Topic 6: The advantages of the spread of English as a global language will continue to outweigh its disadvantages. To what extent do you agree or disagree?
英语作为一种全球性语言（global language,lingua franca)的优点：
·交流的便利：英语使不同肤色和不同语言背景的人们（people of all race with different langua backgrounds)同时保持联系（stay in touch simultaneously);英语是全球公司管理机构、因特网、文化和科学的语言（the language of global corporate management,the Internet,culture and science);在一些关键的交流领域（key areas of global communication),比如科学和新闻，是种工作语言（working language);
·目前世界上有四亿人将英文作为第一语言，而在其他大部分国家都是第二语言；因此，学习英是日常生活的必需（a necessity in the everyday life);而目前世界的趋势是全球化（the trend toward globalisation),大部分商业不可能只在当地或者国内经营（operate locally or domestically);
·英文比较容易掌握（easy to master);和其他大部分的欧洲语言相比，英文的语法比较简单(compared to most other European languages, English has a minimal grammar)。统一语(language standardisation)可以让人们了解更多的文化，记录和保留一些濒临灭绝的文化(protect those cultures that are on the verge of extinction
很多人认为英语的传播（spread of English)会造成语言的流失（language loss),可以通过以下的观点反对这种看法：
·非英语母语的人（non-English speakers)可以掌握两种语言（can be bilingual),对他们的母语不会产生很大的影响；对于日常交流，初级和中级英文（beginner or intermediate level English)已经足够，可以做到相互理解（achieve mutual comprehension),他们仍然精通自己的母语（mother tongues);
·说英文的人（English speakers)也需要学习其他语言，因为说两种或者多种语言的人（polyglots or bilingual native speakers)比说单一语言的人（monolinguals)有竞争力；学会当语言有助于对当地的文化知识有更深的了解，迎合当地的文化价值（cater to local cultural values),开拓全球市场（explore the global market)。
英语作为一种全球性语言（global language,lingua franca)的缺点：
·一种新的殖民主义，满足了一些英语国家（English-speaking countries)在经济和文化上的利益(serve the economic and cultural interests);破坏了文化的完整性（integrity),人们可能会忘传统（conventions),被西化或者美国化（Westernised or Americanised);对本土人和本土语构成威胁（pose a serious threat to indigenous people and languages);
·非英语母语的人（non-English speakers)不再继续深入地研究他们自己的文化和文学（study a culture and its literature to an advanced level),而是注重英语的学习。例如，绝大多数的官方文件和官方网站都采用英文，其结果导致了文化和语言多元化的损失（lack of culture a language diversity)。
In these years, there is a growing recognition that English is well on its way to becoming the dominant global language. The impact of this trend is a subject of intense debate. It is my opinion that advantages of a dominant global language will continue to outweigh its disadvantages.
The rise of a global language is a facilitator of cross-cultural communication and the communication between people with different language backgrounds. In different areas of global communication, such as science and news, recognising a common language removes communication barriers and increases convenience. On many formal occasions, English, as a working language, boosts efficiency and avoids misunderstanding. Likewise, the exchange of essential information like know-how and technologies will be tremendously prompted .
One might argue that the rise of a global language would endanger other languages, in a belief that an increasing number of people have turned to English as their first language. This viewpoint is flawed.The spread of global English has little, if any, influence on non-English-speakers' language proficiency.People might be motivated to learn English as a foreign language but do not necessarily drop their native language because learning beginner or intermediate level English is sufficient for day-to-day communication.
The dominance of English as a global language is, therefore, not a cause of the loss of language diversity . Its negative effect is reflected mainly in cultural imperialism . As international media recognises English as its root language, most of the broadcasted information is related to the lifestyle norms and beliefs of English-speaking countries . It might over time put many minority cultures on the verge of extinction, when those ethnic groups gradually adopt the Western culture. The effects of shrinking cultural diversity are destructive, causing people to live in a simple and monotonous world and think and act in similar ways .
The development of English is overall, a positive global trend. It connects people who previously spoke different languages and enables them to exchange ideas, although it might lead to the loss of cultural diversity.
4. on the verge of=on the brink of on the edge of.在…的边缘