Secret codes (密码) keep messages private. Bank, companies, and government agencies use secret code in doing business, especially when information is sent by computer.
People have used secret codes for thousands of years. 36 Code breaking never lags (落后) behind code making. The science of decoding and reading coded messages is called cryptography.
There are three main types of cryptography. 37 For example, the first letters are “My elephant eats too many eels” spell out the hidden message “Meet me.”
38 You might represent each letter with a number, for example, let’s number the letters of the alphabet, in order, from 1 to 26. If we substitute a number for each letter, the message “Meet me” would read “1 3 5 20 13 5”.
A code uses symbols to replace words, phrases, or sentences. To read the message of a real code, you must have a code book. 39 For example, “bridge” might stand for “meet” and “out” might stand for “me”. The message “bridge out” would actually mean “Meet me”. 40 However, it is also hard to keep a code book secret for long. So codes must be changed frequently.
- It is very hard to break a code without a code book.
- In any language, some letters are used more than others.
- Only people who know the keyword can read the message.
- As long as there have been codes, people have tried to break them.
- You can hide a message by having the first letters of each word spell it out.
- With a code book, you might write down words that would stand for other words.
- Another way to hide a message is to use symbols to stand for specific letters of the alphabet.
Building Trust in a Relationship Again
Trust is a learned behavior that we gain from past experiences.__36__．
Trust is a risk.But you can't be successful when there's a lack of trust in a relationship that results from an action where the wrongdoer takes no responsibility to fix the mistake.
Unfortunately, we've all been victims of betrayal.Whether we've been stolen from, lied to , misled, or cheated on, there are different levels of losing trust.Sometimes people simply can't trust anymore.__37__．It's understandable, but if you're willing to build trust in a relationship again, we have some steps you can take to get you there.
●__38__having confidence in yourself will help you make better choices because you can see what the best outcome would be for your wellbeing.
●__39__If you've been betrayed, you are the victim of your circumstance.But there's a difference between being a victim and living with a “victim mentality”．At some point in all of our lives, we'll have our trust tested or violated.
●You didn't lose “everything”．Once trust is lost, what is left? Instead of looking at the situation from this hopeless angle, look at everything you still have and be thankful for all of the good in your life.__40__ instead, it's a healthy way to work through the experience to allow room for positive growth and forgiveness.
A．Learn to really trust yourself.
B．It is putting confidence in someone.
C．Stop regarding yourself as the victim.
D．Remember that you can expect the best in return.
E．They've been too badly hurt and they can't bear to let it happen again.
F．This knowledge carries over in their attitude toward their future relationships.
G．Seeing the positive side of things doesn't mean you're ignoring what happened.
The jobs of the future have not been invented，__36__By helping them develop classic skills that will serve them well no matter what the future holds.
Your children need to be deeply curious.__37__Ask kids，“What ingredients (配料) can we add to make these pancakes even better next time”and then try them out.Did those ingredients make the pancakes better? What could we try next time?
True creativity is the ability to take something existing and create something new from it.__38__There are a dozen different things you can do with them.Experimenting with materials to create something new can go a long way in helping them develop their Creativity.
Understanding how others feel can be a challenge for kids.We know what is going on inside our own head, but what about others? Being able to read people helps kids from misreading a situation and jumping to false conclusions.__39__“Why do you think she is crying？”“Can you tell how that man is feeling by looking at his face？”“If someone were to do that to you, how would you feel？”
__40__There are many ways to express thoughts and ideas—music, acting, drawing, building, photography.You may find that your child is attracted by one more than another.
A. Encourage kids to cook with you.
B．And we can't forget science education.
C．We can give kids chances to think about materials in new ways.
D．So how can we help our kids prepare for jobs that don't yet exist?
E．Gardening is another great activity for helping kids develop this skill.
F．We can do this in real life or ask questions about characters in stories.
G．Being able to communicate ideas in a meaningful way is a valuable skill.
Business is the organized approach to providing customers with the goods and services they want.The word business also refers to an organization that provides these goods and services.Most businesses seek to make a profit(利润)—that aim to achieve income that is more than the costs of operating the business.__1__Commonly called nonprofits, these organizations are primarily nongovernmental service providers__2__．
Business management is a term used to describe the techniques of planning, direction, and control of the operations of a business.__3__One is the establishment (制定)of broad basic policies with respect to production; sales; the purchase of equipment, materials and supplies; and accounting.__4__The third relates to the establishment of standards of word in all departments.Direction is concerned primarily with supervision(监管)and guidance by the management in authority__5__．
A．Control includes the use of records and reports to compare actual work with the set standards for work.
B．In this connection there is the difference between top management and operative management.
C．Examples of nonprofit business include such organizations as social service agencies and many hospitals.
D．However, some businesses only seek to enough to cover their operating costs
E．The second aspect relates to the application of these policies by departments.
F．In the theory of business management, organization has two main aspects.
G．Planning in business management has three main aspects.
Kids' health：Four steps for fighting stress
Everybody gets stressed from time to time.__1__Some ways of dealing with stress—like screaming or hitting someone—don't solve(解决)much.But other ways，like talking to someone you trust，can lead you to solving your problem or at least feeling better.Try taking these four steps the next time you are stressed：
(1)Get support.When you need help，reach out to the people who care about you.Talk to a trusted adult，such as a parent or other relatives.__2__They might have had similar problems，such as dealing with a test，or the death of a beloved pet.
(2)Don't take it out on yourself.Sometimes when kids are stressed and upset they take it out on themselves.Oh，dear，that's not a good idea.Remember that there are always people to help you.Don't take it out on yourself.__3__
(3)Try to solve the problem.After you're calm and you have support from adults and friends，it's time to get down to business.__4__Even if you can't solve it all，you can solve a piece of it.
(4)Be positive.Most stress is temporary(暂时的)．Remember stress does go away，especially when you figure out the problem and start working on solving it.
These steps aren't magic，but they do work.And if you can stay positive as you make your way through a tough time，you'll help yourself feel better even faster__5__．
A．Ask for a helping hand to get you through the tough situation.
B．Notice your friends' feelings and find a way to help them.
C．Different people feel stress in different ways.
D．Ah，it feels so good when the stress is gone.
E．You need to figure out what the problem is.
F．And don't forget about your friends.
G．Then，find a way to calm down.
Parents should help their children understand money.__1__So you may start talking about money when your child shows an interest in buying things，candy or toys，for example.
1．The basic function of money
Begin explaining the basic function of money by showing how people trade money for goods or services.It's important to show your child how money is traded for the things he wants to have.If he wants to have a toy，give him the money and let him hand the money to the cashier(收银员)．__2__When your child grows a bit older and understands the basic function of money，you can start explaining more complex ways of using money.
Approach money lessons with openness and honesty.__3__If you must say no to a child's request to spend money，explain，“You have enough toy trucks for now.” Or，if the request is for many different things，say “You have to make a choice between this toy and that toy.”
Begin at the grocery store.Pick out similar brands of a product—a namebrand butter and a generic(无商标产品)，for example.You can show your child how to make choices between different brands of a product so that you can save money.__5__If he chooses the cheaper brand，allow him to make another purchase with the money saved.Later，you may explain how the more expensive choice leaves less money for other purchases.
B．The value of money
C．Permit the child to choose between them
D．Tell your child why he can or cannot have certain things.
E．Ask yourself what things that cost money are most important to you.
F．Talk about how the money bought the thing after you leave the toy store.
G．The best time to teach a child anything about money is when he shows an interest.
Avoid Internet Addiction
__1__ Many people suffer from addition to the Internet and have a hard time paying attention to the important things around them. How can we prevent ourselves from going online too much?
Admit you have an addition. __2__ Realize more and more people in the world are becoming addicted. You are not the only one with this problem. Do not be embarrassed; find others with the same problem and help each other beat it.
Limit your computer time. Make sure not to turn it on too many times a week. Before using your computer, decide on a time limit such as 30 minutes. Set the clock and make sure that you get off the computer when the time is up. __3__ Try using the computer at the library. You won’t be as attracted to look at certain websites and they do have a limit on how long you can stay online. __4__. So you won’t be as attracted to be on the Internet as at home. __5__ Go for a run with a friend or get exercise some other way. Keep up with the local events in your neighborhood. There may be talks, films, concerts and sports events etc. Find some, as long as it is not on the Internet, and get involved.
A. You will be happier if you use the Internet less.
B. There is no use avoiding the truth.
C. Also, it is a good place to get some good books and magazines to read.
D. Get a hobby or an interest.
E. Internet addition affects a lot of people.
F. Get your friends to remind you if you’ve been on a long time.
G. Try to reduce the amount of time by 5 minutes each time.
Every student has tests when they are at school. But have you ever been so worried about the tests that you can’t fall asleep at night? Have you ever felt sick or had a headache during a test? __1__This worry in your mind can make your body feel bad. You may feel angry, frustrated, scared, or afraid, which can give you a stomachache or a headache.
__2__ Good or normal stress might happen when you are called to answer a question in class or when you have to give a speech. This kind of stress can help you to get things better done. __3__
But bad stress can happen if the stressful feelings keep going over a long time. You may not feel well if your parents are fighting, if a family member is ill, if you are having problems at school, or if you are going through anything else that makes you upset every day. __4__
__5__That means making good decision about how to spend your time. If you are only dealing with school stuff and have no time to play, you can get stressed. Make sure you keep your SELF in mind: Sleep, Exercise, Leisure and Food. If you take care of yourself and get enough sleep and food, and if you exercise and leave time for fun stuff, you will probably be less stressed out!
A. However, there are two different kinds of stress.
B. Can you tell a kind of stress from another one?
C. The best way to keep stress away is to have a balanced life.
D. That kind of stress isn’t going to help you, and it can actually make you sick.
E. Since bad stress is harmful to us, you’d better try to change it into good stress.
F. If so, then you know what stress is. Stress is what you feel when you are worried or uncomfortable about something.
G. For example, you may do a better job on your test if the stress pushes you to prepare well before the test.
After you go to college, you’ll find you have to buy a lot of textbooks. 1 If you want to make ends meet and successfully make it through college, you have to find ways to save on college textbooks. Here are some of the tips that would help you cut back and manage your book expense.
2 The first thing you want to do when you need a specific book is to go to the bookstore. But the most effective way to save money on college books is to stay away from the bookstore. While it is more convenient to purchase textbooks in the bookstore, it could cost you a lot of money.
Buy your books online. You can save a lot of money when you purchase your books online. You can buy college textbooks from Amazon, Half, CENGAGE Learning, Barnes&Noble and other websites. If you want to save money on college books，it is best to check BigWords. 3
Rent your college textbooks. If you feel you are not going to use the book after the end of the semester, it is best to rent it instead. 4 You can check campus book rentals, bookbyete, bookrenter, chegg and ecampus. This can save you a lot of money on textbooks.
Check your university library. ff you do not need the book all the time, it is best to do your research in the university library instead. 5 In this way, you can ensure the book is available when you need it. You can also use the interlibrary loan system.
A. Do not go to the bookstore.
B. You can rent books from other students.
C. College textbooks can be very expensive.
D. Buy books from second-hand bookstores.
E. Many websites and booksellers rent books.
F. You’d better order the book you need ahead of time.
G. This website will help you find promotions, discounts and other deals.