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考研英语阅读之补全文章

2020-08-15

Directions:

 

In the following text, some sentences have been removed. For Questions 41-45, choose the most suitable one from the list A-G to fit into each of the numbered blanks. There are two extra choices, which do not fit in any of the gaps. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. (10 points)

 

Canadas premiers (the leaders of provincial governments), if they have any breath left after complaining about Ottawa at their late July annual meeting, might spare a moment to do something, together, to reduce health-care costs.

 

Theyre all groaning about soaring health budgets, the fastest-growing component of which are pharmaceutical costs.

(41) ____________

 

What to do? Both the Romanow commission and the Kirby committee on health careto say nothing of reports from other expertsrecommended the creation of a national drug agency. Instead of each province having its own list of approved drugs, bureaucracy, procedures and limited bargaining power, all would pool resources, work with Ottawa, and create a national institution.

(42) _____________

 

But nationaldoesnt have to mean that. Nationalcould mean interprovincialprovinces combining efforts to create one body.

 

Either way, one benefit of a nationalorganization would be to negotiate better prices, if possible, with drug manufacturers. Instead of having one provinceor a series of hospitals within a provincenegotiate a price for a given drug on the provincial list, the national agency would negotiate on behalf of all provinces.

 

Rather than, say, Quebec, negotiating on behalf of seven million people, the national agency would negotiate on behalf of 31 million people. Basic economics suggests the greater the potential consumers, the higher the likelihood of a better price.

(43) _____________

 

A small step has been taken in the direction of a national agency with the creation of the Canadian Co-ordinating Office for Health Technology Assessment, funded by Ottawa and the provinces. Under it, a Common Drug Review recommends to provincial lists which new drugs should be included. Predictably, and regrettably, Quebec refused to join.

 

A few premiers are suspicious of any federal-provincial deal-making. They (particularly Quebec and Alberta) just want Ottawa to fork over additional billions with few, if any, strings attached. Thats one reason why the idea of a national list hasnt gone anywhere, while drug costs keep rising fast.

(44) _____________

 

Premiers love to quote Mr. Romanows report selectively, especially the parts about more federal money. Perhaps they should read what he had to say about drugs: A national drug agency would provide governments more influence on pharmaceutical companies in order to constrain the ever-increasing cost of drugs.

(45) _____________

 

So when the premiers gather in Niagara Falls to assemble their usual complaint list, they should also get cracking about something in their jurisdiction that would help their budgets and patients.

 

[A] Quebecs resistance to a national agency is provincialist ideology. One of the first advocates for a national list was a researcher at Laval University. Quebecs Drug Insurance Fund has seen its costs skyrocket with annual increases from 14.3 per cent to 26.8 per cent!

 

[B] Or they could read Mr. Kirbys report: the substantial buying power of such an agency would strengthen the public prescription-drug insurance plans to negotiate the lowest possible purchase prices from drug companies.

 

[C] What does nationalmean? Roy Romanow and Senator Michael Kirby recommended a federal-provincial body much like the recently created National Health Council.

 

[D] The problem is simple and stark: health-care costs have been, are, and will continue to increase faster than government revenues.

 

[E] According to the Canadian Institute for Health Information, prescription drug costs have risen since 1997 at twice the rate of overall health-care spending. Part of the increase comes from drugs being used to replace other kinds of treatments. Part of it arises from new drugs costing more than older kinds. Part of it is higher prices.

 

[F] So, if the provinces want to run the health-care show, they should prove they can run it, starting with an interprovincial health list that would end duplication, save administrative costs, prevent one province from being played off against another, and bargain for better drug prices.

 

[G] Of course, the pharmaceutical companies will scream. They like divided buyers; they can lobby better that way. They can use the threat of removing jobs from one province to another. They can hope that, if one province includes a drug on its list, the pressure will cause others toinclude it on theirs. They wouldnt like a national agency, but self-interest would lead them to deal with it.

 

一、试题解析

41.
【答案】 E
【考点】上下文的衔接
【难度系数】0.387
【解析】空所在的位置是介于两段之间,那么解题的关键是看前后给出的关键信息。文章第一段由加拿大省级官员的会议引出文章谈论的主题——加拿大的保健费用上升。第二段,也就是空的上一段,进一步指出保健费用上升的原因是由于医疗费用上升。空的下一段谈到解决这个问题的措施——建立一个全国性的机构。空前提到问题,空后谈到解决办法,空居于中间,必然要起到承上启下的作用,而从第四段的开头“What to do?”问句,显然这里才开始涉及到方法,故就只能含有承上的内容,也就是继续谈到医疗费用高涨的情况,查看选项,只有E满足这一条件,故答案为E

42.
【答案】 C
【考点】段群内部的指代关系
【难度系数】0.867
【解析】空前段落最后提到了一个“创建一个全国性的机构”,空后段落第一句说“但是全国性的并不意味着那样”,由此句我们可以推测出上文必然是对全国性的机构的一种描述,查看选项,只有C满足这一条件,故答案为C

43.
【答案】 G
【考点】上下文的衔接
【难度系数】0.119
【解析】空前段落分析了全国性机构的好处,规模大,消费者可以获得一个好的价格,既然谈到消费者的情况,下面必然要谈到厂家对价格的反应,查看选项,G满足这一条件,故答案为G

44.
【答案】 F
【考点】上下文的衔接
【难度系数】0.291
【解析】空前一段提到一些省的省长对于全国性机构表示怀疑,他们(特别是魁北克省和阿尔伯达省)只希望渥太华出钱,并少带附加条件甚至不带附加条件,这就是迄今该办法还没有向全国推广的一个重要原因。显然这段内容是说明建立一个全国性机构遇到的问题——由于一些省份的私心阻扰,从文中内容我们可以看出,文章作者是支持成立全国性的机构的,那么作者必然会在下文中对这些省份领导做出批判,选项中满足这一条件的只有F,故答案为F

45.
【答案】 B
【考点】结构的呼应+特征词的重复
【难度系数】0.413
【解析】空后段第一句以so开头,显然这里是表示结论,那么前面的内容还是属于论述全国性机构的好处,这就需要联系空前的段落,空前段落首先谈到“省长们喜欢有选择地引用罗马诺先生的报告,特别是有关联邦政府提供更多资金的部分”。接着说“也许他们应该读读罗马诺先生不得不说的有关药物的部分了:‘国家药物机构会让政府对医药公司施加更大的影响,从而抑制不断上涨的药价。’”显然这里是集中讨国家机构对药价的影响,那么下面一段应该还是与此相关,选项中只有B项满足这一要求,故答案为B

二、全文翻译

在七月底的年度会议上,加拿大各省的总理们对渥太华(加拿大首都)抱怨一番之后,如果还有力气的话,可能会抽出时间做点事情,那就是降低医疗费用。

他们都因医疗预算的飞涨而感到苦不堪言,其中增长最快的部分是药品费用。

41)加拿大医疗信息学会的资料表明,自1997年以来,处方药品费用的增长速度是整体医疗费用增长速度的两倍。部分增长是由于药物使用替代了其他的治疗手段,部分是由于使用了高于原来药品价格的新药,部分是由于药品价格更昂贵了。

该怎么办呢?且不说其他许多专家提出的报告,罗马诺医疗委员会和科尔比医疗委员会就建议设立一个国家药物机构。由现在每个省出台自己的药物清单、有自己的机构、程序和有限的议价能力这种情况,改为资源共享,与渥太华合作创建一个国家机构。42)这里所说的“国家”是什么意思呢?罗伊·罗马诺和迈克尔·科尔比议员建议成立一个联邦政府和省政府一体的机构,就像最近成立的国家医疗委员会一样。

但是“国家”不一定是这个含义。“国家”也可意味着各省之间,即各省联合起来创建的机构。

不管是何种含义,如果可能的话,“国家”级机构的好处之一就是能够通过谈判从医药生产商那里获得更优惠的价格。由原来一个省或省内的几家医院针对该省清单上的某种药物议价,转变成国家机构代表所有省份来议价。

比方说,魁北克省只能代表七百万公民议价,而国家机构代表三千一百万加拿大人进行谈判。基础经济学表明,潜在的客户越多,获得更优惠价格的可能性就越大。

43)当然,医药公司就会抗议了。他们喜欢散客买家,那样他们可以更好地为自己的利益进行游说。他们也可以威胁把一个省的工作机会转移到另一个省。他们可能认为如果一个省的药单上有某一种药,就会迫使其他的省把这种药也填在药单上,他们不会喜欢全国性代理机构。但是,处于利益的驱使,他们又不得不与它打交道。

由渥太华和其他各省出资成立了加拿大医疗技术评估联合协作办公室,这意味着向成立国家机构迈进了一小步。这个办公室下设的公共药物评估机构向各省推荐应该在清单上增加的新药。不出所料,魁北克省拒绝加入这个机构,这很遗憾。

一些省的总理们对于任何联邦政府和省之间的交易都持怀疑态度。他们(尤其是魁北克省和阿尔伯特省)只想让渥太华额外支付几十亿加元,但自己却不承担任何责任(如果他们有责任的话)。这就是为什么国家药物清单的想法一直得不到落实,而药品价格却不断上涨的原因。

44)所以如果某些省想全权负责医药事业,他们就必须证明自己有这种能力,他们必须开一张省际单子来终止重复,节约管理费用,防止省与省之间的互斗,而且还要尽量争取更好的药价。

省长们喜欢有选择地引用罗马诺先生的报告,特别是有关联邦政府提供更多资金的部分。也许他们应该读读罗马诺先生不得不说的有关药物的部分了:“国家药物机构会让政府对医药公司施加更大的影响,从而抑制不断上涨的药价。”

45)或者他们可以读一读科尔比的报告:“这样一个机构的巨大购买力,会进一步加强实施公共处方药保险计划,以保证以可能的最低价格从药厂买药。”

因此当官员们聚集在尼亚加拉瀑布城,像往常那样不停地抱怨时,他们也应该在自己的权限范围内开始做些有利于他们的预算及病人的事情。

 

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