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考研英语阅读理解词汇题与讲解

2020-01-14

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词汇题
One hundred and thirteen million Americans have at least one bank-issued credit card.They give their owners automatic credit in stores, restaurants, and hotels, at home, across the country, and even abroad, and they make many banking services available as well. More and more of these credit cards can be read automatically, making it possible to withdraw or deposit money in scattered locations, whether or not the local branch bank is open. For many of us the "cashless society" is not on the horizon-it's already here.


While computers offer these conveniences to consumers, they have many advantages for sellers too. Electronic cash registers can do much more than simply ring up sales. They can keep a wide range of records, including who sold what, when, and to whom. This information allows businessmen to keep track of their list of goods by showing which items are being sold and how fast they are moving. Decisions to reorder or return goods to suppliers can then be made. At the same time these computers record which hours are busiest and which employees are the most efficient, allowing personnel and staffing assignments to be made accordingly. And they also identify preferred customers for promotional campaigns Computers are relied on by manufacturers for similar reasons. Computer-analyzed marketing reports can help to decide which products to emphasize now, which to develop for the future and which to drop. Computers keep track of goods in stock, of raw materials on hand, and even of the production process itself.


Numerous other commercial enterprises, from theaters to magazine publishers, from gas and electric utilities to milk processors, bring better and more efficient services to consumers through the use of computers .


1. According to the text, the credit card enables its owner to___.
[A] withdraw as much money from the bank as he wishes
[B] obtain more convenient services than other people do
[C] enjoy greater trust from the storekeeper
[D] cash money wherever he wishes to
2. From the last sentence of the first paragraph we learn
[A] in the future all the Americans will use credit cards
[B] credit cards are mainly used in the United States today
[C] nowadays many Americans do not pay in cash
[D] it is now more convenient to use credit cards than before
3. The phrase "ring up sales"(Line 2, Para. 2) most probably means"_______"

[A] make an order of goods
[B] record sales on a cash register
[C] call the sales manager
[D]keep track of the goods in stock
4. What is this text mainly about?
[A] Approaches to the commercial use of computers.
[B] Conveniences brought about by computers in business.
[C] Significance of automation in commercial enterprises.
[D] Advantages of credit cards in business.

[答案、题干与选项释义、考点透析及常见错误与防范

1.【答案】[B]
【题干与选项释义】
According to the text, the credit card enables its owner to____.
根据本文,信用卡能够使它的主人
[A] withdraw as much money from the bank as he wishe
根据自己的意愿,想要多少钱就从银行取多少钱
[B] obtain more convenient services than other people d
比其他人获得更多的便利服务
[c] enjoy greater trust from the storekeeper 享受店主的更多信任
[D] cash money wherever he wishes to 随地兑换现金
【考点透析】段落概括。应从第一段去找出此题目的答案。第一段主要是关于“credit cards(信用卡)”的内容。主要讲到两点:“They give their owners automatic credit(信用卡给予所有者自动信贷)”;“...can be read automatically.(信用卡可以自动地被识读)”。这两点都说明了信用卡在使用方面的便利。可见,强调“便利服务”的选项[B]是正确答案。首段没有涉及选项[A]、[C]和[D]里的内容。
【常见错误与防范】本题的答案信息在第一段的第二、三句。有的考生虽然依据题干中的“owner”一词将本题的答案信息点确定在第一段的第二、三句,却未能准确理解这两句话所传递的“convenient services”(便利服务)之主旨含义,以致错选,考生在解题时一定要善于捕捉句子的深层主旨含义。
2.【答案】[C]
【题于与选项释义】
From the last sentence of the first paragraph we learn that
从第一段最后一句话,我们得知_
[A] in the future all the Americans will use credit cards
将来,所有的美国人都会使用信用卡[B] credit cards are mainly used in the United States today
如今,信用卡主要在美国使用
[C] nowadays many Americans do not pay in cath
近来,许多美国人不用现金付期
[D] it is now more convenient to me credit cards than before
现在用信用卡比以前方便多了
【考点透析】单句理解,第一段最后一句话的意思是:“对我们许多人来讲,“无现会社会“不是即将到来,而是已经在这里。“因此,只有选项[C]“如今许多美国人不用现金支付”,为正确答案,
【常见错误与防范】本题的答案信息在第一段尾句中的“cashless society”,有的考生属然能够理解第一段尾句的字面含义,但却未能抓住该句中“cashless society”(不用现金的社会)"it"(=cashless society)所传递的主旨含义:“许多美国人目前不再使用现金,而使用信用卡”,考生在解题时要依据原文答案信息点所传递的信息,不能随意情想。
3.【答案】B
【题于与选项释义】
The phrase "ring up sales" (Line 2, Para. 2) most probably means"
短语“ring up sales"(第2段,第2行)最可能的意思是“__".
[A]make an order of goods定购商品
[B] record sales on a cash register在收银机上记录销售情况
[C] call the sales manager 给销售经理打电话
[D]keep track of the goods in stock 跟踪记录存货
【考点透析】关键词理解。“ring up sales”所在句意为:“电子现金出结机(指计算机控制的现金出纳机)可以做很多的事情,而不仅仅是记录销售额,”该句后面的一句话说明了现金出结机是一种用于纪录的装置:“它们(电子现金出纳机)能记录更广泛的东西”,因此,“ring up salcs"指"(一般的现金出纳机)记录销售额”,因此,强调“记录(record)”的选项[A]为正确答案。
【常见错误与防范】本题的答案信息在第二段第二句中的主语“registen”一词,有些考生在不懂"ring up salcs"的情况下,未能借助本句话主语"regioten"一词的基本含义巧妙解题。"register"的基本含义是“登记,注册,报到”,故选项[B]中的"record"(记录,登记)应该是正确答案,考生在解题时要有根据语境进行推导的能力,
4.【答案】[B]
【题于与选项释义】
What is this text mainly abour?这篇文章主要叙述的是什么?
[A] Approaches to the commercial use of computers.计算机商业用途的途径[B] Conveniences brought about by computers in business
商业中计算机带来的便利。
[C] Significance of automation in commercial enterprises.
商业企业中自动化的重要性。
[D] Advantages of credit cards in business. 商业中信用卡的优点。
【考点透析】中心思想。文章第一段第一句(段落中心句)说:“美国现在至少有13000万人使用信用卡”,信用卡的使用与电脑识别器密切相关。第二段第一句话讲到“计算机一方面带给消费者许多便利,一方面也给销售者带来许多好处”。第三段主要说:“无数的商业企业都正在通过使用电脑实现更多的服务。”所以本文的主要内容就是选项[B]的内容——“在商业中计算机带来的各种便利”。
【常见错误与防范】本题的答案信息在第二段第一句和尾段。有些考生未能通过第二段第一句抓住第一段和第二段的总体,论述主旨内容“电脑给消费者和商家所带来的便利”,故解题思路混乱,未抓住正确选项[B]。考生解题时对主题句要有深刻的理解。

[参考译文]


1.13亿美国人每人至少拥有一张银行信用卡。它们为持卡人在商店、饭店、宾馆,无论是在本地、全国、还是国外,提供自动信用,同时,信用卡也使许多银行业务得以展开。越来越多的信用卡可被自动识读,不管当地的分支银行是否开门营业,人们都可以在分散的各处存钱取款。对我们很多人来说“无现钞的社会”不是即将来临,而是已经到来。


计算机向消费者提供这些便利的同时,也给商家带来了诸多好处。电子现金出纳机(收款机)可做之事远远超过将销售情况简单予以记录。它们可以记录更多方面的信息,包括谁售出了什么、售出时间以及售与对象。通过显示哪些商品正在销售以及其销售速度等信息,使得商家跟踪他们的商品目录。继续订货或将货品退还供应商的决定可由此作出。同时,这些计算机可记录哪个钟点最忙,哪些雇员最有效率,从而使人事和员工的调配得到相应的安排。它们还可以为促销宣传选出最受欢迎的顾客。基于相似的原因,制造商也很依赖计算机。经计算机分析的市场报告能帮助决定哪些产品该现在力推,哪些产品应将来开发,哪些需要放弃。计算机还记录掌握库存商品、现有的原材料,甚至生产过程本身。


数不清的其他商业机构,从剧院到杂志出版社,从天然气和电力公司到牛奶加工厂,都通过计算机的应用给消费者带来更佳更高效的服务。

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