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考研英语翻译概说与实例剖析-湛江雅托英语培训中心

2020-04-07

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【一】概说与实例剖析

English-Chinese Translation

 

Directions:Read the following passage carefully and then translate the underlined sentences into Chinese.

 

The differences in relative growth of various areas of scientific research have several causes. 1) Some of these causes are completely reasonable results of social needs. Others are reasonable consequences of particular advances in science being to some extent self-accelerating. Some, however, are less reasonable processes of different growth in which preconceptions of the form scientific theory ought to take, by persons in authority, act to alter the growth pattern of different areas. This is a new problem probably not yet unavoidable; but it is a frightening trend. 2) This trend began during the Second World War,when several governments came to the conclusion that the specific demands that a government wants to make of its scientific establishment cannot generally be foreseen in detail. It can be predicted, however, that from time to time questions will arise which will require specific scientific answers. It is therefore generally valuable to treat the scientific establishment as a resource or machine to be kept in functional order. 3) This seems mostly effectively done by supporting a certain amount of research not related to immediate goals but of possible consequence in the future.

 

This kind of support, like all government support, requires decisions about the appropriate recipients of funds. Decisions based on utility as opposed to lack of utility are straightforward. But a decision among projects none of which has immediate utility is more difficult. The goal of the supporting agencies is the praisable one of supporting"good"as opposed to "bad" science, but a valid determination is difficult to make. Generally, the idea of good science tends to become confused with the capacity of the field in question to generate an elegant theory . 4 ) However , the world is so made that elegant systems are in principle unable to deal with some of the world's more fascinating and delightful aspects . 5 ) New forms of thought as well as new subjects for thought must arise in the future as they have in the past, giving rise to new standards of elegance.

 

解析:

1) Some of these causes are completely reasonable results of social needs. Others are reasonable consequences of particular advances in science being to some extent self-accelerating.

 

Reasonable原意“通情达理的(指人);合理的(指事物)”,这里可以译为“自然而然的,必然的”。

 

being to some extent self-accelerating现在分词短语,修饰particular advances in science,连在一起翻译为“科学在某种程度上自我加速而产生特定的发展”【to some extent在某种程度上be self-accelerating自我加速particular advances特定的发展

 

翻译:在这些原因中,有些完全自然而然地来自社会需求。另一些则是科学在某种程度上自我加速而产生特定的发展的必然结果。

 

2) This trend began during the Second World War,when several governments came to the conclusion that the specific demands that a government wants to make of its scientific establishment cannot generally be foreseen in detail.

 

when several governments came to the conclusionwhen(当时)引导定语从句修饰the Second World Warthat a government wants to make of its scientific establishment是定语从句,that的先行词是demandsthat在定语从句中做make的宾语,make demands of“对......提出要求scientific establishment“科研机构”;came to the conclusion that...得出结论:......】;in detail详尽

 

翻译:这种趋势始于第二次世界大战期间,当时一些国家的政府得出结论:政府要向科研机构提出具体的要求通常无法详尽预见。

 

3) This seems mostly effectively done by supporting a certain amount of research not related to immediate goals but of possible consequence in the future.

 

mostly译为“mainly”;in most cases译为“通常”;mostly effectively通常能有效地;by supporting...作状语表示行为手段,修饰seems donenot related to immediate goals作定语,修饰researchbut是并列连词,所以of possible consequence in the future也是作定语修饰research

This seems.........,看来......】;This seems mostly effectively done by doing sth.【通过做某事,看来通常能有效地解决这一问题。】

a certain amount of+不可数名词【某些......】;support...【给......以支持】

 

翻译:给某些与当前无关但将来可能产生影响的科学研究以支持,看来通常能有效地解决这一问题。

 

 

4 ) However , the world is so made that elegant systems are in principle unable to deal with some of the world's more fascinating and delightful aspects .

 

that与主句中的so前后照应,that引导结果状语从句。so...that...【如此......以致......】; in principle【原则上、按道理、按规定】故译为“一般而言、一般而论”;fascinating迷人的,delightful高兴的,这两个词连在一起译为“引人入胜的”

 

翻译:然而,世界就是如此,完美的体系一般而言是无法解决世界上某些更加引人入胜的课题。

 

5 ) New forms of thought as well as new subjects for thought must arise in the future as they have in the past, giving rise to new standards of elegance.

 

as well as译为“和”;as they have in the past方式状语从句的省略式,完整地句子是as they have arisen in the past(同过去已经出现的新的思维方式和新的思维对象一样)give rise to是习语,译为“引起、使发生、造成”。句中giving rise to new standards of elegance是现在分词短语作状语,表示伴随动作。直译为:“产生新的完美标准”,意译为“给完美以新的标准

 

翻译:同过去一样,将来必然会出现新的思维方式和新的思维对象,给完美新的标准。

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