其主干是the role … was formulated…the role由of...和in...两个介词短语修饰,only a little...ago是时间状语,汉语中状语的位置是主句之前或谓语动词之前。后一个句子主干为the selective role of … in … is only beginning to be …。主语role由形容词selective和of the environment in...individual修饰,in...表示“在…方面”。两个分句都是被动语态,但被动语态不一定全要译成“被”,因为中文许多情况下主动态可以表示被动。此外还有“得以……”,“为……所”等方法可以选择。

词汇role的一个意思是“角色”,这里使用的是另外一个词义“作用”,两个句子的主语的结构都是the role of A in B,of 和in都修饰the role,意思是“A在B方面的作用”。formulate 的意思是to create sth. in a precise form(阐明);a little more than a hundred years意为“一百多年”;shape 做动词的意思是“塑造”。

译文:自然选择在进化中的作用仅在一百多年前才得以阐明,而环境在塑造和保持个体行为时的选择作用则刚刚开始被认识和研究。

44They are the possessions of the autonomous self-governingman of traditional theory, and they are essential to practices in which a person is held responsible for his conduct and given credit for his achievements.

[解析] 本题考核的知识点是:代词指代、定语从句的译法

这是一个由and 连接的并列句。前一句中是主系表结构:They are the possessions of …;后一句也是主系表结构:they are essential to …。前一分句中考查主语指代问题,本题两个分句的主语都是they,它们的上文是:Freedom and dignity illustrate the difficulty。They是复数,因此可以推断它们不是指代difficulty,而是指代freedom和dignity。possessions意为“拥有的东西”,在这可转译成动词“拥有”。此处括号(self-governing)的作用是解释autonomous (自治的,自主的,自我管理的)这个词,两词意思基本一样,译时只用一个即可。

后一分句中,practices 由in which...achievements修饰。定语从句中是被动语态,主语是a person,谓语是is held...和 (is) given。按照汉语习惯,可以分别处理为:“一个人应该对自己的行为负责”和“一个人因…受到表扬、给予肯定”。

词汇: held不能翻译成“持、握”,它在这里是“认为”的意思。再如:Many people hold the opinion that the Government should take measures to stop terrorism.(许多人认为政府应当采取措施去制止恐怖主义),文中is held responsible for…可以意译为“要求一个人对……负责”;give credit for意为“因……而受到表扬”;practices的意思很多,如“练习,实践”等,在这里,它的意思是thing done regularly; habit or custom,即“习惯,做法”,在翻译中由于这些“做法”的具体内容的出现,“做法”这个词可以被省略。essential意为“对……必不可少”,即“是…的必要条件”,或“是…必不可少的前提”。

技巧:考研中经常考查代词指代,包括they,it,that,this等等。这些代词给理解造成了困难,是一个难点。其实这些代词基本上都不难在上下文中找到答案,它们基本上都指前文出现的某人或某物(this较为特殊,还可以指紧接的下文)。考生一般根据代词的单复数和题目的意思就可以找到指代对象。

译文:自由和尊严(它们)是传统理论定义的自主人拥有的,是要求一个人对自己的行为负责并因其业绩而给予肯定的必不可少的前提。

45Until these issues are resolved, a technology of behavior will continue to be rejected, and with it possibly the only way to solve our problems.

[解析] 本题考核的知识点是:省略句、正面意思反面表达、代词指代

本句是一个并列句,由and连接,前半句由于时间状语until提前,主句进行倒装。until意为“直到”,直译是“在这些问题得到解决之前,技术将继续……”,这种说法不符合中文习惯,它适合从反面表达:“如果这些问题得不到解决,技术将……”。注意被动语态are resolved按照汉语习惯可以译成“得到解决”。

and后是一省略句,其难点在于确定代词it的指代内容。it 经常指代前文的单数名词或不可数名词(词组),也经常指代前文的某件事情,某个情况。本文中就是最后一种用法,it指的就是前文a technology of behavior will continue to be rejected这件事情。

with做状语一般表示伴随。这一分句只有一个状语加一个名词结构,不成一个完整的句子。其实,省略句一般是与前句的相同成分才会被省略,前一句的谓语部分是:will continue to be rejected。所以后一分句补充完整是:with the rejection of the technology of behavior, the only way to solve our problem will continue to be rejected.。当然这里with it也可简单译为“随之”,但是只有真正了解句子之后才能正确翻译。

词汇:technology of behavior要根据文章内容适当加词,译为“研究行为的技术手段”。

译文:(如果)这些问题得不到解决,研究行为的技术手段就会继续受到排斥,解决问题的惟一方式可能也随之继续受到排斥。

 

 

三、参考译文

几乎我们所有的问题都涉及到人类行为,这些问题不能单纯依靠物理学和生物技术就得以解决。我们需要的是一门行为技术,但是发展行为技术需要科学为基础,在这方面,我们一直滞后。(41)难题之一在于所谓的行为科学几乎全都依然从心态、情感、性格特征、人性等方面去寻找行为的根源。物理学和生物学一度使用类似的方法,而且当它们放弃这些方法后才得以向前发展。(42)行为科学之所以发展缓慢,部分原因是用来解释行为的依据似乎往往是直接观察到的,部分原因是其他的解释方式一直难以找到。环境固然重要,但是它的作用依然不很清楚。环境并不起强迫或促进的作用,它进行的是选择,这种功能发现和分析起来都很困难。(43)自然选择在进化中的作用仅在一百多年前才得以阐明,而环境在塑造和保持个体行为时的选择作用则刚刚开始被认识和研究。然而,随着有机体和环境之间的相互作用逐渐为人们所了解,一度被认为是由思维、感情、性格产生的影响现在被追溯到人们可以理解的环境上去了,因而,建立行为技术也就成为了可能。然而,除非行为技术取代科学出现之前形成的传统观念,否则它无法解决我们的问题,而这些传统观念已经根深蒂固。自由和尊严就能说明困难程度。(44)它们是传统理论定义的自主人拥有的,是要求一个人对自己的行为负责并因其业绩而给予肯定的必不可少的前提。科学分析把中心从责任和成就转向了环境。这也引发了关于“价值”的问题。谁来使用这一技术,又要达到何种目的?

45)(如果)这些问题得不到解决,研究行为的技术手段就会继续受到排斥,解决问题的惟一方式可能也随之继续受到排斥。

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