Topic 16: Only government action can solve housing shortages in big cities. To what extent do you agree or disagree?
·房屋商业化（commercialisation of housing)最大的受害人是低收入家庭（unaffordable to low-income families),对此，政府可以多建经济适用房（economical housing),并采取措施对房地产行业进行干预（government intervention);
·住房购买力的缺口加大（the housing affordability gap widens),而且租金（rental rates)也在不断增加，低收入家庭（low-income families)没有能力买房（unable to buy houses);
·人口过多和过分拥挤造成住房紧缺（the direct result of overcrowding and overpopulation),因此政府应通过划地政策（zoning policies)、城市发展（urban development)规划、住房补贴（housing allowance)等措施，对房地产进行调控
·住房分配体系（house allocation system)会严重降低私人投资的热情（dampen the enthusiasm of individuals in housing investment),房屋建设的投资少（a grave shortage in the investment in house construction),很难减轻住房压力（ease the housing pressure);房地产是一个大的产业，对经济发展有着重要的意义，提高家庭收入才是解决房屋问题的关键；
·当市场占据主导地位（the fundamental role)时，建筑工程质量（construction quality)、房屋的功能（functionality)、房屋的质量（housing quality)都会有所提高。此时，政府对房屋市场的完全控制会导致单调的城市景观（monotonous cityscape,uniformity of house design),不能够满足城市居民对生活条件的高要求（comprehensive requirements on living conditions)。
Housing shortage has become a serious urban social issue in many parts of the world. It has been argued that only when the government has taken actions, can demand for homes be fulfilled. Yet to the best of my knowledge, the government alone cannot cope well with housing shortages.
One of the main objections to government intervention is that it would hamper the private sector and simultaneously pose a huge burden upon the state. In countries where the government is on a tight budget and the homeless population is large, the involvement of private property developers is required and recommended. Not only does it release the government from the burden of funding large-sized construction programmes but it also fosters the housing industry. Given its role in attracting public consumption and accelerating economic development, the housing industry should be at the mercy of the market, rather than the government.
Another drawback of state control over the housing market is that it could result in the stagnancy of construction quality, functionality, facilities and other aspects of housing. Apartment blocks or other residential constructions would be built in a similar pattern and the cityscape would be monotonous.Excessive uniformity, especially in the size and number of rooms, will fail to meet comprehensive requirements raised by citizens on properties.
Despite these objections, government intervention is essential in some segments of the market and can render more resistance to citizens. Single parents, the people with disabilities and other disadvantaged people are among those who are not ready to afford commercial housing. The government can provide them either with housing allowance to purchase their private properties or directly with economical houses.
As indicated above, in addressing homelessness and inadequate housing, the joint effort of both government and private sector is required. While government intervention would impede the property market and negatively influence the supply and demand relationship, government assistance is essential for low-income families and vulnerable individuals in need of housing.
2. at the mercy of-reliant on:由...控制