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考研英语阅读之段落标题

2020-08-15

Directions:

 

You are going to read a list of headings and a text about what parents are supposed to do to guide their children into adulthood. Choose a heading from the list A-G that best fits the meaning of each numbered part of the text (41-45). The first and last paragraphs of the text are not numbered. There are two extra headings that you do not need to use. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. (10 points)

 

[A] Set a Good Example for Your Kids

[B] Build Your Kids’ Work Skills

[C] Place Time Limits on Leisure Activities

[D] Talk about the Future on a Regular Basis

[E] Help Kids Develop Coping Strategies

[F] Help Your Kids Figure Out Who They Are

[G] Build Your Kids’ Sense of Responsibility

 

 

How Can a Parent Help?

 

Mothers and fathers can do a lot to ensure a safe landing in early adulthood for their kids. Even if a job’s starting salary seems too small to satisfy an emerging adult’s need for rapid content, the transition from school to work can be less of a setback if the start-up adult is ready for the move. Here are a few measures, drawn from my book Ready or Not, Here Life Comes, that parents can take to prevent what I call “work-life unreadiness”:

 

41

 

You can start this process when they are 11 or 12. Periodically review their emerging strengths and weaknesses with them and work together on any shortcomings, like difficulty in communicating well or collaborating. Also, identify the kinds of interests they keep coming back to, as these offer clues to the careers that will fit them best.

 

42

 

Kids need a range of authentic role modelsas opposed to members of their clique, pop stars and vaunted athletes. Have regular dinner-table discussions about people the family knows and how they got where they are. Discuss the joys and downsides of your own career and encourage your kids to form some ideas about their own future. When asked what they want to do, they should be discouraged from saying “I have no idea.” They can change their minds 200 times, but having only a foggy view of the future is of little good.

 

43

 

Teachers are responsible for teaching kids how to learn; parents should be responsible for teaching them how to work. Assign responsibilities around the house and make sure homework deadlines are met. Encourage teenagers to take a part-time job. Kids need plenty of practice delaying gratification and deploying effective organizational skills, such as managing time and setting priorities.

 

44

 

Playing video games encourages immediate content. And hours of watching TV shows with canned laughter only teaches kids to processinformation in a passive way. At the same time, listening through earphones to the same monotonous beats for long stretches encourages kids to stay inside their bubble instead of pursuing other endeavors. All these activities can prevent the growth of important communication and thinking skills and make it difficult for kids to develop the kind of sustained concentration they will need for most jobs.

 

45

 

They should know how to deal with setbacks, stress and feelings of inadequacy. They should also learn how to solve problems and resolve conflicts, ways to brainstorm and think critically. Discussions at home can help kids practice doing these things and help them apply these skills to everyday life situations.

 

What about the son or daughter who is grown but seems to be struggling and wandering aimlessly through early adulthood? Parents still have a major role to play, but now it is more delicate. They have to be careful not to come across as disappointed in their child. They should exhibit strong interest and respect for whatever currently interests their fledging adult (as naive or ill conceived as it may seem) while becoming a partner in exploring options for the future. Most of all, these new adults must feel that they are respected and supported by a family that appreciates them.

 

一、试题具体分析

A. 为孩子树立一个好的榜样

B. 培养孩子的工作技能

C. 对休闲活动加以时间限制

D. 经常谈论未来

E. 帮助孩子掌握解决问题的策略

F. 帮助你的孩子了解他自己

G. 树立孩子的责任感

41.
【答案】 F
【难度系数】 0.54
【解析】段落文字的大意是:“孩子1112岁时,你就可以开始引导他们了。与他们一起定期分析他们的优缺点,一起改正缺点,比如克服交流障碍或合作困难。还要搞清楚他们不断追求的兴趣,因为这些兴趣会决定他们将来选择的最佳职业。”从这段内容上看,既涉及到了孩子的个人问题又涉及到将来的职业,显然是教会孩子如何了解自己,故答案为F

42.
【答案】 D
【难度系数】 0.56
【解析】 本段文字的内容先谈到了要给孩子树立榜样,然后谈到要鼓励他们谈论他们的将来,显然这里重要的是帮助孩子能更好的为将来做准备,选项中只有D项涉及到将来,故正确答案为D

43.
【答案】 B
【难度系数】 0.645
【解析】 段落文字第一句就谈到“教孩子如何学习是教师的责任,而教他们如何工作则是家长的责任”。从接下来的内容可以看出,段落内容都是围绕父母要如何教会孩子去工作,选项中涉及到工作内容的只有B项,故答案为B

44.
【答案】 C
【难度系数】 0.74
【解析】 本段内容几乎每句都离不开娱乐,中心自然是关于小孩子如何度过空闲时间,与此内容一致的只有C,故答案选为C

45.
【答案】 E
【难度系数】 0.61
【解析】 段落首句告诉我们,他们应该知道如何处理挫折、压力和不适的感觉,接着说到父母可以如何帮助他们,因此段落中心应该是父母如何帮助他们应对各种困难和挫折,选项E的内容与此一致。

另外,本文是一篇关于方法的文章,按照逻辑我们可以将选出的选项做一下验证。按照一般规律,先是帮助孩子进行自我认识(F),然后帮助孩子确立未来的发展方向(D),下一步要培养孩子的工作技能(B),仅仅学会如何工作是不够的,还要培养孩子有正确的生活态度,限制玩的时间是个实际的策略(C),最后要教会孩子在面对挫折和失败时如何解决问题(E)。

二、全文翻译

家长们可以做很多事来确保自己的孩子顺利进入成年初期。虽然工作的起薪好像很低,难以满足一个即将成年的孩子实现自我满足的需求,但是如果这个准成年人已经做好了准备,那么他在从学校向职场的转变中遭遇的挫折也许会少些。以下的几种方法,节选自我撰写的《不管你是否做好准备,生活已经开始》一书。家长们可以借鉴以避免我所说的“没有做好参加工作的准备”这种状况发生。

 

41)帮助你的孩子了解他自己

 

你可以在孩子十一、二岁时开始这个过程。定期和孩子一起评论他的优缺点,并帮助他克服缺点,比如在与人交流或合作方面存在的困难。另外,要明确识别孩子一直以来的兴趣所在,因为这是寻找最适合他们的职业的线索。

 

42)经常谈论未来

孩子需要各种各样真实的榜样——不是他小圈子里的人,也不是明星或受到吹捧的运动员。经常在就餐时与孩子谈论家庭成员所认识的人以及他们是如何取得现在的成就的。与孩子谈论一下你自己工作中的乐趣以及存在的问题,并鼓励他们为自己的未来做一些打算。当问他们将来想做什么的时候,应该阻止他们回答说“我不知道”。他们可以不断地改变想法,但是对未来没有任何明确的构想可不怎么好。

 

43)培养孩子的工作技能

 

教孩子如何学习是教师的责任,而教他们如何工作则是家长的责任。给他布置一些家务活,并确保他按时完成家庭作业。鼓励十几岁的孩子做兼职。孩子需要大量的实践延迟满足感以及运用有效的组织技能,比如管理时间和分清轻重缓急。

 

44)对休闲活动加以时间限制

 

玩电子游戏会让人获得即时满足感。长时间看充斥着预先录音的笑声的电视节目只会教孩子被动地处理信息。同时,长时间戴耳机听单调的音乐节奏将导致孩子沉浸在自己的幻想里而不是努力进取做其他事情。所有上述业余活动都可能妨碍重要的交流和思考技能的培养,并使孩子很难培养大多数工作所需要的持续注意力。

 

45)帮助孩子掌握解决问题的策略

 

他应该知道如何应对挫折、压力和能力不足的心情,学会如何解决问题和处理冲突,还要培养集思广益和进行批判性思考的能力。家庭内部的讨论可以帮助孩子锻炼这些能力并把这些技能应用到日常的生活情景中。

 

那些已经长大但在成年初期似乎仍感到无所适从并苦苦挣扎的孩子该怎么办呢?家长仍然需要扮演主要的角色,只不过比以前更微妙一些。他们必须避免表现出对自己的孩子感到失望。不管这些羽翼刚刚丰满的(看似幼稚或考虑欠周全的)孩子们目前的兴趣是什么,家长都应该对此表示出兴趣与尊重,同时要成为孩子的伙伴,与之共同探索对未来的选择。最重要的是,这些刚刚步入成年期的孩子必须感到他们受到家人的尊重、支持和赏识。

 

 

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