Topic 13: Some people think the government should pay for health care and education, but there is no agreement about whether it is the government's responsibility. What is your opinion?
·可以减轻支付学费的负担（ease the burden of tuition fees),提高文化普及率（raise literacy rate or standards of literacy);
·有利于提高教师待遇，吸引优秀人才加入教育行业；有利于改善学校基础设施，如实验室图书馆等（funde of staff and faculty,course offerings,lab equipment,computer systems,libraries facility upkeep);
·有利于为人们的医疗服务提供必要的保障，有助于留住有经验和有技术的人才（skilled an experienced workers);政府应当充分利用税收（levy income taxes)改善医疗条件，并保障人们的医疗（provide care for the sick, the elderly, the retired, the disabled, the children of the working parents,and so forth);
·社会和政府有责任为人们的医疗服务提供保障（universal access to healthcare services),确保人人平等（ensure social equality);大力发展公共医疗（publicly-funded health care),提高服务质量（improve the quality of service),有助于疾病预防和基础医疗服务的改善（increased emphasis on preventative and primary health care),可以调节药品价格（reasonable pharmaceutical prices)。
·如果政府控制所有的医疗行业，那么服务行业就很可能缺少市场观念（not market driven),也不会强调节省费用（cost efficiency),医疗服务和教育设施质量不高（a greater likelihoood of lower-quality health care and educational services),造成等待治疗的人数激增（long waiting list for access to some medical treatments, especially those of a specialised or advanced nature);
·如果政府控制医疗行业，那么医疗和教育的革新和发明就没有太多的动力（less motivation for innovation and invention);
·都是公费的话，教师和医生的收入会过低，不能够吸引有才华的人从业（provide no incentive to enter the profession and fail to attract more qualified individuals who would otherwise choose a different profession);
·有时，健康问题是自己的生活习惯所致，比如超速驾驶、过度饮食或酸酒（speed driving overeating,excessive drinking),此时政府不应该负责；而高等教育也是个人的选择，应该由个人主动承担高等教育的费用，政府的职责在于提供义务教育（compulsory education);
·鼓励私人付费，医疗私有化可以减轻政府的财政负担（ease financial burden)。
Not surprisingly, health care and education are two areas of government priority in most, if not all,of the countries around the world. However, many tend to see the both areas as citizens' individual responsibilities. This belief is partly right. The government and the citizens should be jointly responsible for the cost of education and health care service.
The first point to note is that government funding for education is of great benefit to families with children and the society as a whole. There are occasions on which parents cannot afford the cost of their education and their savings are meagre, compared with the formidable tuition fees being charged by a tertiary institution. Poor academic experience can impair one's employability and put him or her into a seriously disadvantaged position. Government spending addresses this issue by providing aspiring students with access to a comfortable learning experience. In this knowledge-based society,possibly nothing is more valuable than the access to education.
Similarly, an individual should receive health care treatments, especially lifesaving ones, whether he or she has the means to pay. Access to health care is a basic human right and a measure to ensure a decent standard of living. In the event of the need for urgent or emergency treatment, government spending enables sufferers to receive immediate health care services. This is the fulfilment of the government's responsibility to its members. Needless to say, health care treatment costs are, in general,unaffordable to low income families. Government's financal support is therefore required.
Despite these facts, it is immoral that individuals shirk responsibility and try to pass all medical costs on to the government. In view of the fact that the government raises financing primarily from taxpayers' income, individual's over-exploitation of a health care system will in fact add a heavy burden on those hardworking and good-hearted citizens. Particular attention should be paid on those people whose health problems are attributed to their poor personal living habits (smoking, drinking, substance use or inactive lifestyle). In such cases, they should not be entitled for public medical services.
As suggested above, education and healthcare services are of primary importance to citizens, and the government has the responsibility to ensure that those services are available and affordable However, it is not to say that the government should bear the costs of all healthcare and educational services that the citizens currently enjoy.
2.employability=the ability to find a job:找工作的能力，被准用的能力
4.standard of living=living standard=level of affluence=level of comfort:生活标准