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湛江医学考博英语培训:实践教材阅读【1】

2021-12-20

Part IV Reading Comprehension (30%)

 

Directions: In this section there are six passages, each of which is followed by five questions. For each question there are four possible answers marked A, B, C, and D. Choose the best answer and mark the letter of your choices on the ANSWER SHEET.

 

Passage One

 

Despite Denmark's manifest virtues, Danes never talk about how proud they are to be Danes. This would sound weird in Danish. When Danes talk to foreigners about Denmark, they always begin by commenting on its tininess, its unimportance, the difficulty of its language, the general and self-indulgence of their countrymen and the high taxes. No Dane would look you in the eye and say,"Denmark is a great country." You're supposed to figure this out for yourself.

 

It is the land of the silk safety net, where almost half the national budget goes toward smoothing out life's inequalities, and there is plenty of money for schools, day care, retraining programmes, job seminarDanes love seminars: three days at a study centre hearing about waste management is almost as good as a ski trip. It is a culture bombarded by English, in advertising, pop music, the Internet, and despite the English that Danish absorbs-there is no Danish Academy to defend against it-old dialects persist in Jutland that can barely be understood by Copenhageners. It is the land where, as the saying goes, "Few have too much and fewer have too little,"and a foreigner is struck by the sweet egalitarianism that prevails, where the lowliest clerk gives you a level gaze, where Sir and Madame have disappeared from common usage, even Mr. and Mrs. It's a nation of recyclers-about 55% of Danish garbage gets made into something new-and no nuclear power plants. It's a nation of tireless planner. Trains run on time. Things operate well in general.

 

Such a nation of overachievers - a brochure from the Ministry of Business and Industry says,"Denmark is one of the world's cleanest and most organized countries, with virtually no pollution, crime,or poverty. Denmark is the most corruption-free society in the Northern Hemisphere." So, of course, one's heart lifts at any sighting of Danish sleaze: skinhead graffiti on buildings ("Foreigners Out of Denmark!"broken beer bottles in the gutters, drunken teenagers slumped in the park.

 

Nonetheless, it is an orderly land. You drive through a Danish town, it comes to an end at a stone wall, and on the other side is a field of barley, a nice clean line: town here, country there. It is not a of jay walkers. People stand on the curb and wait for the red light to change, even if if's 2 a.m. and there's not a car in sight. However, Danes don't think of themselves as a waiting-at-2-a.m.-for-the-green-light people-that's how they see Swedes and Germans. Danes see themselves as jazzy people, improvisers,more free spirited than Swedes, but the truth is (though one should not say it) that Danes are very much like Germans and Swedes. Orderliness is a main selling point. Denmark has few natural resources, limited manufacturing capability; its future in Europe will be as a broker, banker, and distributor of goods. You send your goods by container ship to Copenhagen, and these bright, young, English-speaking, utterly honest, highly disciplined people will get your goods around to Scandinavia, the Baltic States, and Russia. Airports, seaports, highways, and rail lines are ultramodem and well-maintained.

 

The orderliness of the society doesn't mean that Danish lives are less messy or lonely than yours or mine, and no Dane would tell you so. You can hear plenty about bitter family feuds and the sorrows of alcoholism and about perfectly sensible people who went off one day and killed themselves. An orderly society can not exempt its members from the hazards of life.

 

But there is a sense of entitlement and security that Danes grow up with. Certain things are yours by virtue of citizenship, and you shouldn't feel bad for taking what you're entitled to, you're as good as anyone else. The rules of the welfare system are clear to everyone, the benefits you get if you lose your job, the steps you take to get a new one; and the orderliness of the system makes it possible for the country to weather high unemployment and social unrest without a sense of crisis.

 

61. The author thinks that Danes adopt a     attitude towards their country.

A. boastful  B. modest  C. deprecating  D. mysterious

 

  1. Which of the following is NOT a Danish characteristic cited in the passage?

A. Fondness of foreign culture.  B. Equality in society.  C. Linguistic tolerance.  D. Persistent planning.

 

63. The author's reaction to the statement by the Ministry of Business and Industry is    .

A. disapproving B. approving  C. noncommittal  D. doubtful

 

64. According to the passage, Danish orderliness       .

A. sets the people apart from Germans and Swedes

B. spares Danes social troubles besetting other people

C. is considered economically essential to the country

D. prevents Danes from acknowledging existing troubles

 

65. At the end of the passage the author states all the following EXCEPT that

A. Danes are clearly informed of their social benefits

B. Danes take for granted what is given to them

C. the open system helps to tide the country over

D. orderliness has alleviated unemployment

 

Passage Two

 

The great question that this paper will, but feebly, attempt to answer is, what is the creative process?

Though much theory has accumulated, little is really known about the power that lies at the bottom of poetic creation. It is true that great poets and artists produce beauty by employing all the powers of personality and by fusing emotions, reason, and intuitions. But what is the magical synthesis that joins and arranges these complex parts into poetic unity?

 

John L. Lowes, in his justly famous "The Road to Xanadu", developed one of the earliest and still generally acceptable answers to this tantalizing question. Imaginative creation, he concludes, is a process in which the conscious and unconscious minds jointly operate."There is... the Deep Well with its chaos of fortuitously blending images; but there is likewise the Vision which sees shining in and through the chaos of the potential lines of Form, and with the Vision, the controlling Will, which gives to that potential beauty actuality." The Deep Well is the unconscious mind that is peopled with the facts, ideas,and feelings of the conscious activity. The imaginative vision, an unconscious activity, shines through the land of chaos, of lights and shadows, silently seeking pattern and form. Finally, the conscious mind again,through Will, captures and embodies the idea in the final work of art. In this way is unity born out of chaos.

 

Though there can be no absolute certainty, there is general agreement that the periods in the development of a creative work parallel, to some extent, Lowes' theory of Well, Vision, Form, and Will.There are at least three stages in the creative process: preparation, inspiration, work.

 

In a sense, the period of preparation is all of the writer's life. It is the Deep Well. It is especially a period of concentration which gives the unconscious mind an opportunity to communicate with the conscious mind. When remembrances of things past reach the conscious level of the writer's mind, he is ready to go on with the process. Part of this preparation involves learning a medium - learning a language, learning how to write, learning literary forms. It is important to mot here that form cannot be imposed upon the idea. Evidence, though sparse, shows that the idea gives birth to the form that can best convey it. It is the Vision, according to Lowes, which sees shining in and through the chaws of the potential lines of Form..."

 

66. When remembrances of things past reach the conscious level, the post has reached the stage called   .

A. Well  B. Vision  C. Form  D. Will

 

67. Which of the following statements is TRUE?

A. The form determines the subject matter.  B. The idea determines the form.

C. Vision makes beauty an actuality.  D. A writer is unconscious when he prepares his work.

 

68. The word "fortuitously" in the third paragraph means      .

A. accidentally  B. luckily  C. thoroughly  D. potentially

 

69. The remembrance of things past is carried on in the     .

A. Deep Well  B. Vision  C. chaotic lights and shadows  D. conscious mind

 

70. What is the relationship between idea and form?

A. There is no clear relationship between them.  B. Form should be strongly controlled by idea.

C. Idea generates form and form reflects idea.   D. None of the above.

 

Passage Three

 

Some futurologists have assumed that the vast upsurge of women in the workforce may portend a rejection of marriage. Many women, according to this hypothesis, would rather work than marry. The converse of this concern is that the prospects of becoming a multi-paycheck household could encourage marriage. In the past, only the earnings and financial prospects of the man counted in the marriage decision. Now, however, the earning ability of a woman can make her more attractive as a marriage partner. Data show that economic downturns tend to postpone marriage because the parties cannot afford to establish a family or are concerned about rainy days ahead. As the economy rebounds, the number of marriages also rises.

 

Coincident with the increase in women working outside the home is the increase in divorce rates. Yet,it may be wrong to jump to any simple cause-and-effect conclusions. The impact of a wife's work on divorce is no less cloudy than its impact on marriage decisions. The realization that she can be a good provider may increase the chances that a working wife will choose divorce over an unsatisfactory marriage. But the reverse is equally plausible. Tensions grounded in financial problems often play a key role in ending a marriage. Given high unemployment, inflationary problems, and slow growth in real earnings, a working wife can increase household income and relieve some of these pressing financial burdens. By raising a family's standard of living, a working wife may strengthen her family's financial and emotional stability.

 

Psychological factors also should be considered. For example, a wife blocked from a career outside the home may feel caged in the house. She may view her only choice as seeking a divorce. On the other hand, if she can find fulfillment through work outside the home, work and marriage can go together to create a stronger and more stable union.

 

Also, a major part of women's inequality in marriage has been due to the fact that, in most cases,men have remained the main breadwinners. With higher earning capacity and status occupations outside of the home comes the capacity to exercise power within the family. A working wife may rob a husband of being the master of the house. Depending upon how the couple reacts to these new conditions, it could create a stronger equal partnership or it could create new insecurities.

 

71. The word "portend"(Line 2, Para.1) is closest in meaning to     

A. defy  B. signal  C. suffer from  D. result from

 

72. It is said in the passage that when the economy slides,     

A. men would choose working women as their marriage partners

B. more women would get married to seek financial security

C. even working women would worry about their marriages

D. more people would prefer to remain single for the time being

 

73. If women find fulfillment through work outside the home,     .

A. they are more likely to dominate their marriage partners

B. their husbands are expected to do more housework

C. their marriage ties can be strengthened

D. they tend to put their career before marriage

 

74. One reason why women with no career may seek a divorce is that     .

A. they feel that they have been robbed of their freedom

B. they are afraid of being bossed around by their husbands

C. they feel that their partners fail to live up to their expectations

D. they tend to suspect their husbands loyalty to their marriage

 

75. Which of the following statements can best summarize the author's view in the passage?

A. The stability of marriage and the divorce rate may reflect the economic situation of the country.

B. Even when economically independent, most women have to struggle for real equality in marriage.

C. In order to secure their marriage women should work outside the home and remain independent.

D. The impact of the growing female workforce on marriage varies from case to case.

 

Passage Four

 

Auctions are public sales of goods, conducted by an officially approved auctioneer. He asked the crowd to gather in the auction room to bid for various items on sale. He encourages buyers to bid higher figures and finally highest bidder as the buyer of the goods. This is called "knocking down" the goods, for the bidding ends when the auctioneer bangs a small hammer on a raised platform.

 

The ancient Romans probably invented sales by auction and the English word comes from the Latin "autic",meaning "increase". The Romans usually sold in this way the spoils taken in war, these sales were called "sub hasta” meaning "under the spear", a spear being stuck in the ground as a signal for a crowd to gather. In England in eighteenth and nineteenth centuries goods were often sold "by the candle"; a short candle was lit by the auc and bids could be made while it was burning.

 

Practically all goods can be sold by auction. Among these are coffee, skins, wool, tea, cocoa, furs,fruit, vegetables and wines. Auction sales are also usual for land and property, antique furniture, picture,rare books, old china and works of art. The auction rooms at Chritie's and Sotheby's in London and New York are world famous.

 

An auction is usually advertised beforehand with full particulars of the articles to be sold and where and when they can be viewed by the buyers. If the advertisement cannot give full details, catalogues are printed, and each group of goods to be sold together, called a "lot", is usually given a number. The auctioneer need not begin with lot one and continue the numerical order; he may wait until he notices the fact that certain buyers are in the room and then produce the lots they are likely to be interested in. The auctioneer's services are paid for in the form of a percentage of the price the goods are sold for. The auctioneer therefore has a direct interest in pushing up the bidding.

 

76. Auctioned goods are sold     .

A. for the highest price offered  B. at fixed prices

C. at prices lower than their true value  D. at prices offered by the auctioneer

77. The end of bidding is called "knocking down" because_______.

A. the auctioneer knocks on the table

B. the auctioneers names the highest bidder as the buyer of the goods

C. the goods are knocked down onto the table

D. the auctioneer bangs the table with a hammer

 

78. In the sentence "The Romans usually sold in this way the spoils taken in war," the word "spoils"most probably means       .

A. useless goods  B. spears  C. various kinds of food  D. property taken from the enemy

 

79. In England a candle used to burn at auction sales      .

A. because the auction sales took place at night  B. as a signal for the crowd to gather

C. to keep the auction room warm  D. to limit the time when offers of prices could be made

80. An auction catalogue gives buyers      

A. the current market values of the goods  B. details of the goods to be sold

C. the order in which goods are to be sold  D. free admission to the auction sale

 

Passage Five

 

Conventional wisdom about conflict seems pretty much cut and dried. Too little conflict breeds apathy(冷漠)and stagnation(呆滞).Too much conflict leads to divisiveness(分裂)and hostility.Moderate levels of conflict, however, can spark creativity and motivate people in a healthy and competitive way.

 

Recent research by Professor Charles R. Schwenk, however, suggests that the optimal level of conflict may be more complex to determine than these simple generalizations. He studied perceptions of conflict among a sample of executives. Some of the executives worked for profit-seeking organizations and others for not-for-profit organizations.

 

Somewhat surprisingly, Schwenk found that opinions about conflict varied systematically as a function of the type of organization. Specifically, managers in not-for-profit organizations strongly believed that conflict was beneficial to their organizations and that it promoted higher quality decision making than might be achieved in the absence of conflict.

 

Managers of for-profit organizations saw a different picture. They believed that conflict generally was damaging and usually led to poor-quality decision making in their organizations. Schwenk interpreted these results in terms of the criteria for effective decision making suggested by the executives. In the profit-seeking organizations, decision-making effectiveness was most often assessed in financial terms. The executives believed that consensus rather than conflict enhanced financial indicators.

 

In the not-for-profit organizations, decision-making effectiveness was defined from the perspective of satisfying constituents. Given the complexities and ambiguities associated with satisfying many diverse constituent executives perceived that conflict led to more considered and acceptable decisions.

 

81. In the eyes of the author, conventional opinion on conflict is     .

A. wrong  B. oversimplified  C. misleading  D. unclear

 

82. Professor Charles R. Schwenk's research shows     .

A. the advantages and disadvantages of conflict

B. the real value of conflict

C. the difficulty in determining the optimal level of conflict

D. the complexity of defining the roles of conflict

 

83. We can learn from Schwenk's research that      .

A. a personls view of conflict is influenced by the purpose of his organization

B. conflict is necessary for managers of for-profit organizations

C. different people resolve conflicts in different ways

D. it is impossible for people to avoid conflict

 

84. The passage suggests that in for-profit organizations     .

A. there is no end of conflict  B. expression of different opinions is encouraged

C. decisions must be justifiable  D. success lies in general agreement

 

85. People working in a not-for-profit organization      .

A. seem to be difficult to satisfy  B. are free to express diverse opinions

C. are less effective in making decisions  D. find it easier to reach agreement

 

Passage Six

 

In the villages of the English countryside there are still people who remember the good old days when no one bothered to lock their doors. There simply wasn't any crime to worry about.

 

Amazingly, these happy times appear still to be with us in the world's biggest community. A new study by Dan Farmer, a gifted programmer, using an automated investigative program of his own called SATAN, shows that the owners of well over half of all World Wide Web sites have set up homes without fitting locks to their doors.

 

SATAN can try out a variety of well-known hacking tricks on an Internet site without actually breaking in. Farmer has made the program publicly available, amid much criticism. A person with evil intent could use it to hunt down sites that are easy to burgle.

 

But Farmer is very concerned about the need to alert the public to poor security and, so far, events have prov him right. SATAN has done more to alert people to the risks than cause new disorder.

 

So is the Net becoming more secure? Far from it. In the early days, when you visited a Web site your browser simply looked at the content. Now the Web is full of tiny programs that automatically download when you look at a Web page, and run on your own machine. These programs could, if their authors wished, do all kinds of nasty things to your computer.

 

At the same time, the Net is increasingly populated with spiders, worms, agents and other types of automated beasts designed to penetrate the sites and seek out and classify information. All these make wonderful tools for antisocial people who want to invade weak sites and cause damage.

But let's look on the bright side. Given the lack of locks, the Internet is surely the world's biggest(almost) crime-free society. Maybe that is because hackers are fundamentally honest. Or that there currently isn't much to steal. Or because vandalism isn't much fun unless you have a peculiar dislike for someone.

Whatever the reason, let's enjoy it while we can. But expect it all to change, and security to become the number one issue, when the most influential inhabitants of the Net are selling services they want to be paid for.

 

86. By saying "...owners of well over half of all World Wide Web sites have set up home without fitting locks to their doors" (Lines 3-4, Para. 2), the author means that      .

A. those happy times appear still to be with us

B. there simply wasn't any crime to worry about

C. many sites are not well-protected

D. hackers try out tricks on an Internet site without actually breaking in

 

87. SATAN, a program designed by Dan Farmer can be used________.

A. to investigate the security of Internet sites  B. to improve the security of the Internet system

C. to prevent hackers from breaking into websites  D. to download useful programs and information

 

88. Farmer's program has been criticized by the public because      .

A. it causes damage to Net browsers   B. it can break into Internet sites

C. it can be used to cause disorder on all sites  D. it can be used by people with evil intent

89. After you look at a Web page, some small new programs can run on your computer because       .

A. you download them from the page   B. they are downloaded by themselves

C. they are gifts form some websites    D. none of the above

90. The author's attitude toward SATAN is       .

A. enthusiastic   B. critical   C. positive   D. indifferent

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