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大学英语四级之无主句的翻译

2020-07-23

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无主句的翻译

 

婚姻

 

中国人称结婚为终身大事,因为中国人的家族观念很重,认为齐家是治国的根本。中国古人不断告诉读书人,要想替国家做事,必须先把家庭治理好。中国人不仅把婚姻看成一男一女的结合,还把它当作社会的基础,是很庄重的事,一点也不能马虎。旧式的中国婚姻,并不是自己选择对象,而是由家长做主,还需要媒人的介绍。到了现代,婚姻由自己做主,但是仍要征求家长同意。

 

1翻译要点解析

(1)中国人称结婚为终身大事,因为中国人的家族观念很重,认为齐家是治国的根本。

解折 本句第一个短句的主语是中国人,第三个短句的逻辑主语也是中国人,为便于将三个短句合并译为英语长句,第二个短句可以转化为中国人有很重的家族观念来翻译,从而将其主语从中国人的家族观念转换为中国人。第三个短句的译法较多,既可以译为介词短语,也可以译为分词短语。

参考译文1 Chinese people define marriage as a lifelong event, because they have a strong family ideal, with the belief that running a good family is the foundation for running the country.

参考译文2 Chinese people define marriage as a lifelong event, because they have a strong family ideal, believing that running a good family is the foundation for running the country.

 

(2)中国古人不断告诉读书人,要想替国家做事,必须先把家庭治理好。

析短句要想替国家做事必须先把家庭治理好都是无主句。根据第一个短句可判断出,后两个短句的逻辑主语都是读书人,翻译时需增添主语they,以使译文句子结构完整。

参考译文 Chinese ancients kept warning scholars that they should run their families well before they could work for the country .

 

(3)中国人不仅把婚姻看成一男一女的结合,还把它当作社会的基础,是很庄重的事,一点也不能马虎。

解析不仅…………”可以采用并列结构句型“not only...but also…”来译,这样……看成……”……当作……”两个重复的短语只需译出一个即可。

是很庄重的事,一点也不能马虎是无主句,根据上文可知其逻辑主语是

,翻译时可以采用关系代词which作主语,替代婚姻marriage),从而将后两个短句译为定语从句,连接到主句上。

参考译文 Therefore, Chinese people regard marriage not only as the union of a man and

a woman, but also as the foundation of society, which should be treated wit solemnity and without the least rashness.

 

(4)旧式的中国婚姻,并不是自己选择对象,而是由家长做主,还需要媒人的

介绍。

解析 这句话讲的是过去的情况,其译文需采用过去时。旧式的中国婚姻并非是自己选择对象的主语,而是表示在旧式的婚姻中,(人们)并不是自己选择对象,翻译时需增添主语one,表示是当时普遍存在的情况。

参考译文In old Chinese marriage arrangements,one didn't choose his or her spouse,who was instead arranged by the parents with the help of matchmakers.

 

(5)到了现代,婚姻由自己做主,但是仍要征求家长同意。

解析婚姻并非是自己做主的主语,而是表示在婚姻中,(人们)自己做主翻译时需添加主语one,以使译文句子完整、逻辑合理。参考译文 In modern times,one chooses his or her own marriage partner,but still with the assent of the parents.

 

2 参考译文

 

Marriage

 

Chinese people define marriage as a lifelong event, because they have a strong family ideal, with the belief that running a good family is the foundation for running the country. Chinese ancients kept warning scholars that they should run their families well before they could work for the country. Therefore, Chinese people regard marriage not only as the union of a man and a woman, but also as the foundation of society, which should be treated with solemnity and without the least rashness. In old Chinese marriage arrangements, one didn't choose his or her spouse, who was instead arranged by the parents with the help of matchmakers. In modern times, one chooses his or her own marriage partner, but still with the assent of the parents.

 

上海

 

上海是一座朝气蓬勃、充满活力、多姿多彩的国际大都市。改革开放以来,上海变化之大令世人瞩目。经济高速发展,社会秩序稳定,人民安居乐业,呈现出一片繁华景象。今天,尽管上海还有着不少色彩斑娴的过去可以留恋和回味,但城市日新月异的面貌却使越来越多的人折服。浦西展示了上海的辉煌岁月,浦东展现了上海的美好前景。上海就像一轮红日,光芒四射,鲜艳夺目。

 

1翻译要点解析

(1)上海是一座朝气蓬勃、充满活力、多姿多彩的国际大都市。

解析本句中有三个并列的四字短语,翻译时应尽量采用并列结构。译文可以用形容词dynamicvigorousversatile来对应原文,也可用名词vigorvitalityvariety来对应。

参考译文 Shanghai is a dynamic, vigorous and versatile international metropolis.

 

(2)改革开放以来,上海变化之大令世人瞩目。

解析本句的形式主语为上海变化之大,但译文还是选用上海作主语比较合理。

变化之大可以译为名词短语,表示出令世人瞩目的原因。

翻译文 Since the adoption of the reform and opening-up policy, Shanghai has witnessed tremendous changes which attracted worldwide attention.

 

(3)经济高速发展,社会秩序稳定,人民安居乐业,呈现出一片繁华景象。

解析本句中的短句较多,前三个短句呈并列关系。翻译时可以将前三句话译为并列名词短语,为最后一个短句补充主语上海,将其译为主句。也可以将前三句话译为三个平行的短句,将最后一句译为分词结构。

[考译文1 With rapid economic development,stable social order and peaceful and contented life for its people, Shanghai presents a scene of great prosperity.

参考译文2 The economy is developing rapidly, social order is stable, and the people live and work in peace and contentment, presenting a scene of prosperity.

 

(4)今天,尽管上海还有着不少色彩斑娴的过去可以留恋和回味,但城市日新月异的面貌却使越来越多的人折服。

解析本句中留恋回味的意思重复,译文中译出一个即可。两个短句间存在转折关系,且重心落在后一句,翻译时可在前一个短句前添加诸如whilethough等表示转折关系的连词,将两个句子连接起来。

参考译文 Today, while Shanghai still has many remnants of its colorful past for people to ponder over, its ever-changing outlook has filled more and more people with great admiration

 

(5)浦西展示了上海的辉煌岁月,浦东展现了上海的美好前景。

解析本句中的上海出现了两次,而上文中也多次出现上海,所以这里可采用the cityit等来替代上海

参考译文 Puxi exhibits the city's glorious past,and Pudong unfolds its bright future.

 

(6)上海就像一轮红日,光芒四射,鲜艳夺目。

解析本句中的光芒四射鲜艳夺目是对红日的具体描述,翻译时可将这两个短句译为定语从句或分词结构,修饰红日;也可以为这两个短句添加主语上海,将其译为主句。

参考译文1 Shanghai is like a rising sun, shining with boundless radiance and brilliant color.

参考译文2 Shanghai is like a rising sun, which shines with boundless radiance and brilliant color.

参考译文3 Like a rising sun, Shanghai is shining with boundless radiance and brilliant color.

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2 参考译文

 

Shanghai

 

Shanghai is a dynamic, vigorous and versatile international metropolis. Since the adoption of the reform and opening-up policy, Shanghai has witnessed tremendous changes which attracted worldwide attention. The economy is developing rapidly,social order is stable, and the people live and work in peace and contentment,presenting a scene of prosperity. Today, while Shanghai still has many remnants of its colorful past for people to ponder over, its ever-changing outlook has filled more and more people with great admiration. Puxi exhibits the city's glorious past, and Pudong unfolds its bright future. Shanghai is like a rising sun, shining with boundless radiance and brilliant color.

 

中国人的住宅

 

从前中国人在盖房子的时候,都要先请人看风水,看似迷信,也并非没有道理。按照中国人的想法,任何建筑物都不应该破坏大自然的和谐,而且要让建筑物和大自然融为一体。住在这种房子里的人,会觉得自己不是关在笼子里,而是生活在宁静的大自然里面。所以,中国人盖房子,通常都坐北朝南,以便接受冬天的阳光和夏日的清风。这种房子冬暖夏凉,住在里面非常舒服。

 

1 参考译文

 

Chinese Housing

 

Chinese people used to invite experts to advise them in feng shui principles before building a house . It seems to be superstitious , but somehow makes sense . According to the Chinese people, no building should mar the harmony of nature, but instead blend into nature. Those living in such houses would not feel confined in cages, but as if they were living in serene nature. Thus, Chinese houses usually face the south so as to have warm sunshine in winter and cool breezes in summer. The house, warm in winter and cool in summer, is comfortable for accommodation.

 

翻译点睛

(1)原文第一句中的看似迷信,也并非没有道理是无主句,是承接着前文

内容所做的评论,翻译时需添加计作为主语。

(2)原文第二句中的让建筑物和大自然融为一体也是无主句,翻译时可以

承接上文以建筑物为主语的句子,直接将其译为blend into nature

 

(3)原文第四句中的通常都坐北朝南没有主语,翻译时可将其与上文

国人盖房子相结合,将主语定为Chinese houses

 

文化与难点词汇速记

 

侠义精神:chivalrous spirit

媒人:matchmaker

改革开放:reform and opening-up policy

生于优惠,死于安乐:One prospers in worries and hardships,while perishing in ease and comfort.

 

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