In the following text, some sentences have been removed. For Questions 41-45, choose the most suitable one from the list A- G to fit into each of numbered blanks. There are two extra choices, which do not fit in any of the blanks. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. (10 points)


On the north bank of the Ohio River sits Evansville, Ind., home of David Williams, 52, and of a riverboat casino where gambling games are played. During several years of gambling in that casino, Williams, a state auditor earning $35,000 a year, lost approximately $175,000. He had never gambled before the casino sent him a coupon for $20 worth of gambling.


He visited the casino, lost the $20 and left. On his second visit he lost $800. The casino issued to him, as a good customer, a Fun Card, which when used in the casino earns points for meals and drinks, and enables the casino to track the user's gambling activities. For Williams, these activities become what he calls electronic heroin.


(41) . In 1997 he lost $21,000 to one slot machine in two days. In March 1997 he lost $72,186. He sometimes played two slot machines at a time, all night, until the boat docked at 5 a.m., then went back aboard when the casino opened at 9 a.m. Now he is suing the casino, charging that it should have refused his patronage because it knew he was addicted. It did know he had a problem.


In March 1998, a friend of Williams's got him involuntarily confined to a treatment center for addictions, and wrote to inform the casino of Williams's gambling problem. The casino included a photo of Williams among those of banned gamblers, and wrote to him a cease admissionsletter. Noting the medical/psychological nature of problem gambling behaviors, the letter said that before being readmitted to the casino he would have to present medical/psychological information demonstrating that patronizing the casino would pose no threat to his safety or well-being.


(42) .


The Wall Street Journal reports that the casino has 20 signs warning: Enjoy the fun ... and always bet with your head, not over it. Every entrance ticket lists a toll-free number for counseling from the Indiana Department of Mental Health. Nevertheless, Williams's suit charges that the casino, knowing he was helplessly addicted to gambling, intentionally worked to lurehim to engage in conduct against his will. Well.


(43) .

The fourth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders says pathological gamblinginvolves persistent, recurring and uncontrollable pursuit less of money than of the thrill of taking risks in quest of a windfall.


(44) . Pushed by science, or what  claims to be science, society is reclassifying what once were considered character flaws or moral failings as personality disorders akin to physical disabilities.


(45) .


Forty-four states have lotteries, 29 have casinos, and most of these states are to varying degrees dependent on---you might say addicted to---revenues from wagering. And since the first Internet gambling site was created in 1995, competition for gamblers' dollars has become intense. The Oct. 28 issue of Newsweek reported that 2 million gamblers patronize 1,800 virtual casinos every week. With $3.5 billion being lost on Internet wagers this year, gambling has passed pornography as the Web's most profitable business.


(A).Although no such evidence was presented, the casino's marketing department continued to pepper him with mailings. And he entered the casino and used his Fun Card without being detected.


(B).It is unclear what luring was required, given his compulsive behavior. And in what sense was his will operative?


(C).By the time he had lost $5,000 he said to himself that if he could get back to even, he would quit. One night he won $5,500, but he did not quit.


(D).Gambling has been a common feature of American life forever, but for a long time it was broadly considered a sin, or a social disease. Now it is a social policy: the most important and aggressive promoter of gambling in America is government.


(E).David Williamss suit should trouble this gambling nation. But dont bet on it.


(F).It is worrisome that society is medicalizing more and more behavioral problems, often defining as addictions what earlier, sterner generations explained as weakness of will.


(G).The anonymous, lonely, undistracted nature of online gambling is especially conductive to compulsive behavior. But even if the government knew how to move against Internet gambling, what would be its grounds for doing so?



本文通过 David William 的赌博经历,评述美国社会普遍的赌博现象。本题比较容易。 在第一次赌博中,他输了 20 美元,随后便一发不可收。注意第二段和第三段中数字的递增

现象(20800→……→21,00072,186)。而在所有选项中,[C]项中的数字 5,000 正好填补

800 21,000 之间的空白,含义也完全吻合上下文。



空格前一段谈到:William 的一个朋友帮助他进入一家戒赌中心,并把 William 的问题 通知给赌场;赌场发回来一封禁赌信,并说,William 必须提供医学或心理方面的证据证明 他进入赌场不会对他的身体健康造成损害,否则,赌场不会再准许他去赌博。后一段的大意 是:《华尔街日报》报道了赌场的 24 条声明,比如“以赌为乐……不要过火”;每张门票上 都留有心理咨询的免费电话;然而,明知他赌博成瘾,赌场还故意诱惑他“做违背自己意愿 的事情”。空格中应涉及赌场重又引诱 William 去赌博的内容。选项[A]大意为:赌场继续以 强大的攻势诱使 William 进入赌场,而并没有人察觉他是“禁赌人员”。[A]与上下文完全符 合,因此是正确答案。



空格后一段大意为:一份精神障碍方面的专业杂志说,“病态的赌博”是指持续地、复发性地、不可控制地追求突发横财带来的刺激,而不是追求金钱本身。这显然是在分析“病 态的赌博”的症状。而上一段谈到赌场诱使 William 进入赌场,“做违背自己意愿的事情”。 选项[B]的意思是:并不清楚究竟是什么在引诱他;从何种意义来说,他的意愿才算不被强 制?此项正好符合上下文逻辑。另外,上文最后一句中的 lure 一词与[B]项中 luring 相互照 应。因此,[B]是答案。



由于本题空格是在段首,因此空格内容与后文关系更为密切。后一句的大意是:在科 学或所谓科学的推动下,社会正把曾经认为的性格缺陷或道德缺点重新归类为与身体残疾相 似的个性障碍。选项[F]的大意是:令人担忧的是,社会正在用药物处理越来越多的行为问 题,并把意志力薄弱定义为“毒”瘾发作。这两句的结构与内涵非常相似,因此应选[F]为 答案。



空格后文说到:44 个州有彩票,29 个州有赌场,大多数州都不同程度地依赖着赌博业 带来的税收。这显然是一种政府行为。涉及政府行为的有[D][G]两个选项,而[G]讲的是 本文最后才提到的网络赌博,只有[D]符合题意。




Evansville 镇坐落在印第安纳州俄亥俄河的北岸,是 52 岁的大卫·威廉姆斯的家乡, 镇上有一家内河船赌场。威廉姆斯是州政府的一名审计员,年薪 35000 美元。在那家赌场 赌了几年,他大约输了 175000 美元。以前他从未参与赌博,直到有一天,那家赌场送他一张价值 20 美元的赌博优惠券。


他去了那家赌场,输了 20 美元,然后离开了。第二次去赌场他输了 800 美元。作为一 名优秀顾客,赌场发给他一张“娱乐卡”,赌场里使用可以获得积分,换取食物和饮料,赌 场也可以以此来追踪使用者的赌博活动。对于威廉姆斯而言,这些活动成为他所谓的“电子 海洛因”。


在他输了 5000 美元的时候,他对自己说如果能捞回本钱,他就会停手。有一天晚上 他赢了 5500 美元,但是他并未停手。在 1997 年,他玩投币赌博游戏时两天时间内输了 21000 美元。1997 年三月间,他输了 72186 美元。有时候,他同时玩两台投币机,整晚 整晚地玩,直到凌晨 5 点赌船进港关门为止,在赌场没有禁止他光顾,原因是赌场知道他沉 溺其中不能自拔。赌场的确知道他有问题。


1998 年三月,威廉姆斯在一个朋友在他不情愿的情况下将他送入治疗中心,戒除赌瘾, 并写信告知赌场威廉姆斯上瘾的事实。赌场将威廉姆斯的照片放入被禁止赌博的赌徒名单 中,给他写了一封“禁止进入赌场”的信。注明了赌博行为的医学/心理学特征,信中指出 在允许他重新进入赌场之前,威廉姆斯必须提供证明他光临赌场不会对他的安全和生活幸福 造成危害。


尽管他没有提供这些证明,赌场的市场部还是不断地给他寄资料。他进入赌场,使用“娱 乐卡”,而赌场并未察觉。


据《华尔街周刊》报道,该赌场有 24 个警告牌,写着诸如“享受乐趣,用头脑赌博, 不要头脑发热”一类的警告语。每张入场卷上都印着一个免费电话号码,可以向印地安纳州心理健康部门进行咨询。然而,威廉姆斯的诉状指出赌场明明知道他无可救要地沉溺与赌博, 却故意引诱他做出违背自己意愿的行为。


考虑到他强迫性的行为,赌场是否故意引诱他还不得而知,而他的意愿又体现在那些方 面呢?


第四版《心理紊乱诊断数据手册》指出,病态赌博指的是在追求意外横财时,持续地、 反复地、无法自控地寻求冒险刺激,并非仅仅为了钱。


令人不安的是,现在社会越来越多地用医学方法处理行为问题,以前严厉的前辈们称之 为意志薄弱的行为现在被认为是上瘾。由于科学或所谓科学的推动,社会正在对行为问题进 行重新分类,把从前认为是性格缺陷、道德过失的重新归类到类似于胜利障碍的病态人格。


赌博一直是美国人生活中的普遍现象。长期以来,人们认为赌博是一种罪过或者是一种 社会疾病。现在赌博却成为一种社会政策:在美国,最主要、最有力的赌博推动者是美国政府。


四十四个州发行彩票,29 个州设有赌场,而这些州中大多数在不同程度上倚赖于(你 可能会说沉溺于)来自赌博的税收。自从 1995 年建立了第一个赌博网站以来,争夺赌徒资金的竞争加剧。据 10 28 日那期《新闻周刊》的报道,200 万赌徒每周光顾 1800 个虚拟赌场。今年网络赌徒们输掉的钱达到 35 亿美元,赌博业已经超越色情业,成为网络上最赢 利的行业。